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Full text of "The Brickbuilder (Jan.-Dec. 1910)"

St 



D 2007 lEObOlfi 1 

California State Library 



->-*•=£-•- 



Accession No 



Call No. 






ja_.j 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/brickbuild19unse 



STATE 



*£^S3^.A.^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Index to Volume 19. 



January — December, 1910 



FRONTISPIECES — FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Del. 



Title. Month. 

Ruins of a Vaulted Hall at Tivoli, near Rome January 

McKim, Charles F. Half-Tone Illustration from Photograph February 

Grotto near the Outlet of Lake Albano March 

Interior View, " Tempio Delia Tosse," near Tivoli April 

Ruins on the Appian Way, near Rome May 

Ruins of the Emperor Domitian's Villa, near Rome June 



Title. 

Ruins of a Brick Tomb on the Appian Way 

Bases and Column from Ancient Roman Buildings 

The Basilica of Constantino, near the Forum, Rome • ■ ■ 

Columns of the Portico of the Pantheon, Rome 

Brick Arcade, Built by Nero, in Rome 

View of Ruins known as the Temple of Minerva Medica 



Month. 

July 

August 

September 

( >< i 
November 
December 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Exterior Views denoted by Ext. Interior Views denoted by Int. Plans denoted by PI. 
Title and Location. Architect. 



Apartments, Pittsburg Ext. 

Apartment and Garage, New York Ext. 

Baths, Public, Brooklyn • Ext. 

Baths, Public, Belle Isle, Detroit Ext. 

Capitol, Providence, R. I Ext. 

Chapel, Holy Apostles, Philadelphia Ext. 

Church, Congregational, Flatbush, L. I Ext. 

Church, Presbyterian, Far Rockaway Ext. 

Church, Holy Trinity, Westfield, Mass Ext. 

Church, Holy Family, Springfield, Mass Ext. 

Church, Blessed Sacrament, Cambridge, Mass. Ext. 

Church, St. Catherine, Norwood, Mass Ext. 

Church, Scientist, Los Angeles Ext. 

Church, St. Agnes, Reading, Mass. Ext. 

Club, The University, San Francisco Ext. 

Club House, Wyoming, Ohio Ext. 

Club, Country, Cleveland Ext. 

Club, Country, Detroit Ext. 

Club, Country, Flossmoor, 111. Ext. 

Club, Harvard, New York, Details of Ext. 

Club, University, New York Ext. 

Club House, Union Boat, Boston Ext. 

College, N. Y. State Normal, Albany Ext. 

College, Harvard Lampoon Building, Cambridge Ext. 

Fire I )epartment, Chelsea, Mass. Ext. 

Fire Department, Boston Ext. 

Fire Department, Brookline, Mass Ext. 

Fire Department, Cambridge, Mass Ext. 

Fire Department, New York Ext. 

Fire Department, Kalamazoo, Mich Ext. 

Fire Department, New York Ext. 

Garage, Brooklyn Ext . 

Garage, Radnor, Pa. Ext. 

Garage, Hudson, N. Y Ext. 

Garage and Apartment, New York Ext. 

Garage and Stable, New York Ext. 

Garage and Studio, Marion, Mass Ext. 

Hall, Symphony, Boston, Details of Ext. 

Harvard Lampoon Cambridge, Mass Ext. 

Hospital for Crippled Children, Canton, Mass Ext. 

Hospital, Harrington Children's, Buffalo Ext. 

Hospital, Jersey City, N.J Ext. 

Hospital, Tuberculosis, Washington Ext. 

Hospital, Children's, Buffalo • Ext. 

Hospital, The Frost, Chelsea, Mass. Ext. 

Hospital, Wards for Children, Bangor, Me Ext. 

Hospital, The Lawrence, Bronxville, N. Y Ext. 

Hotel Fort Pitt, Norse Room, Pittsburg Int. 

Hotel Belvedere, Tap Room, Baltimore Int. 

House, E. 55th street, New York Ext. 

House, Philadelphia Ext. 

House, Ardsley-on-the-Hudson, N. Y Ext. 

House, Bryn Mawr, Pa Ext. 

House, Locust street, Philadelphia Ext. 

House, Lake Forest, 111 Ext. 

House, St. Louis, Mo Ext. 

House, Leicester, England J^ xt - 

House, Brooklyn ; x ' • 

House, 85th street, New York ; '•- ' • 

House, Concord, Mass Ext. 

House, Radnor, Pa hxt - 



, PI. 




, PI. 




, PI. 




, PI. 




, Int. 




, PI. 




, PI. 




, Int. 


PI. 


, PI. 




, PI. 




, PL 




, PL 




, Int. 


PI 


, PL 




, PI. 




, PI. 




, Int. 


PI 


, PL 




, Int. 


PI 


, Int. 




, PL 




, PI. 




, Int. 


PI 


. PI. 




, PL 




, PI. 




, PL 




, PL 




, PI. 




, PL 




, PI. 




, PI. 




, PL 




, PI. 




, PI. 




, Int. 


PI 


, PI. 




. PI. 




, PL 




, PI. 




, PI. 




, PI. 




, Int. 


PI 


, PI. 




, PL 




, Int. 


PI 


, PI. 




, Int. 


PI 


, PL 




, PI. 




, PI. 




, PI. 




, PL 




, PI. 




, PI. 




., Int. 


, PI 



Janssen & Abbott 

Albro & Lindeberg 

Almirall, Raymond F 

Stratton & Baldwin 

McKim, Mead & White 

Thomas, Churchman & Molitor 

Allen & Collens and Louis E. Jallade 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson 

Donahue, John Wm 

Donahue, John Wm 

Greco, Charles R. 

Maginnis & Walsh 

Rosenheim, A. F 

Sullivan, Matthew 

Bliss & Faville 

Garber & Woodward 

Garfield, Abram 

Kahn, Albert and E. Wilby 

Shaw, Howard Van D 

McKim, Mead & White 

McKim, Mead & White 

Parker, Thomas & Rice 

Ross, A. R. and G. L. Heins 

Wheelwright & Haven 

Desmond, G. Henri 

Fox, John A. 

Freeman, Funk & Wilcox 

Greco, Charles R 

Herts & Tallant 

Van Yolkenburg, F. D. 

Werner & Windolph 

Herts & Tallant 

Page, George Bispham 

Reynolds, Marcus T. 

Albro & Lindeberg 

Gray, Albert Morton 

Page & Frothingham 

McKim, Mead & White 

Wheelwright & Haven 

Bigelow & Wadsworth 

Cary, George 

Clinton & Russell 

I >.iv, Frank Miles & Brother 

Green & Wicks 

Taylor, William Hart & Son 

Wheelwright & Haven 

Wilder & White 

Janssen & Abbott 

Parker, Thomas & Rice 

Albro & Lindebi rg 

Day, Frank Miles & Brother 

:i<> & AMrich 

Duhring, Okie \- Ziegler 

Field & Medarv 

; & Granger 

Garden, Edward G. 

Harrison, Stockdale & Sons 

5 & Tallant 

& Hunt 

Lavalle, John W. 

Page, Gi ham 



Plate No. 

63 

71 

34-36 

33 

18-21 

72 

147-149 

153-155 

152 

150, 151 

146 

143-145 

47-50 

156 

160, 161 

45 

56-58 

46 

' 53-55 

15 

16, 24 

37 

1-3 

38-40 

59 

61, 62 

60 

61 

62 

59 

60 

6 

75 

102 

71 

114 

110, 112 

17 

38-40 

104 

L03 

lis 

115 

103 

117 

105 

IK, 

51, 52 

11 

71 

80-83 

86 

S7-S9 

43 

76, 77 

141, 1 12 

12, 13 

5, 6 

II. 42 

73, 74 



Month. 

May 

May 

March 

March 

February 

May 

November 

November 

November 

November 

November 

November 

April 

November 

December 

April 

April 

April 

April 

February 

February 

March 

January 

March 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

January 

June 

August 

May 

August 

August 

February 

March 

August 

August 

September 

September 

August 

September 

August 

Septi 

April 

January 

June 

June 

July 

March 

I unc 

January 
January 

An 
I une 



THE BRICKBUILDER — INDEX. 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — Continued. 



Title and Location. 

House. Westwood, Mass. * Ext., PI. 

House, Astor street, Chicago Ext., PI. 

House, Dedham, Mass Ext., Int., PI. 

] touse, Rowley, Mass. Ext., PI. 

House, Salem, Mass. Ext., Int., PI. 

House. Hudson, N. V. Ext., PI. 

House, Lake Forest, 111 Ext., Int., PI. 

House. Libertvville. Ill Ext., PI. 

House. 135 E. 19th street. New York Ext., Int., PI. 

House, Riverside, 111 Ext., PL 

I louse Riverside, 111. Ext., Int., PI. 

House. Milton. Mass Ext., PL 

House, Locust street, Philadelphia Ext., PI. 

House, St. i reorge, Staten Island. X. Y Ext., PL 

I Louse, Chicago Ext.. PL 

House. Williamstown, Mass. Ext., PL 

Houses, Schenley Farms, Pittsburg Ext., PL 

Houses, Walkerville, Ontario Ext.. PL 

I louses. Locust street, Philadelphia Ext., PI. 

Houses, Cleveland, Ohio Ext., PL 

I louses, Chicago Ext., Int., PI. 

Houses, Belle Terre, Long Island, X. Y Ext., PI. 

House and Garden, ( )yster Bay, L. I Ext., PL 

House and Garden, Marion, Mass Ext., PL 

House and Garden, Wenham. Mass. Ext., Int., PL 

Library, Columbia University, New York Ext., Int. 

Library. Public, Boston, Hetails of Ext., Int. 

Library, The Morgan, New York Ext., Int. 

Masonic Temple, Colorado Springs, Colo. Ext , Int., PL 

Opera House, Boston Int. 

Park Building, Refectory, Chicago Ext., Int., PL 

School. The Plunkett, Pittsfield, Mass Ext., PI. 

School and Home for Crippled Children, Canton, Mass. Ext., PL 

Stable. Bryn Mawr, Pa PL 

Stable, Westwood, Mass. Ext. , PL 

Stable and Garage, Xew York Ext., PI. 

State Capitol. Providence, R. I Ext., Int. 

Theater, The Columbia, San Francisco Ext.. Int., PL 



Architect. 

Parker, Thomas & Rice .... 

Pond & Pond 

Purdon, James 

Rantoul, William G 

Rantoul, William G 

Reynolds, Marcus T 

Shaw, Howard Van D 

Shaw, Howard Van I) 

Sterner. Frederick Junius 

Sullivan, Louis H 

Tallmadge & Watson 

Tilden, George T 

Trumbauer, Horace 

Waterburv, Harry S 

Wilson, H. R. & Co. 

Winslow cV- Bigelow 

lanssen & Abbott 

Kahn, Albert and E. Wilby 

Keen, Charles Barton 

Meade. Frank 15. 

Shaw, Howard \'an D 

Sterner, Frederick Junius 

Carre-re & I Listings 

Page & Frothingham 

Rantoul, William G 

McKim, Mead & White 22, 27 

McKim, Mead & White 

McKim, Mead & White 

MacLaren & Thomas 

Wheelwright & Haven 

Perkins & Hamilton 

Hardin-' cV Seavcr 

Bigelow & Wadsworth 

Duhring, < )kie & Ziegler 

Parker, Thomas & Rice 

Gray, Albert Morton 

McKim, Mead & White 

Bliss & F'aville 



Plate No. 


Month. 


94-96 


lulv 


31 


March 


132-135 


0< 1 


!, 93 


July 


106, K)7 


August 


101, 102 


August 


66, 67 


May 


64, 65 


May 


162-164 


December 


129-131 


October 


10 


January 


165 


December 


32 


March 


9 


January 


139, 140 


October 


78, 79 


lune 


7, 8 


January 


98-1 


July 


44 


March 


125-128 


September 


68-70 


May 


166-170 


December 


119-124 


September 


1 OS- 112 


August 


84, 85 


lune 


12, 27. 28 


Februarv 


29, 30 


iruary 


5. 25, 26 


February 


90, 91 


July 


14 


January 


136-138 


1 (ctober 


4 


January 


104 


August 


ss 


July 


97 


lulv 


114 


August 


18-21 


February 


157-159 


I Vcember 



"For additional illustrations not listed above see index of " Illustrations in Letter-Press. 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN LETTER-PRESS. 

This list does not include certain miscellaneous illustrations made in connection with articles nor those of terra cotta details. 



Exterior views denoted by Ext. Interior views denoted by Int. Plans denoted by PI. 
Title and Location. Architect. Page 

Headman & Schoen 

Hiss & Weeks 

Meyer, F. H 249, 250 



Apartment, Park avenue, New York Ext. 

Apartment, Broadway, Xew York Ext. 

Apartment, The Chismore, San Francisco Ext. 

Apartment, St. Dominic, San Francisco Ext. 

Art Gallery, The Walker, Brunswick, Me Ext. 

Automobile Sales Building, Chicago Ext. 

Automobile Sales Building, Chicago Ext. 

Automobile Sales Building, Chicago Ext. 

Bank, Peoples State, Crown Point, Ind Ext. 

Bank, The National City, Xew York Int. 

Bank of Montreal, Canada Int., PI. 

Barn, An Old Building, Xayatt, R. I Ext. 

Baseball Park, Entrance, Cleveland Ext. 

Bathing Pavilion Ext. 

Bungalow Ext. ' 

Bureau of American Republics, Washington Ext. 

Capitol, Providence, R.I Ext., Int., PL 

Chapel, West Point, X. Y Int. 

Chapel, Redemptionest Fathers, Esopus, X. Y Int. 

Church, Blessed Sacrament, Cambridge, Mass Ext. 

Church, The Woodlawn, Chicago Ext. 

Church, Our Lady of Mercy, Brooklyn Int. 

Church, Jamestown, Ya Ext. 

Club, The Country, Xew Haven, Conn. Ext., PL 

Club, The University, San Francisco Ext., Int. 

Club, Mohawk Golf,' Schenectady, X. Y Ext., PL 

Club. Saegkill Golf, Yonkers, N. Y Ext., PL 

Club, The Country, Farmington, Conn Ext., PL 

Club, The Country, Cincinnati Ext., PL 

Club, The Country, Indianapolis Ext., Int. PL 

Club, Hamilton Co. Country, Olean, X. Y Ext., PL 

Club, The ( >towega. Buffalo, X. Y Ext., PL 

Club, The Woman's. Last Orange, N. J Ext., PL 

Club, The Country. Peoria, 111 Ext.. PL 

Club, St. Louis Country, Clayton, Mo Ext., PL 

Club, The Harvard, Xew York Ext., Int. 

Club, The I 'niversitv. Xew York Int. 

Club, The Euclid, Cleveland Ext., PL 

Club, The Family, San Francisco Ext. 

Club, York Harbor, Me Ext., Int., PL 



Meyer, F. H. 

McKim, Mead & White. 

Holabird & Roche 

Holabird & Roche 

Walker. Win. Ernest ■ 

Beers & Beers 

McKim, Mead & White 
McKim, Mead & White 



Watterson & Schneider 

Gilbert, C. P. II 

Bourgeois, Paul 

Kelsey & Cret 

McKim, Mead & White 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson 

Untersee, F. J 

Greco, Charles R. 

Peabodv, Arthur 

Poole, t. H 

Wheelwright & Haven 

Atterburv, Grosvenor 

Bliss & Faville 

Bosvvorth, Wm. Welles 

Casey, Edw. Pearce 

Davis & Brooks 

Elzner & Anderson 

Foltz & Parker 

Green & Wicks 

Green & Wicks 

Greene, Ernest 

Hewitt, Herbert Edmund • ■ 
Mauran, Russell & Garden . 

McKim, Mead & White 

McKim, Mead & White 

Meade & Garfield 

Meussdorffer, C. A. 

Purdon, James 



Month. 



238 


October 


284 


Dei-ember 


9, 250 


November 


249 


November 


25 


Februarv 


198 


August 


283 


December 




November 


240 


( ictober 


42 


Februarv 


40, 41 


February 


237 


October 


173 


July 


14S 


lune 


148 


lune 


145 


lune 


43-46 


Februarv 


260 


Xovember 


19 


January 


258 


November 


174 


July 


152 


lune 


82 


March 


102 


April 


273 


December 


94 


April 


89 


April 


101 


April 


101 


April 


96 


April 


90 


April 


91 


April 


98 


April 


97 


April 


100 


April 


54, 55 


February 


56-58 


Februarv 


92 


April 


279 


December 


99 


April 



THE BRICKBUILDER— INDEX. 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN LETTER-PRESS — Continued. 



Title and Location. 

Club, The Golf, Hackensack, X.J Ext., 

Club, The Argonaut, San Francisco Ext. 

Club, Losantiville Country, Cincinnati Ext., 

Club, Athletic Country, Atlanta, (la. PI, 

College, Architectural Building, Harvard University Ext. 

College, Gateways, Harvard University 

Department Store, The Gunst, San Francisco Ext. 

Department Store, The White House, San Francisco Ext. 

Drill Hall, Fort Des Moines, Iowa Ext. 

Fire Department, Brooklyn Ext. , 

Fire Department, Norwood, Mass Ext., 

Fire Department, New York Ext., 

Fire Department, Washington Ext 

Fire Department, North Beverly, Mass Ext., 

Fire Department, Chelsea, Mass Ext., 

Fire Department, Syracuse Ext., 

Fire Department, New York Ext., 

Fire Department, Cincinnati Ext. 

Fire Department, Beverly, Mass Ext., 

Fire Department, San Francisco Ext. 

Fire Department, Revere, Mass. Ext., 

Fire Department, East Orange, N. J Ext., 

Fire Departments, Cincinnati Ext., 

Fire Department and Police Station, Norwood, Ohio Ext., 

Fire Department and Town Hall, Wyoming, Ohio Ext., 

Fire 1 >cpartment and Town Hall, Lockland, Ohio Ext., 

Garage, The Anderson, Chicago Ext. 

Garage for Motor Car Company, Chicago Ext. 

Garden, Detail of, Morristown, N. J 

Gateways, Harvard University 

Government, The War College, Washington Fxt. 

Hall, The Symphony, Boston Ext. , 

Hampstead Garden Suburb, England 

Hospital, Harriet Lane Home, Baltimore Ext., 

Hotel Fort Pitt, Norse Room, Pittsburg Int. 

Hotel, The Palace, San Francisco Ext., 

House, The Mintzer, San Francisco Ext. 

House Ext. 

House, Orange, N. J Ext., 

House, The Grant, San Francisco Ext. 

House, The Edgar, Newport, R.I Ext. 

House, The White, Washington Ext., 

House, The Wolfe, Newport, R.I Ext. 

House, Columbus, Ohio Ext. 

House, Springfield, Mass Ext., 

House, Cleveland, Ohio Ext. 

House, Grand Rapids, Mich. Ext. 

House, Sutton Place, England Ext. 

House, Grand Rapids, Mich. Fxt. 

Houses, Hampstead Garden, England Ext., 

Houses, Libraries, Halls, Dining Rooms Int. 

Houses, Belle Terre, Long Island, N. Y Ext., 

Houses, " Sandhouse," etc., England Ext., 

Houses, Six Modern Dwellings, England Ext., 

House and Gardens, Westbury, L. I Ext. 

Insurance, The Metropolitan Life, San Francisco Ext. 

Library, A Branch, Brooklyn Ext. 

Library, Columbia University, New York Ext., 

Library, The Public, Boston Ext. , 

Library of J. P. Morgan, New York Int., 

Monument, The Shaw Memorial, Boston 

Municipal Building, Refectory, Chicago Ext. 

Office Building, The Balboa, San Francisco Ext. 

Office Building, The Baldwin, San Francisco • • ■ ■ •' Ext. 

Office Building, The Blake, Boston Ext. 

Office Building, The Ford, Detroit Ext. 

Office Building, The .Sherman Clay, San Francisco Ext. 

Office Building, The Newhall, San Francisco Ext. 

Office Building, The Security, San Francisco Ext. 

Office Building, The Royal, San Francisco Ext. 

Office Building, The Alaska. San Francisco Ext. 

Office Building, The Franklin, Seattle Ext. 

Office Building, The Daily News, Dayton Ext. 

Park Buildings, Sanitary, Boston Ext., 

Police Station and Fire Department, Norwood, Ohio Ext., 

Prison, Ulster County Jail, Kingston, N. Y PI. 

Prison, Minnesota State, Stillwater, Minn Ext., 

Prison, Riker's Island Penitentiary, New York PI. 

Prison, State Reformatory, Rahway, N. J Int. 

Pump House Ext. 

Railway Station, San Antonio, Texas Ext. 

Railway .Station, The Pennsylvania, New York Ext. 

Railway .Station, The Pennsylvania, New York Int . 

School," A Paternal, Mayfair, 111 Ext. 

School, The Mission Grammar, San Francisco Ext. 

Schoolhouse, Eveleth, Minn Ext. 



IT. 
PI. 



Int. 

PI. 

PI. 

PI. 

PI. 

PI. 

PI. 

PI. 

PI. 

PI. 
PI. 

PI. 
PI. 
PI. 
PI. 



Int.. 


PL 


Int., 


PI 


Int. 




PI. 




Int. 




PI. 





PI. 

PI. 

Int. 
PI. 



Int., PI. 

Int., PI. 
PI. 



PI. 

PI. 

PI. 



PI. 



Architect. 

Rossiter & Wright 

Schnaittacher, Sylvain • • • 

Tietig & Lee . . .' 

Walker, Harry Leslie 
McKim, Mead & White . . 
McKim, Mead & White. . . 

Lansburg & Joseph 

Pissis, Albert 

Taylor, J. Knox 

Adams & Warren 

Allen <x- Collens 

Casey, Edward Pearce • • • 
Clark, Appleton P., Jr. . . . 

Cooper & Bailey 

I >' smond, G. Henri 

< raggin & Gaggin 

Griffin, Percy 

I lake, Harry 

Kilham & 1 Eopkins 

Rixford, Loring P 

Varney, Penn 

Walker & Hazzard 

Hake, Harry 

Rapp, Zettel & Rapp 

( iarber & Woodward 

Garber & Woodward 

Jenney, Mundie & Jensen 

Kahn, Albert 

Vitale Ferruccio 

McKim, Mead & White- . . 
Me Kim, Mead & White- . . 
McKim, Mead & White. • . 



Wyatt&Noltingand Butler & Rodman 

Janssen & Abbott 

Trowbridge & Livingston 

Bliss & Faville '. 

Foster, Gade & Graham 

Dillon, McLellan & Beadel 

Hiss & Weeks 

McKim, Mead & White 

McKim, Mead & White 

McKim, Mead & White 

Packard, Frank L 

Robins & Oakman 

Watterson & Schneider 

Williamson & Crow 

Wright, Frank Lloyd 



Shaw, Howard Van D. . . . 
Sterner, Frederick lunius 
Troup, F. W 



McKim, Mead & White. 
Le Brun, N. & Sons. . . . 

Lord & Hewlett 

McKim, Mead & White. 
McKim, Mead & White. 
McKim, Mead & White 
McKim, Mead & White. 

Zimmerman, W 7 . C 

Bliss & Faville 

Bliss & Faville 

Bowditch, Arthur 1 1. . . . 
Burnham, D. H. & Co.. 

Dutton, L. B 

Hobart, Lewis P 

Howard & Calloway . . . 

HoWellS & Stokes 

Meyers & Ward 



Sticknev & Austin 

Rapp, Zettel & Rapp 

Colt, Stockton B 

Johnston, ('. II 

Trowbridge & Livingston 



Gilbert, C. P. II. 



McKim, Mead & While 

McKim, Mead & White 

Mundie, W. B 

Tharp. N. J. and L. P. Rixford, 
Bray & Nystrom 



Page. 


Month. 


95 


April 


279 


I )ecember 


93 


April 


90 


April 


39 


February 


24, is 


February 


23 1 


Oct 


233 


( >ctober 




March 


119 


May 


1 23 


May 


122 


May 


125 


May 


123 


May 


122 


May 


120 


May 


119 


May 


126 


May 


121 


May 


2 72 


I >ccember 


124 


May 


lis 


May 


120, 121 


Mas- 


12 1 


Max 


116, 117 


May 


US 


May 


219 


Sept. 


151 


lime 


2S2 


I lecember 


24, 48 


February 


62 


February 


49, 50 


February 


9-12 


January 


1S^-185 


An 


105-105 


April 


248, 2 1') 


November 


252, 255 


November 


14S 


lunc 


145 


In no 


251 


November 


38 


February 


50-53 


February 


47 


February 


129 


May 


149 


lune 


285 


December 


217 


September 


139-142 


lune 


216 


September 


9-12 


(anuarv 


255-257 


November 


275-278 


December 


75-79 


March 


227-229 


October 


59 


February 


233 


October 


108 


April 


26, 27 


February 


52-57 


February 


28, 30, 51 


February 


60, 61 


February 


239 


October 


235 


Oct 


234 


October 


St 


March 


15 


January 


235 


October 


i:^ 


( k'tober 


234 


()( ■•■ 


234 


Oct 


255 


Oct 


132 


Ma\ 


259 


Nbvi 


203, 206 


September 


124 


May 


73 


March 


70-75 


March 


(,7-7o 


March 


71 


March 


14S 


lune 


109 


April 


63-65 


i nary 


2S5 


mber 


219 


Septembei 


272 


mber 


83 





1 56 1 






THE BRICKBUILDER— INDEX. 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN LETTER-PRESS— Continued. 



Title and Location. 

Schoolhouse, New Orleans, La Ext. 

Schoolhouse, Watertown, X. Y. . . Ext. 

Shaw Memorial, Boston 

Stables, The City, Detroit Ext. 

State Capitol, Providence, R. I Ext., Int., PI. 

State Fair Buildings, Syracuse Ext., Int., PL 

St ire Building, Indianapolis Ext. 

Store Building, Cleveland Ext. 

Store Building, Boston Ext. 

i plume Building, Milwaukee Ext. 

Temple, The Mural, Indianapolis Ext. 

Town Hall and Fire Department, Lockland, Ohio Ext., PI. 

Town Hall and Fire Department, Wyoming, Ohio Ext., PI. 

University Buildings 

War College, Washington ■ Ext. 

Theater, New Amsterdam, Xew York 

Theater of Ostia from drawing by Pierre Andre 

Theater, The Columbia, San Francisco Int. 

Theater, The Orpheum, San Franciseo Ext. 



Architect. 

Christie, E. A 

Griffin, J. W 

MeKim, Mead & White 

Mason & Rice 

MeKim, .Mead & White 

i & Wicks 

Bohlen. D. A. & Son 

Bohnard & Parsson 

Kendall & Taylor 

Eschweiler, A. C 

Bohlen. D. A. & Son 

( iarber & Woodward 

Oarber & Woodward 

(See list under College Building.) . , . 

MeKim, Mead & White 

For Interior Views see article on 
Architectural Acoustics 

Bliss & Faville 

Lansburgh, G. Albert 



Page. 


Month. 


21 


January 


174 


July 


60, 61 


February 


21 


January 


43-46 


February 


1-7 


January 


20 


January 


173 


July 


107 


April 


22 


January 


197 


Xv 


US 


May 


116, 117 


May 


62 


February 


September, ( >i 


and November 


224 


October 


274 


December 


2S0 


December 



ARTICLES. 



A. I. A., Forty-third Annual Convention 

Architectural Acoustics — I By Hugh Tallant 

Architectural Acoustics — II. By Hugh Tallant 

Architectural Acoustics — II . , Continued 

_ .By Hugh Tallant 

Architectural Acoustics — II., Continued 

By Hugh Tallant 

Architectural Acoustics — II., Continued 

By Hugh Tallant 

Architectural Acoustics — II., Concluded 

By Hugh Tallant 

Architectural Acoustics— III. By Hugh Tallant 

Club Houses, Country and Other Types 

By Roger Durand 

Contract between Architect and Owner 

By Wm. B. Bamford 

Co- Partnership Agreements between Architects 

By Judge C. N. Goodnow 

Co-Partnership Agreements between Architects 

By William L. Bowman 

England — The Hampstead Garden Suburb 

By R. Randal Phillips 

England — Some English Brickbuilders 

By R. Randal Phillips 

England — Sutton Place By Arthur G. Bein 

land — A Chronology of English Brickwork 187 

England — Inexpensive English Houses 

By Henry A. Frost 226 



•ge- 

14 

111 

155 


Month. 

Januarv 

Mav 

July 


177 


August 


199 


September 


221 


October 


243 
265 


November 
December 


89 


April 


211 


September 


133 


June 


159 


July 


9 


January 


75 
139 
187 


March 

June 

August 


226 


October 



Page. 

Fire Department Buildings. By Halsey W. Parker 117 

Hollow Bloeks, Inexpensive Tvpe of Construction. 

.' ...By C. H. Hughes 

Hospital Planning, Notes on By S. S. Goldwater 

Hospital Planning for Children By Charles Butler 

House, Competition for a Small Brick — Report of 

Jury of Award __ 

House with Terra Cotta Hollow Tiles. By Arthur Dillon 

MeKim, Charles F. — Some Critical Reflections 

_ By Royal Cortissoz 

MeKim, Charles F. — A Character Sketch 

By Henry Bacon 

MeKim, Charles F. — The Influence of 

By C. Howard Walker 

Mi Kim, Charles F. — ATribute_By Robert S. Peabody 
MeKim, Charles F. — Excerpts from Memorial Addresses 

Noise Room, Fort Pitt Hotel, Pittsburg 104 

Prison or Penitentiary Planning -By Fredk. G. Frost 67 

San Francisco, Burnt Clay's Share in the Rebuild- 
ing — I By Wm. C. Hays 

San Francisco, Burnt Clav's Share in the Rebuild- 
ing— II By Wm. C. Hays 

San Francisco, Burnt Clav's Share in the Rebuild- 
ing—Ill By Wm. C. Hays 

Sanitary Buildings in Boston, Xew.... 203 

State Fair Buildings at Syracuse 1 



80 
207 
180 

166 
144 

23 

38 

48 
55 
58 



230 



248 
271 



Month. 
May 

March 

September 

August 

J aly 
June 

February 

February 

February 

February 

February 

April 

March 

October 

November 

December 

September 

January 



EDITORIALS AND MISCELLANY. 



Page. Month. 

"American Riviera" .. 107 April 

Annual Convention of A. I. A 259 November 

■tment, Medal for Best Type 82 March 

Architectural League of America, New Board 106 April 

Architectural Scholarship Award 197 August 

Artificial Lighting for Schoolhouses 217 September 

Berlin, The Greater 152 June 

Brick That Floats 281 December 

Brick Wall Removed 216 September 

Bricks, A Good Word for 173 July 

npanile at Venice 173 July 

Church Tower Moved 283 December 

Cleaning Brick Fronts 172 July 

Club. "Chatsworth" 102 April 

College Buildings, New 19 January 

Color in Architecture 194 August 

Competition Awards — A Small Brick House 150 June 

Competition Awards — City Hall, Oakland 175 July 

Competition Awards — Fulton Memorial ._ 18 January 

Competition Awards — Public Bath and Gymnasium 66 February 

Competition by the B. T. E. A 216 September 

Competition for a Masonic Home 83 March 

Competition for a New Capital 194 August 

vention of the N. B. M. A 82 March 

Eiffel Tower 21S September 

Erechtheion, The Reconstruction of the 172 July 

Exhibition at Berlin 152 June 

Exhibition Buildings — Proper Construction. 218 September 

owships in Architecture by U. of Pa 152 June 

Fire Insurance on School Buildings 172 July 



Page. Month. 

Fire Protection Conference 284 December 

Foundations, Some Expensive. 107 April 

Housing Problem in Germany 260 November 

Japanese Exhibit at London 172 July 

La Farge, John 259 November 

Madison Square Church — Pediment Panel 174 July 

Memorial Hall in Washington 106 April 

Palace of the Popes, Avignon 282 December 

Panama-California Exposition 283 December 

Parisian Flood Commission's Report 216 September 

Penn. Railway Station, New York — The Ceilings 281 December 

Perkins, 1). A, and Chicago Board of Education 128 May 

Pisa, Stability of Tower. 237 October 

Pittsburg's Big Land Show 196 August 

Pulpit, An Open Air 196 August 

Railway Terminal in Manhattan 197 An. 

ie — Anxietv Over Architecture 195 August 

Skyscraper Limit in Chicago 284 December 

Sound-1'rooiing Houses — Two Methods 217 September 

Steel Construction — The Durability - 282 December 

Streets, Improvement in Salt Lake City 171 July 

Sturgis, R. C, and Boston Schoolhouse Commission 150 June 

Temple — Oldest in the World 173 July 

Terra Cotta Manufacturer Knighted. ._ 238 October 

Tests of Acid Upon Linoleum 175 July 

Theater, A Pay-as-vou-enter 107 April 

Town Planning — An English View 216 September 

Westminster Cathedral 217 September 

West Point — Interior of Chapel 262 November 

Woolworth Building 261 November 



THE 



BRICKBVILDER 





ARCHlffiCVRAL 

MONTHIY 



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JANUARY 








««««« 



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PVBUSHED BY ROGERS & MANSON 
EIGHTYFIVE WATER STREET BOSTON MASS. 



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ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 



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Agente for 

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Central Southern Agents 

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TILES FOR FIREPLACES, 
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FAIENCE MANTELS 
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Write for our now catalogue. 



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MAT GLAZES IN ALL COLORS 
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i. L GREGORY. PROPRIETOR 

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The AMERICAN TERRA COTTA 
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Manufacturer* of 

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Works, PHILADELPHIA 

OFFICES 

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1133 Broadway, NEW YORK 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XIX JANUARY 1910 Number I 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street ... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1910, by ROGERS & MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ....... $5.00 per year 

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SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
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ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products 



PAGE PAGE 

II Brick Enameled Ill and IV 



Architectural Faience II Brick Waterproofing IV 

,, Terra Cotta II and III Fireproofing IV 

Brick HI Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

HARDING & SEAVER; STOCKDALE HARRISON & .SONS; HERTS & TALLANT; JANSSEN 

& ABBOTT; PARKER, THOMAS & RICE; ALBERT RANDOLPH ROSS AND 

GEORGE L. HEINS; TALLMADGE & WATSON; HARRY S. 

WATERBURY; WHEELWRIGHT & HAVEN. 

LETTERPRESS 

I'AliK 

RUINS OF A VAULTED HALL IN HADRIAN'S VILLA AT TIVOLI, NEAR ROME Frontispiece 

STATE FAIR BUILDINGS AT SYRACUSE, N. Y ' 

HAMPSTEAD GARDEN SUBURB - 

FORD BUILDING, DETROIT, MICH.— DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION 13 

FORTY-THIRD ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS 14 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 




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VOL, 19 NO. I 



DEVOTED -TO THE-INTERE5ETOE -AR.CHITECTVRE-IN MATEWALJ-OECLAY- 



JANUARY 1910 




-f K<<<<<«««««««««<<<<<«<«<«^^^<<««-»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»>»>»>>»77m ' 

The State Fair Buildings at Syracuse, N. Y. 

GREEN & WICKS, ARCHITECTS. 




THE New York State Fair Group is emerging from a 
chrysalis condition into a state of perfection. The 
first effort was apparent during 1908 in the Manufactures 
and Liberal Arts Building; the second has been revealed 
in 1909 in the State 
Institutions and 
Dairy Buildings on 
the opposite side of 
the spacious Empire 
State Court. In 
architectural form 
and construction, in 
coloring and in pro- 
portion, these three 
new buildings must 
appeal to visitors as 
appropriate to the 
dignity of the agri- 
culture of the great 
state of New York. 

In the State Insti- 
tutions Building will 
be housed the exhib- 
its of twenty-four 
state departments 
and institutions. 
Contiguous to and 
opening into the 
State Institutions 
main room is the 
State Grange head- 
quarters. Verydiffer- 
ent are these rooms 
from the canvas 
quarters of former 
years. The lofty au- 
ditorium is provided 
with four hundred 
easy chairs, tables for 
lunches, free package 
checking rooms, and 
retiring rooms for 
both men and 
women. 

In a separate build- 
ing of equal size with 
the State Institutions 
Building, to which it 



is connected by a superb colonnade, is the Dairy 
department. 

Buildings for expositions and fairs are usually of tem- 
porary and flimsy construction. In the exposition class, 

where used for one 
season only, this sort 
of building is all that 
is required. The 
structures need only 
be safe and fitting to 
their purpose — mere 
enclosed shelters. 
But for fair build- 
ings, where used year 
after year, it is de- 
sirable to construct 
solidly and effect- 
ively. 

. The flimsy struc- 
ture epoch had been 
in vogue in the Syra- 
cuse State Fair work 
for many years pre- 
vious to 1908, but in 
that and the prece- 
ding year a careful 
review was made of 
past work, and it was 
ascertained that in 
the long run perma- 
nent, solidly con- 
structed buildings, 
placed in accordance 
with a positive plan, 
would be more eco- 
nomical and desir- 
able. 

In the spring of 
1908 the state began 
its policy of perma- 
nent construction. 
Appropriations were 
considered in 1907 
for a continuance of 
the early method of 
construction, but 
details or administration, static grange, Governor Hughes, 

dairy and press BUILDINGS. who visited the fair 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



that year, promptly disapproved of the plan, taking the 
ground that before more money was expended by the 
state the following items should be observed : 

First. That plans should be secured for a comprehen- 
sive and artistic grouping of the buildings and a system- 
atic arrangement of the roads and grounds. 

Second. That future appropriations should provide 
funds sufficient to build permanent structures. 

Third. That a scheduled estimate for a complete and 
permanent grouping be made. 

With the recommendations of the Governor in view an 
appropria- 
tion was 
made in 
the year 
1907, and 
placed in 
the hands 
of the 
State Fair 
Commis- 
sion with 
directions 
providing 
for a pre- 
1 i miliary 
competi- 
tion to 
select 
architects 
to carry 
out the 
scheme. 
Many de- 
signs were 
submitted, 
but those 
presented 
by Green 
& Wicks, 
of Buffalo, 
were cho- 
sen. The 
architects 

were directed to prepare carefully studied block plans 
providing for all the various fair departments, and also 
to prepare a detailed schedule showing the cost of each 
particular part of the work, thus enabling the Fair Com- 
mission to present to the legislature in a well thought 
out, comprehensive manner, the needs of the fair. 

The plans, scale drawings, and details were presented to 
the legislature in 1908, an appropriation for the new work 
was obtained, and the first large building, the Manufac- 
tures and Liberal Arts Building, measuring 500_feet long 
and 150 feet wide, was constructed in five months' time. 

In 1909 appropriations were made for the Dairy Build- 
ing, the Grange Building, the State Institutions Build- 
ing, and the Stables; these buildings were quickly 
planned, constructed, and used for the fair of 1909. 

After careful consideration of the whole problem it was 
finally decided to use on the exterior walls of the build- 
ings a gray brick with a soft yellow tone. The bricks 
were laid with 1 inch white mortar joints. The point- 



ing was formed with a grooving tool, giving shadow 
marks over the entire fac;ade. The brick walls are well 
massed and proportioned and the facades are marked 
with peristyles and colonnades. The roofs, which are 
light bronze in color, have wide over-hangs with brack- 
eted cornices, which in combination with the gray brick 
and stone trimmings have given very satisfactory results. 
The schedule and plot plan, which is illustrated, shows 
the extent of the work undertaken, amounting to about 
$2,000,000. It is not intended that this work shall be done 
in one season. The state makes a liberal appropriation 




from year to year and will continue to do so until the work 
is fully completed. This is undoubtedly a conservative 
way to proceed, but the results would be better if all 
the buildings could be constructed in the same year and 
under one contract, as one large contract is more eco- 
nomical than many small ones. Besides it would give to 
the people at once completed buildings for their great 
fair, and would obviate the necessity, which in itself is 
expensive, of fitting the old to the new parts. The 
chief difficulty would be in housing the fair during the 
year of construction, but if the appropriation could 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




NEW YORK STATE FAIR, SYRACUSE, N. V. 



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NEW YORK STATE FAIR, SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



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ALTERNATE SKETCH FOR PRINCIPAL ENTRANCE. 




RACING STABLES, CARRIAGE BUILDING IN THE CENTER. 



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LIVE STOCK BUILDINGS. 







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MANUFACTURES AND LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING. 

NEW YORK STATE FAIR, SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



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NEW YORK STATE FAIR, SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



be made so that the 
work could be started 
immediately after 
the close of a fair the 
entire group could be 
completed in one 
year's time. 

The main feature of 
this group is the large 
Empire State Court, 
500 feet wide, about 
which the principal 
buildings are placed. 

Passing through the 
main entrance, the 
Manufactures and Lib- 
eral Arts Building is 
on the left, and the 
Dairy, Grange, and 
State Institutions 
Buildings on the right, 
while the Horticul- 
tural Building is in 
the semicircular 
grouping at the end, 
giving altogether a 
magnificently formed 
court. On the cross 
axis to the right are 
the Live Stock Build- 
ings, giving a long 
and beautiful vista. 
The race tracks are 
placed on one of the 
radial axes leading 
from the center of the 
amphitheater end of 
Empire Court. The 
Stables are placed at 
the far end of the 
race track, somewhat 
away from the main 
grouping. 

The entire group, 
except for Stables, 
is compact, and each 
building is easy of 
access from the large 
courts. 

( )ne wishing to "do" 
the fair methodically 
may start at the right 
or left of the main or 
architectural entrance, 
or at any other part of 
the grouping for that 
matter, and continue 
through peristyle and 
buildings until the 
place of beginning is 
reached. 

Peristyle passages 
are desirable in sunny 



ESTIMATED COST 
OF ENTIRE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPLETION AS SHOWN BY PLAN. 



No. 


Size. 


Sq. Ft. 
Asked For. 


Actual Sq. Ft. ^J" 


Total. 


1 


Administration . . . . 


5n x LI 


4,000 
1,500 


5,000 

Two stories 

io,a 






2 


Hospital, two stories . . 
Ambulance, two stories . 
Fire House, tun stories . 


50 x 100 

25 x 30 1 

25 x 


5,000 

Xot asked 


10,000 
1,250x2= 2,500 
1.250 2 


5.00 

5.00 

5.00 


6,250 
6,250 


3 


State Grange, with large 
hall 


60x75 

Two stories 


7,500 


1.5IH1 
1.500 
9,000 


2.75 




4 


Manufactures and Liberal 

Arts 

With two front annexes . 


160 x 500 

60 x 75 

( me story 


80,000 


80.000 
'^TltlO 

-'.000 


2.5n 


222,400 


5 


Live Stock Pavilions, 
Cattle, Sheep, j 
and Swine j ' 


75 x 275 

Six buildings 

80 x 125 

One story 


200,000 


125,750 

60,000 

183,750 


1.00 


183,750 


5 


Show Hors: 
Annex 


15o x 4oo 
100 x 160 


75,000 


15,000 

75,00(1 


2.00 


150,000 


5 


Race Horses 

Two buildings . . . . 
Two buildings . . . . 


40 x260 

40x290 

100 Round 




20,8 

23,200 
31,400 
75,400 


1.00 


75,4<Ki 




Covered Judging Ring, 
including 10,000 square 
feet of sheds .... 


ISO x350 


Not .' 
for 


63,000" 


2.50 


157,500 


6 


I laii \ Building . . . . 


LOO x 130 

75 x 125 
One story 


10,000 


15,0110 
9,400 

21.1(10 


2.511 




7 


Horticultural Building . 
One Circular Annex . . 


75 x 300 

125 Round 


75,000 


22,500 

40.(100 

62,500 


2.50 


156,250 


8 


Poultry, one story . . 
Pr ess Building, two 


140.x 175 
60 x 75 


20,000 


24,500 

4.500 
29,0 


3.00 




9 




75 x 150 

One store 




11.250 


5.00 




10 


Women's Building . . . 


75 x 15(J 
< >ne story 


10,000 


11,250 






11 


Restaurant 

Musi be 


50 x 100 
Two sti 

considi 


5,000 
>i Main 


5,000 
5,000 

10,000 

Entrance (No, 


4.00 
26) 
2.00 


40,000 


12 


Model Farm Bam . . . 


50 \ LOO 

( )ne story 


5,000 




in. 


13 


Space for Farm Imple- 




200, (inn 


I'C.OOO 




5,000 


14 


( >pen Air Theater . . . 

Must be built witli Peri- 
style anil Items Nos. 1'' 
arid 20 


ISO ft. Round 


Seats 5,000 


2O.S00 


2.00 


41,6110 


15 


ildings . . . 
Four, each 52,500 










Ki, oon 


16 


Trackage 

Freight Platform . . . 


20 x 470 x 2 




10,000 
18,800 




10,000 


17 


Railroad Station, Waiting 
Rooms, and Platforms 










25,000 


18 


Poliee Building . . . . 
and ( ither Services . . 


35 s60 

Two stories 


2,100 


2, inn 
2,100 

1 200 


2.50 


10.500 


19 


State Institutions . . . 

( me half Peristyle . . . 


75 x 200 
25 x 125 




15,000x2: 30,000 
6,500 
21,500 




64,500 


20 


Domestic Arts Building . 
( lue-half Peristyle . . . 


75 x 200 
25.x 125 


H 


15,000 
6,500 

21.500 


5.011 


64,500 


21 


Superintendent's House 
and < Ither Service . . 


35 x 60 

Two st 


1,50(1 


2,100 
2.100 
4,200 




10.510 


22 


Rooms 

Four Buildings. 


20 1 
One - 


1,000 




2.00 


5,200 


23 


Press Building. 
See Poultry Building. 


Included in Ii 


em No. 8 








24 


< )ne Band Stand . . . 
1 I nd Stand . . . 


30 x so 

SO Is- 




900 

5.026 


2 no 
2.00 


1.X00 

1(1,(100 


25 Judging Stand . . . . 


. 30 






2.00 


1,800 




Main Entrance . . . . 


500 




10,0110 






.'7 


Fountains, Pools, Canals, 

etc 












28 


Grounds, Grading 










175,000 




Walks . . . 










50,000 



* Madison Square Garden 200 X 300 = 60,000 sq. (t. 



$1,846,700 



or inclement weather, 
and they give a great 
amount of architec- 
tural effect to the 
buildings. These fea- 
tures, with the har- 
monizing colors of 
material selected, gave 
the architects an op- 
portunity, which they 
have made good use 
of. While dignified, 
there is a certain gay- 
ety about the whole 
which seems to belong 
to fair groups. 

The interiors of the 
buildings are plain 
and simple, and as 
many large spaces are 
obtained as possible 
without posts or piers. 

The buildings are 
clerestoried or sky- 
lighted so that 
groups of exhibits 
may be placed, when 
desired, against the 
outside walls. The 
walls of the interior 
of the buildings are 
laid up in gray brick, 
which look much bet- 
ter and reflect light 
more clearly than 
would red brick. 

The members of 
the State Fair Com- 
mission who have 
the direction of this 
work are: Lieut. -Gov. 
Horace White, Syra- 
cuse; Charles A. Wiet- 
ing, Cobleskill; Ira 
Sharp, L o w v i 1 1 e ; 
Abraham E. Perren, 
Buffalo ; DeForest 
Settle, Syracuse; 
Com. of Agriculture, 
Raymond A. Pearson, 
Albany ; William Tit- 
kin, Rochester. A. E. 
Perrin, who is chair- 
man of the Roads and 
Grounds Commission, 
has charge of the con- 
struction of the build- 
ings. 

The schedule of 
buildings to be con- 
structed and esti- 
mated cost of each is 
given in the table. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Hampstead Garden Suburb. 



HY R. RANDAL l'HII.I.IPS. 




Sony TarkAr and Raj~anJ U, 
« «WJo/ W «« -EX Lutycru 



A GREAT deal has been said, and a great deal has 
not been said, about the Garden .Suburb or Garden 
Colony at Hampstead, on the northwestern side of Lon- 
don. The movement from which it springs is rather a 
social movement than an architectural one, and those 
who have been 
talking most 
about it have 
concerned them- 
selves chiefly 
with the social 
aspect of the 
scheme. For 
that reason 
some people 
(among '[whom 
the present 
writer is dis- 
posed to count 
himself) have 
started with an 
undefined prej- 
udice against 
the place, this 
prejudice aris- 
ing from the remembrance of the work which a certain 
class of big-tie and homespun architects have done else- 
where in the country, with the fostering approval of a 
band of supporters. Let it be said at once there is always 
a taint of the crank about these zealots. They are ex- 
tremists, and when they touch architecture they do so in 
an extreme way. They persist in shutting their eyes to 
the actual face of things. The problem they set out 
to solve is one concerning town-dwellers, yet they in- 
variably seek a solution in 
country models, and by doing 
so they alienate a great num- 
ber of people who, while 
recognizing very clearly the 
deficiencies and the stupid- 
ities of the ordinary suburban 
house, are not so foolish as 
to imagine themselves to 
be goatherds or country 
laborers. 

It is one thing on a summer 
day to walk through an Eng- 
lish village where the charm 
of the old houses remains un- 
disturbed by modern inva- 
sions; where the eye sees 
time-stained thatch, lime- 
whitened walls overgrown 
with rose and with clematis; 
a garden filled with flowers 
in sweet profusion; and 
within the house a quaint 
common-room or kitchen, 
with its simple furniture, its 




bare floor, and perhaps its ingle-nook — all so artless, yet 
so abounding with art in a real sense — so unpretentious, 
yet so satisfying. But that is largely a mood of the 
moment and of the place which inspires it, and it is 
essentially a part of the life of the cottager and his family 

who are the cen- 
tral figures of 
this domestic 
scene. But 
town-dwellers 
are not cot- 
tagers. Their 
lives may be 
needlessly com- 
plex, their lux- 
uries far too 
many; but you 
cannot alter that 
in a stroke. You 
cannot, indeed, 
have at one and 
the same time 
the simplicity 
of the rustic and 
the culture of 
the other class, and the attempt to put the latter into a 
house created out of the simple life of the former is and 
always will be futile. 

There is more than a touch of this attempt at the 
Hampstead Garden Suburb. In some cases the aversion 
to any degree of symmetry has led to planning of the most 
rambling description, to "restraint" in design which 
becomes bare ugliness, to " variety " in treatment which 
is mere patchwork. But having thus given some indica- 
tion of the demerits of the 
scheme, fairness demands 
the admission that it offers 
much that is commendable 
and enjoyable. 

Taken as a whole, it is 
unquestionably a great ad- 
vance on the ordinary town 
suburb. The houses, if they 
err in some cases, are gen- 
erally of suitable design; 
they are soundly built with 
good materials, they are 
spread about with green 
spaces, and there is a sense 
of unity about the suburb 
which is distinctly gratify- 
ing. 

Walking through this gar- 
den-colony, the remembrance 
of the ordinary suburb comes 
to mind, and one makes a 
mental comparison between 
this place and the customary 
conglomeration of hard- 



HOUSE BY GEOFFRY LUCAS, ARCHITECT. 



IO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




HOUSE BV T. M. WILSON, ARCHITECT. 

featured villas entrenched in monotonous order, ap- 
proached by those 10 foot drives, with serried ranks of 
Lobelia and Calceolaria on either side. 
The change is refreshing. 

Hampstead is the highest ground 
around London, and consequently the 
driest and the healthiest. The Heath is 
a wide preserve against the inroads of 
the speculating builder, and it is just on 
the boundary of the Heath that the sub- 
urb is being established. The promotion 
of the scheme is due to the Hampstead 
Garden Suburb Trust — a public-spirited 
body of private individuals. 

The trust was formed about five years 
ago, at a time when a large tract of coun- 
try beyond the Heath was in danger of be- 
ing spoiled by the extension of the " Tube " 
and the succeeding exploits of house build- 
ers. Parliamentary sanction was obtained, 
and an area of 240 acres was acquired by 
the trust at a cost of $560,000. Messrs. 
Barry Parker and Raymond Unwin were 
appointed architects to the trust, and in 
consultation with Mr. E. L. Lutyens they 
drew up the plan which is here reproduced. 
Contrary to the usual practice when new 
buildings are to be erected, the greatest 
care was taken to preserve the trees and 
hedges on the estate and to develop the 
plan in relation to the existing features. The plan, in- 
deed, wanders too much. There is not enough symmetry 
in it. It lacks an amount of regularity which would be 
pleasing — a defect which is more evident when actually 



m 



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i* 



nni tnxm 



«a \ Wb 






I..III..,1II....II..II.lm.||' JHKMM 

CDGD EDI dD E3 _ yLjy ty *r . 



WATF.RI.OW COURT, BV M. H. BAILLIE SCOTT, ARCHITECT. 



viewing the suburb than when inspecting a plan of it. The 
roads are bordered with trees, judiciously planted, and by 
special sanction grass margins are added to them in a 
way which the usual local by-laws render impossible. 

The development of the estate is being undertaken 
primarily by the Garden Suburb Development Company, 
whose method of working is quite different from the 
usual method of building estate companies. In the first 
place they put themselves in communication with archi- 
tects whose domestic work was known and approved, 
and by allocating a series of plots to each they acquired 
an excellent series of designs. 

The houses, it will be seen, are carefully and pleas- 
ingly designed. In the majority of cases the English 
cottage has been taken as a standard, or at least' as an 
inspiration, while others follow on eighteenth-century 
lines. In their present condition they are necessarily 

more or less 
harsh, being so 
new, but when the 
shrubs and plants 
have grown up 
about them, and 
when the greens 
around which 
some of them are 
planned have been 
brought into con- 
dition, the effect 
will be greatly en- 
hanced, and the 
suburb will gain 
much in appear- 
ance. Nothing, 
however, will ever 
alter the smallness 
of the rooms in 
someof the houses. 
This diminutive- 
ness, in fact, is 
ludicrous in cer- 
tain instances. 
There are living 
rooms so Lillipu- 
tian that a most 
moderate-sized table surcharges them, and the occu- 
pants, so steeped in the "simple life," have to get in 
where they can. These cases illustrate the crank ele- 
ment in the suburb already referred to. And the same 
thing is seen in some of the bed- 
rooms, where the smallness of 
the casement window is made still 
more evident by the insistence 
of a modern Sheratan dressing- 
table which backs against it. 
Thus the revulsion from the big 
sash window of suburbandom! 

One very interesting building 
is " YVaterlow Court," a block of 
flats for " working ladies " which 
has been designed by Mr. Bail- 
lie Scott. It is built around a 
large square grass plot, and the 




HOUSE BY E. GUY DAWBER, AKCII1IH I. 



tci inn V urn 



u*SB T iif3qj 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 1. PLATE 1. 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 1. PLATE 2. 



OVE \HALF VA'C/L-.JCALF DETAIL OF 

flOffTJCO, COLLEGE 3V/LD/NG 



A/ofe — AtjaAea /o be /■*' ~*o t'o' 

//at brie*, arzttea A, be cambered 
/ 8 -A, l-c- 




JECT/CW THfiO 




:,CdLL 



JOVTH MLL , COLLEGE. SV/LDING 



OZ/E HALF E//CH JCALE DETAIL OE 
JOVTH ELEMT/OK OE COLLEGE 









NEW YDRK J2ATE NORMAL COLLEGE ALBANY NE W YORK PLAN 



NEW YORK STATE NORMAL COLLEGE, ALBANY, N. Y. 



Albert k. Ross, Architect. 



George L. Heins & Franklin B. Ware, state architects 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 1. PLATE 3. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VOL. 19, NO. 1. 



PLATE 4. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 1. PLATE 5. 




«»2»tfiM««tfafe~ U 



HOUSE AT 

BROOKLYN, 

N. Y. 





if 















HERTS & TalLANT, 

Architects. 




< • • T 



ITHSt FLOOR PLAN 



6UTOND fLOOR. PLAN 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 1. PLATE 6. 








llK>O*l0NVW 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 1. PLATE 7. 




HOUSE AT 
SCHENLEY 

FARMS, 

PITTSBURG, 

PA. 



JANSSEN 

& 

ABBOTT, 

Architects. 




SECOND •; XX rutt 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 1. PLATE 8. 




JANSSEN & ABBOTT. ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 1. PLATE 9. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 1. PLATE 10 . 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 1. PLATE 11. 




TAP ROOM, HOTEL BELVEDERE, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Parker, Thomas & Rice, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 1. PLATE 12. 






Q 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 1. PLATE 13. 




HOUSE NEAR LEICESTER, ENGLAND. 
Stockoale Harrison & Sons, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 1. PLATE 14. 



BOSTON 
OPERA HOUSE. 
BOSTON, MASS. 

Wheelwright & haven, 
architects 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



ii 





HOUSES, MICHAEL BUNNEY AND C. C. MAKINS, ARCHITECTS. " WATERI.OW COTRT," M. H. BAILLIE SCOTT, ARCHITECT, 




12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



enclosure possesses all the charm of a college quadrangle. 
( >ther blocks, more or less similar in grouping, have been 
designed by Mr. Geoff ry Lucas, Messrs. Michael Bunney 
& C. C. Makins, Messrs. Barry Parker & Raymond Unwin, 
and Mr. Guy Dawber. 

On the highest portion of the estate there is a plateau 
which is to be laid out as the Central Square. The build- 
ings to be erected around 
it have been designed by 
Mr. Lutyens. On one 
side is the institute, a frag- 
ment of which is included 
among the accompanying 
illustrations, though it 
should be pointed out that 
the detail shown is really 
a part of what will eventu- 
ally be the inner porch of 
the building. To the south 
of the square is the Epis- 
copal church, now being 
built ; to the north the Free 
church; while the remain- 
ing side will be occupied 
by another group of pub- 
lic buildings. 

The system on which 
the building work is carried out is interesting. The De- 
velopment Company invited tenders from a number of 
firms, not at a rate per house, but on the basis of $150,000 
worth of work. The firm engaged is paid according tc a 
schedule of prices. By these means the soundness of the 
work is assured. Great care has been taken in the selec- 
tion of the workmen, the ultimate staff of 300 to 400 men 







MOl'SK BY ARNOLD M lie HELL, ARCHIM I. 



having been chosen after testing the ability of more than 
1,000 in nine months' building on the estate. The houses 
with a few exceptions are not built to be rented, but to 
be purchased, either outright or by an initial payment of, 
say §1,000, and the balance by yearly instalments — this 
system being worked in conjunction with a reputable in- 
surance company. The houses themselves vary from 

large to small, some of 
them costing $10,000 or 
$15,000, and others (quite 
cottages), costing only a 
few thousands of dollars. 
Brick is used throughout, 
either roughcast or left 
plain, and all roofs are 
covered with red tiles. 
As a whole the effect is 
good, and in an age when 
the ever- increasing growth 
of cities is a menace to do- 
mestic life it is well to turn 
to such a practical example 
as the Hampstead Garden 
Suburb affords. There 
can be no doubt that the 
housing problem will only 
be satisfactorily solved by 
schemes more or less of this character. Towns cannot 
be allowed to spread themselves mile after mile without 
check or hindrance. Hence come town planning bills 
and development proposals that aim at stemming the 
wholesale building over of estates on the fringe of urban 
centers — hence the search for a way out of the difficulty 
— and hence this excellent object lesson at Hampstead. 




ENTRANCE. 
HOUSE BY HERBERT A. WELCH, ARCHITECT. 




ENTRANCE. 
INSTITUTE BY K. L. LUTYENS, ARCHITECT, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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TYPICAL 7TCTION 
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5 TM TO I} 1 -" TLOOIU/' 



FOKD HUILDINi;, DETROIT, MICH., sliow INC DETAILS OF TERRA COTTA CONSTRUCTION, 

D. H. Buniham & Co., Architects. 



H 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



FORTY-THIRD ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE 
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS. 

DURING the past decade the conventions of the 
American Institute of Architects have steadily ad- 
vanced in interest, in vitality, and in constructive quality. 
From the beginnings nearly half a century ago the 
process has been one of emergence from a self-cen- 
tered, intensive professionalism, into the wider vision of 
liberal inclusiveness. There has been a corresponding 
increase in self-respect, in appreciation of the mounting 
dignity and responsibility of the profession. The Forty- 
Third Convention was no exception to the rule; in many 
ways it reached the highest point yet touched in its sense 
of dignity, its statesmanlike and constructive legislation, 
its vital grasp of conditions, possibilities and duties; 
above all, in a certain fine spirit of comradeship, mutual 
interdependence and appreciation. 

In the Address of President Gilbert, the Report of the 
Board of Directors, and those of the Standing and Special 
Committees this constructiveness was particularly appar- 
ent, while the legislation throughout was of the same 
high character. This committee work is fast becoming, 
as it should, one of the most important functions of the 
Institute; in the majority of cases the committees — 
which for the past few years have been peculiarly well 
chosen — have devoted themselves to their work with 
universal singleness of purpose, and with a broad vision 
that eventuates in stimulating and thoughtful reports 
that are well received — and too often placed on file, no 
more to be heard from. As was forcefully brought out in 
Washington, much of this work is purely gratuitous, many 
of the committees paying all their own expenses (which is 
bad economics, however good it may be as an evidence of 
generosity and unselfishness), and it demands a better fate 
than entombment in somewhat dilatory " Proceedings." 
Legislation without the " enacting clause "is inoperative, 
and it may be questioned if the Institute does not occa- 
sionally lay itself open to some criticism on these lines. 

Of the work of the committees for the past year that 
on contracts and specifications is undoubtedly the most 
ambitious and weighty; the chairman, Mr. Atterbury, 
made no attempt to place the work before the conven- 
tion, as its magnitude made this manifestly impossible, 
but two years of the hardest and most conscientious 
labor have brought their fruition and this will shortly 
be placed before the members of the Institute, the first 
logical and successful attempt at the standardizing of a 
most important but hitherto somewhat chaotic depart- 
ment of architectural practice. Those who are familiar 
with the achievement of the committee have perfect 
confidence that another great question referred to it by 
the last convention — the standardization, so far as pos- 
sible, of the building law in the United States — will be 
handled in an equally competent manner, even though the 
difficulties in the way of a solution are ten times greater 
than those in the case of contracts and specifications. 

Of equal importance, though in a widely different field, 
was the Report of the Committee on a Canon of Ethics. 
This report also represented the most arduous and in- 
cessant labors and the result was striking in its simplicity 
and convincing quality; evidently the aim of the com- 
mittee had been to avoid niggling distinctions and irrita- 



ting prohibitions, and instead to establish broad and sound 
principles covering only the most fundamental points.leav- 
ing the Chapters to work out such minor details as local 
conditions might make necessary. Cognate in its nature 
was the action recommended by the Board and heartily 
endorsed by the convention, whereby for the future it be- 
comes unprofessional for a member to take part in a com- 
petition unless the terms have been approved either by a 
Chapter, or by the Institute itself. It will be remembered 
that this matter has been developing slowly, the last pre- 
ceding action making such participation unprofessional 
only if a given set of conditions had been officially con- 
demned by the Institute or one of its Chapters. 

Significant also was the general disfavor expressed at 
the growing custom of Chapters to issue local schedules 
of charges different to that of the Institute even though 
not inconsistent therewith. This brought up the whole 
question of the relation between the Institute and its 
Chapters, a question of some delicacy and great impor- 
tance, not altogether lacking also in elements of peril, and 
the result was that by vote of the convention the Board 
was formally instructed to canvass the whole matter and 
report its conclusions in the form of definite resolutions. 

The raising of the dues was a foregone conclusion and 
was imperative if the finances of the Institute were to 
remain in a healthy condition; the action was indicative 
also of the growing sense of the dignity and importance 
of the organization, the old scale having been rather 
absurdly out of proportion to the actual benefits re- 
ceived, and far less than similar charges in other coun- 
tries. If the evident desire of the convention is carried 
out by the Board, viz: that some rearrangement of the 
several classes of membership be made so that those now 
ineptly termed "Associates" shall become to all intents 
and purposes, and in name also, the regular and standard 
members, the rank of Fellow becoming but little more 
than a mark of signal honor accorded to a few, there will 
be little opposition to this last raising of the dues. 

Nothing was said about last year's change in the sched- 
ule from five to six per cent for professional services, and 
it may be assumed that this most desirable reform has been 
adopted without difficulty and is now in a fair way to ob- 
tain full public recognition as the law of the profession. 

Amongst the committee reports that on "Allied Arts " 
was by far themost sensational and provocative of thought. 
There seemed to be three categories of listeners: Those 
who denied Mr. Pond's premises, but accepted his conclu- 
sions; those who admitted his premises, but refused his 
conclusions; and those who were so appalled at the ruth- 
less destruction of the obvious, the merciless annihilation 
of platitudes, that they lost all sense of the difference 
between conclusions and premises. Everyone admitted, 
however, that as criticism this notable paper was both 
brilliantly destructive and as brilliantly constructive, and 
it would be unfortunate were it to be buried in proceed- 
ings with no opportunity given for wider publicity. 

The Report of the Committee on Education was as well 
thought out and stimulating as usual, this time the sub- 
ject being the education of those who can afford neither 
the time nor the money for full courses in regular schools 
and are driven back on the more than doubtful offer- 
ings of the Y.M.C.A. classes and the correspondence 
schools. The committee urged that the Institute should 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



15 



offer its services in an advisory capacity to these educa- 
tional free-lances ; that it should urge the colleges to 
take up "University Extension" amongst draftsmen 
and poor students; and that in some way the Architec- 
tural League of America should be brought into line, 
assimilated, and made the educational agency of the In- 
stitute. The action of the League convention, which was 
held at the same time as that of the Institute, seemed to 
play up to this last suggestion, as its attitude was friendly 
and approximating to a degree, but it is difficult to see 
how so important a matter as education could safely be 
handled by the League, or any subordinate, semi-inde- 
pendent body, unless it were wholly interpenetrated by 
the Institute itself and directly controlled thereby. 

The ever-present question — the method of nominating 
officers — was well to the front as usual, and also, as 
usual, a new experiment is to be made. In spite of the 
fact that the successive systems of the past have, with 
but few exceptions, resulted in the nomination and elec- 
tion of absolutely satisfactory men, and, so far as the 
presidency at least is concerned, those who were desired 
by the majority of members, there has been much dis- 
satisfaction, chiefly because one ticket only was named 
and the ordinary citizen feels aggrieved if he is offered no 
choice. Supplementary nominations from the floor are 
ungracious things at best, but it has usually been that or 
a merely formal ratification of the action of a nominating 
committee. At the convention of 1908 the matter was 
threshed out in detail ; by an unanimous vote the sense of 
the convention was registered as in favor of a ticket with 
three names for each vacant office, and the nominating 
committee was told it should have at least one meeting 
instead of carrying on its work by correspondence. Both 
these wishes, formally registered by the delegates, were 
disregarded by the committee and once more a single 
ticket was presented. Its manifest excellence in every 
way prevented supplementary nominations, and it was 
overwhelmingly endorsed, but the general dissatisfaction 
was as evident as ever, and the Board was instructed to in- 
vent some new scheme (following more or less the lines of 
that recently put in force by the Boston Chapter), whereby 
Institute members may form groups of a given number 
and nominate directly for any office, a certain number of 
votes automatically placing a name in nomination without 
the intervention of a nominating committee. 

Apart from the legitimate work of a convention there 
was something less of interest than in recent years. The 
McKim Memorial Exhibition was all it should be, but the 
topic chosen for special consideration — architecture in 
its relation to railroad interests — was not very inspir- 
ing, in spite of some excellent papers and one or two 
good speeches at the banquet. The presentation of the 
medal awarded to Mr. McKim by the Institute, before 
his death, was simple to a degree — and adequately im- 
pressive, Mr. Mead's words in acceptance wholly rising 
to the level of grave dignity the occasion demanded. 

So far as the actual work of the convention was con- 
cerned it was, as we have said above, statesmanlike and 
constructive, and full of a fine sense of responsibility 
and community of interest. How far, however, is this 
going to have issue in practical form ; how much of it is 
to be buried in proceedings; how much further ahead as 
a powerful and practical agency, as an organization that 



compels the respect of its members and of the public, is the 
convention of 1909 going to force the American Institute of 
Architects? The work of a convention is not done when it 
performs its legislative routine, the function of the Insti- 
tute itself is not discharged when it has looked after the 
current interests of its members. It has sometimes seemed 
to us — and we speak in all deference — that the Institute 
fails in a measure to realize what a constant power in pub- 
lic affairs it should be, and may be; that it depends too 
much on accomplishing something during the three days 
of a convention and not enough on accomplishing still 
more during the three hundred and sixty-two remaining 
days in a given year. This is not to say that the Board 
of Directors is inefficient, for it is exactly the reverse ; it 
is rather that the mechanism is somehow defective, that 
something is needed to keep the dynamic force of a 
great organization constantly pulsating, not only through 
its own veins, but as well out into the arteries of the 
great social entity of which it is a part. 

It may seem ungracious to suggest this view of the 
case in the face of the remarkable developments in this 
line that have taken place during the last generation. 
Of late years, under one able president after another, and 
with the aid of singularly well chosen Boards of Direc- 
tors, the Institute has been coming into its own with 
giant strides. Its work for the conservation of the 
L'Enfant plan of Washington and its constant and al- 
ways successful fights against legislative ignorance; the 
influence it has exerted throughout America in the line 
of good city planning and improvements; its encourage- 
ment of education and the beneficent influence it has had 
on the schools; the dignified and even august appearance 
it has made at its Washington conventions through its 
exhibitions, memorial meetings, and its really stately 
banquets, where the most distinguished men in America 
have been its guests — all these things have proved a 
growing self-consciousness, and have resulted in a vastly 
increased respect and consideration throughout the 
country. There is no reason why another ten years 
should not see a doubled prestige, and this can easily be 
achieved if the conviction as to the manifest destiny of 
the Institute becomes implanted in its members, and if 
the mechanism is adapted to new necessities. 

There is something about the architectural profession, 
or attaching to the particular quality of man that enters 
it, that makes the architect one of the most public-spir- 
ited, far-seeing, and vital of citizens. It is not too much 
to say that he is less selfish, less individually covetous, 
less materialistic than almost any other citizen of the 
Repiiblic. The " man-in-the-street " grasps this idea 
with some lethargy and retains it with a relaxing hold. 
To him the Institute is a kind of trades union, its mem- 
bers either as shrewd as himself or as impractical and 
"no account " as the other fellow. This sentiment is 
reflected in Congress, in the governing boards of corpo- 
rations, and in the niiive assumptions of would-be clients 
in certain parts of the country. For some of this the In- 
stitute is indirectly responsible, in so far as it contents 
itself with its own internal affairs and fails to place itself 
constantly before the public, asserting its prerogatives 
and demanding that the rights of its members shall be 
respected. The Institute as representing the architec- 
tural profession is no longer in the position of a suppliant 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



at the gates of Cesar or of Midas; in its personnel and 
its procedure it has no rival but the Royal Institute of 
British Architects, and in dignity and efficiency it is on 
a level with any professional organization in America. 
How far are these facts recognized in Congress, in state 
and municipal governments, or amongst private citizens 
fifty miles from the site of a Chapter ? Any architect 
who has had work to do outside the large cities where 
there are Institute Chapters, or with the several civil 
governments and with many corporations as well, will 
give the answer, and this answer makes the question we 
are asking pertinent and vital. 

What can the Institute do, now that it has so nearly 
perfected its internal affairs, to make itself known, re- 
spected, and yes, feared, if need be, throughout the 
length and breadth of the nation? Two suggestions 
offer themselves, and we present them for what they are 
worth. First, it might hold its regular legislative con- 
vention annually in Washington, on the lines of the best 
precedents of the last few years, with all that means of 
exhibitions, official banquets, distinguished guests, medal 
presentations, etc , and in addition it might have an in- 
termediate convention in the spring or early autumn, 
chiefly cultural in its nature, and held in rotation in each 
of the great cities throughout the whole country, from 
.St. Paul to New Orleans, Richmond to Seattle. Second, 
while preserving intact its present secretarial system as 
an administrative arm, it might have a general secre- 
tary, well paid, giving all his time, and bound to travel 
widely throughout the country, bringing local Chapters 
and isolated practitioners more closely in touch with the 
national organization and representing it on every possi- 
ble occasion, speaking whenever opportunity offered and 
acting as the general mouthpiece and representative of 
the whole profession — amongst "them that sit in dark- 
ness " as well as in the inner circles of the enlightened. 

As for the first suggestion it may be said that the more 
distant Chapters deserve everything the Institute can do 
for them, by reason of the admirable devotion they have 
shown for years, at great expense of time and money. 
No action of the late convention will receive more gen- 
eral approval than the vote that it was the sense of the 
meeting that the convention of 1910 should be held on 
the Pacific Coast. This is not enough, however. A con- 
vention in a generation is scant fare, yet how, as things 
now stand, can it be more ? Public policy demands that 
most of the conventions should be held in Washington, 
and if one in three were excepted, and each Chapter were 
treated on an equal basis, it would be half a century be- 
fore the turn of a given Chapter came around again. 
Suppose, however, that every year a second convention, 
without legislative powers, but free to frame legislation 
to be presented at the next general convention, devoted 
largely to exhibitions of contemporary work, papers on 
cultural and practical subjects, and to social intercourse, 
were held in the different Chapter cities, the Institute 
officers being present, with one or two delegates from 
the more distant Chapters. Would not such an event do 
much towards keeping these local organizations in touch 
with the national body, preserving their interest in its 
affairs, and rendering each, and the profession itself, 
far more powerful, since far better known, in the 
many cities where now the honor of the profession is 



discounted, the name of the Institute an impotent shib- 
boleth at the hands of a saving remnant ? Such conven- 
tions would be valuable, not only in that they would do 
a scant measure of justice to the Chapters that lie far 
afield, while serving to keep alive from year to year the 
impulse of general conventions, but because they would 
offer an opportunity for just the sort of thing that is 
little by little being crowded out by the increasing busi- 
ness of a growing organization — essays, papers, and dis- 
cussions devoted to the esthetic, historical, and practical 
sides of architecture. Convention is now chiefly a parlia- 
ment and a dinner, and under the circumstances it 
cannot possibly be more; but important as are these ele- 
ments they are not alone, there are others of equal value 
that now we are tending to forget. 

Our second suggestion — that of a general secretary — 
is less easily put into words, and admittedly less sus- 
ceptible of immediate accomplishment. Nevertheless 
such an official would do more, in our opinion, than any 
other agency towards making the Institute constantly 
and potently operative. The president generally is, and 
always should be, one of the most eminent in the pro- 
fession, and such an one cannot give either the time or 
the thought to the constant activities of such an office. 
The secretary has all he can do to handle the clerical 
work of the Institute; moreover, different types of men 
are a prerequisite for the different positions. If the work 
is to be done it must be at the hands of a new official — an 
architect of high reputation, a diplomat, a good and con- 
vincing speaker — above all enthusiastic, and constructive 
in his type of mind. To command the services of such 
a man a large salary would be imperative, for he would 
have to give practically all his time, and this fact alone 
may put the proposition out of the category of practical 
politics. We are concerned, however, only with the prin- 
ciple. If it were adopted the question of ways and means 
would be a subject for a totally different inquiry. 

Such a general secretary as we propose would be in 
a way the viceroy of the sovereign Institute; he would 
keep in touch with all the Chapters, visiting each every 
year, conveying to them the impulse of the president 
and Board, taking back to the latter what he had gathered 
in his wide visitations. He would follow up the reports 
of the committees to see that they did not find their 
fruition only in judicious and eloquent words. He 
would have immediate charge of the publication of the 
proceedings and other Institute matter; he would watch 
legislation so far as possible and bring any dangerous 
action that might be threatened to the immediate atten- 
tion of the Board ; he would accept every opportunity 
offered for representing the Institute at conventions, 
meetings, and dinners of other creative bodies; he would 
cultivate the best relations with those who may help to 
make or mar the fortunes of the profession — in fact, he 
would be the Institute in action between convention and 
convention and between one Board meeting and another. 

The right man, loyally and enthusiastically directed 
and supported by the president and Board, would in two 
years double the membership of the Institute and place 
it in the position of dignity and respect it is now slowly 
acquiring, and which belongs to it by every possible 
right, but that, under present conditions, it can hardly 
achieve in its completeness within a generation. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



17 



Plate Illustrations — Description. 

State Normal College, Albany, N. Y. Plates 1, 
2, and 3. The college consists of four buildings, viz: 
College, Science, Auditorium, and a Power House. 
The three main buildings are connected by peristyles. 
The boiler house is located at the rear and is connected 
to the Science Building by an underground conduit. 
Upon the exterior of all the buildings are used the me- 
dium shades of red " Tapestry " brick, while the columns 
and steps are of limestone and the window sills and 
cornices of white terra cotta. All brickwork was laid 
with stretchers tied to backing with metal ties. Rough 
sawed flush joints were used, about five-eighths of an 
inch thick and of pearl gray color. The staircases are 
constructed with steel strings and risers and slate treads. 
The interior finish throughout is of white oak with 
stained and waxed finish ; the floors are of oak, except in 
basements where granolithic finish, and in toilet and bath- 
rooms where white vitreous tile floors were laid; and the 
walls and ceilings are plastered. 

The heating system consists of steam forced through a 
conduit line to the basement subways, in which are placed 
stacks for indirect heating. Direct radiation is installed 
to supplement the indirect system. High pressure steam 
is supplied to the various points where needed for testing 
purposes, etc. Returns are all brought back under at- 
mospheric pressure. The indirect heating system is 
proportioned to heat sufficient air for ventilation pur- 
poses from zero to 70°. A system of air circulation by 
natural draft is depended on, with flues made propor- 
tionately large to accomplish this result. The direct 
service takes care of the heat loss through the walls and 
windows of the buildings when the outside air is at zero. 

The buildings are arranged for 800 pupils and are two 
stories high, except the central portion of the College 
Building, which is three stories high. The auditorium 
seats 800 people and is provided with a stage and neces- 
sary dressing rooms and toilet facilities. The gymna- 
sium is located under the auditorium. The basement of 
the College Building contains lockers, toilet and bath- 
rooms for each sex. The first story provides for admin- 
istrative offices and class rooms; the central portion of 
second story contains the library, which is equipped with 
steel stacks and tables; while the remainder of the second 
story and the entire third story of College Building are 
given over to class rooms. The first and second stories 
of the Science Building contain laboratories for physics, 
physiography, chemistry, and biology, with lecture 
rooms, private laboratories, and apparatus rooms in con- 
nection with each laboratory. In the basement of the 
Science Building are located manual training shops and 
quarters for domestic science work, also locker and toilet 
rooms. The cubical contents of the four buildings is 
1,924,000 cubic feet. The method for figuring the cubical 
contents is by taking the entire area of the group within 
the outside face of walls and multiplying by the height 
from the top of the basement floor level to a point half 
way up the slope of the roof, then adding the cubical 
contents of the pipe conduits under the basement floor. 
The entire cost of the building, exclusive of furnishings 
and equipment, was about $360,000, which is approxi- 
mately 18>^ cents per cubic foot. The cost of equip- 



ment was $35,000, in addition to which about $10,000 
was expended for grading, sidewalks, and driveways. 

House at Brooklyn, N. Y. Plates 5 and 6. This 
house is an adaptation of the Georgian architecture of the 
time of Sir Christopher Wren to the requirements of 
modern city life, i. e., the style is that in vogue in Eng- 
land at the same period which produced the Colonial 
architecture in America. 

The material of the exterior is a purple brick set in a 
bond of two stretchers to one header, which gives a 
suggestion of a diaper pattern to the general texture of 
the brickwork. This texture is most clearly seen in the 
illustration of the entrance door. The trimmings of 
white glazed sand blasted terra cotta take the place of the 
wooden trimmings customarily seen in the Colonial 
work. 

The interior is designed with extreme simplicity, the 
greater portion of the trim being painted wood of light 
cream color or delicate grays and greens. 

This residence possesses two features of special in- 
terest. The first of these is a large children's play room, 
40 feet long, extending through the entire depth of the 
house. This play room is provided with large closets and 
also with special overhead beams from which gymnastic 
apparatus can be suspended. The room is placed on the 
top story of the house with windows on three sides, so 
that it receives the sunlight during the entire day, and 
owing to its location the children can make as much 
noise as they please without disturbing the remainder of 
the household. The other feature is a special fireproof 
staircase running through the entire house and provided 
on the level of the first floor with an exterior door con- 
necting directly with the outside porch. This staircase, 
which is separated by fireproof doors from the remainder 
of the house, furnishes a convenient means of exit in 
case of trouble and at the same time obviates the un- 
sightly feature of an exterior fire escape. 

There is a cement walk extending around the outside 
of the garden specially adapted to roller skating and 
sufficiently large to permit of the use of bicycles. Out- 
side of this path are the flower beds. A small fountain 
and pool at the further end of the garden forms an 
attractive point of view as seen from the garden front of 
the house. 

House at Riverside, III. Plate 10. This house is 
designed cornerwise on the lot, to permit of a sunken 
garden directly in front, with an approach on either side. 
The color scheme of the garden is planned to harmonize 
with the warm brown of the brick and the buff of the 
stone. The frieze on the exterior is of plaster finished 
in a very light shade of brown. Upon the interior the 
entire woodwork in the main hall and dining room is 
treated with a silver gray tone on quarter-sawed oak, 
which was obtained by using a light bluish gray stain 
and a flake-like filler, finished with shellac, and waxed. 
The panels of silk tapestry and white border are framed 
with a wide dark mahogany strip. The dining room and 
den are in weathered oak, with walls of cream colored 
burlap and beamed ceilings having the panels of rough 
plaster and stained. The basement contains laundry, 
boiler rooms, and billiard room, while the third floor 
provides for the servants' quarters. The house cost 
$20,000, making the cost per cubic foot 28 cents. 



i8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



William R. Plunkett School, Pittsfield, Mass. 
Plate 4. The exterior is of water struck brick and In- 
diana limestone. The cornice, pattern work, and project- 
ing courses are of common brick. The main walls upon 
the interior are built of brick, while the closets and other 
minor partitions are of terra cotta. The plaster is applied 
directly to the masonry. Iron staircases are used through- 
out, while the floors in the corridors and class rooms are of 
maple. The roofing consists of asphalt and gravel. The 
gravity system of ventilating has been employed in con- 
nection with steam heat. The entire cost of the building 
was $81,147, and the cost per cubic foot 14.3 cents. 

House Near Leicester. Plates 12 and 13. This 
house is an example of modern domestic architecture in 
England. The general grouping follows strictly the 
lines of the plan, and the use of bricks, variegated in 
tone, relieves the exterior treatment of any appearance 
of monotony; while the sturdy treatment of the chim- 
neys gives added character to the house. 

Tap Room, Hotel Belvedere, Baltimore, Md. Plate 11. 
This room, which is about 50 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 
18 feet high, is lined from floor to ceiling on all four 
sides with " Tapestry " brickwork and tile. The dado 
consists of plain brick laid up in Dutch cross-bond to a 
height of 8 feet 6 inches, finishing with a narrow belt 
course, which consists of two lines of blue brick sepa- 
rated by a pony brick 1 inch in thickness, and little spots 
of stucco. Above the belt course are panels of mosaic 
brickwork executed in deep rich red, golden brown, and 
blue. The openings are outlined with bands of brown- 



ish gray with spots of blue, and over the openings are a 
number of panels worked out in varied designs, the pre- 
vailing colors of which are brownish red with outlines in 
gray dotted with blue. The frieze consists essentially of 
two members, the lower of which is formed by two lines 
of clear red headers with brown, red, purple, olive, and 
blue bricks laid at an angle of 45°, while the upper mem- 
ber is outlined with a gray border and embraces an in- 
teresting band of herringbone construction, the members 
of which are separated by pony brick 1 inch in thickness. 
The mortar joint, Yi inch in width, is rough cut flush 
throughout, thereby giving it a texture to correspond to 
the surface of the brick, and is of a gray color with a 
slight yellowish tinge. 

Two Houses in Scheni.ev Park, Pittsburg, Pa. Plates 
7 and 8. The exterior brickwork, which is laid up in Eng- 
lish cross-bond, presents a surface with considerable tex- 
ture throughout. The plaster work is cream-white and the 
half timber work is stained a rich nut-brown. The porch 
ceilings and eaves are also plastered. The roofs are cov- 
ered with a dark red tile with broken joints. The interiors 
of these houses are practically finished throughout in hard 
wood with the walls on the first floor paneled. The third 
floors are fitted up for servants' quarters. 

House at Staten Island, N. Y. Plate 9. This 
house is built with a rich red brick for the stretchers 
and a very dark brick for the headers, laid up in Flemish 
bond, with white mortar jointing. The exterior wood- 
work is of white pine. The entire cost of the house was 
$10,000, and approximately 22 cents per cubic foot. 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany. 



contestant received a prize of $500 and, in further com- 
petition, additional prizes will be awarded to the first four 
among the ten already announced, bringing the total in 
prizes to $3,000 for first place, $2,000 for second, $1,500 
for third, and $1,000 for fourth place. These selections 
will be announced on March 15th, and the name of the 
winner will be given out on April 1st. 

The successful con- 



FROM the sixty-two designs submitted for the great 
water gate and Fulton memorial which is to be 
erected on Riverside 
Drive between 114th 
and 116th streets, 
New York City, at an 
approximate cost of 
$2,500,000, the jury 
of award of the 
Robert Fulton Monu- 
ment Association 
have announced the 
names of the ten suc- 
cessful competitors 
in the preliminary 
competition. 

The jury of award 
consisted of two arch- 
itects, Thomas Hast- 
ings and George B. 
Post; two laymen, 
Robert Fulton Cut- 
ting and Isaac Gug- 
genheim, and Lans- 
ing: C. Holden as 

FOUNTAIN IN HARDEN OF HOUSE AT SEATTLE, WASHINGTON. 

" ' Executed in " Verde Antique " matt glazed faience, by the Hartford Faience Company. 

Each successful Graham & Myere, Architects. 




testants were Charles 
P. Huntington, Mills 
& Greenleaf, Law- 
rence F. Peck, J. H. 
Freedlander, Bos- 
worth & Holden, and 
Harold Van Buren 
Magonigle of New 
York City; Robert P. 
Bellows of Boston, 
Albert Kelsey and 
Paul C. Cret, and 
Heacock & Hokanson 
of Philadelphia, and 
Herbert Scott Olin 
of Watertown, N. Y. 
The water gate is 
not only to be a me- 
morial, but is to pro- 
vide the city a dig- 
nified landing place 
where, on spectacular 
occasions, officers of 
the United States or 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



of foreign navies 
may be received. 



E 




ARLY in the 
year another 
section of the dorm- 
itory group at 
Princeton will be 
started. With 
funds raised by the 
alumni, three new 
" entries," with ac- 
commodations for 
forty-five students, 
will be provided and 
an extension thus 
obtained of thelarge 
group donated by 
Mrs. Russell Sage. 
Frank Miles Day & 
Brother, it will be 
remembered, are 
the architects of the 
entire group. . . . 
Haverford College 
is to have a new 
science hall, consist- 
ing of three depart- 
ments devoted to 
chemistry, physics, 
and engineering. 
Work will probably 
be started next 
spring. . . . What 
is promised to be 
the most impress- 
ive building on the 
campus of the Col- 
lege for Women at 

Western Reserve University will be the gift of Samuel 
Mather, of Cleveland, and his children. The building 
will be used for recitations and class lectures. ... A 
new building is likely to be added to the Columbia College 
Group in consequence of the George Crocker bequest of 
$1,500,000 for cancer research. 



19 

tion of officers as 
follows: President, 
Arthur Bohn ; vice- 
president, Oscar D. 
Bohlen; secretary 
and treasurer, 
Henry H. Dupont. 

At the annual 
meeting of the 
Washington Chap- 
ter A. I. A. the fol- 
lowing officers were 
elected to serve for 
the year 1910: 
President, J. Rush 
Marshall; vice- 
president, Leon E. 
Dessez ; secretary, 
Louis A. Simon; 
treasurer, Clarence 
L. Harding. 

Joseph S. Cote, 
formerly of Somer- 
vell & Cote, archi- 
tects, Seattle, Wash- 
ington, has opened 
offices in the Henry 
Building. Manufac- 
turers' samples 
and catalogues de- 
sired. 



INTERIOR OF CHAPEL OF THE REDEMPTIONEST FATHERS, ESOPUS, N. V 
Tlie interior walls are faced with buff glazed terra cotta richly ornamented with Gothic 



tracery ; the design of the tracery and other ornaments being accentuated in 

many places by the judicious use of color. The work was executed by 

tlie Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

F. J. Untersee, Architect. 



IN GENERAL. 
At a recent meeting of the Architects' Association of 
Indianapolis, the committee having in charge the pre- 
liminary work of organizing a 
State Chapter of the American 
Institute of Architects made a 
favorable report on the progress 
of the work. A large number 
of members of the profession 
from all parts of the state have 
signified their intention of join- 
ing the larger body and there 
will be within a short time a 
meeting in Indianapolis for a 
final and permanent organiza- 
tion. The meeting of the local 
chapter closed with the elec- 




C. Grant LaFarge, 
surviving partner 
of the firm of Heins 
& La Farge, has 
formed a new co- 
partnership with Benjamin Wistar Morris, under the firm 
name of La Farge & Morris. Associated with the firm 
will be Arthur C. Jackson and Duncan Candler. Offices, 
25 Madison Square, North, New York City. 

Ernest M. Hartford and Silas Jacobson, formerly con- 
nected with the office of Clarence H. Johnston, have 
formed a copartnership for the practice of architecture 
under the firm name of Hartford & Jacobson. Offices, 
520 Manhattan Building, St. Paul. Manufacturers' cata- 
logues desired. 



A. Warren Gould, architect, 
has entered into a copartner- 
ship with E. Frere Champney, 
under the firm name of Gould 
& Champney. Offices, Ameri- 
can Bank Building, Seattle, 
Washington. 



DETAIL BY J. WALTER STEVENS, ARCHITECT. 



The Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



William R. .Smith, architect, 
has opened an office at San Saba, 
Texas. Manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples desired. 



20 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 




DETAIL HY TOLEDANO & WOUAN, 
ARCHITECTS. 

Executed by the Northwestern Terra Cotta 
Company. 



Frederick G. 
Mueller, archi- 
tect, of Hamil- 
ton, Ohio, has 
opened a branch 
office in Middle- 
to vv n , Ohio. 
Manufacturers' 
catalogues de- 
sired. 

Frederick C. 
Browne and 
Randolph H. 
Almiroty, arch- 
itects, have 
formed a co- 
partnership 
with offices at 
3 West 29th 
street, New 
York City. 

Those who 
are interested in 
waterproof 
brick stains 
would do well to 



send for a copy of a little booklet which has just been 
issued by Samuel Cabot, Boston. The cover design is 
particularly unique and attractive, and the story of 
waterproof stains is briefly but well told. Questions 
which have repeatedly been asked us are clearly answered 
in this little booklet. 

"Tapestry" brick manufactured by Fiske & Co. were 
used in the Normal School Group at Albany, illustrated 
in the Plate Forms of this issue. 

The architectural terracotta for the residence of Julius 

Liebmann, 
Esq., Herts 
& Tallant, 
architects, 
illustrated in 
the Plate 
Forms of 
this issue, 
was e x e- 
cuted by the 
Atlantic 
Terra Cotta 
Company. 



' ' Tapes- 
try" brick 
manufac- 
tured by 
Fiske & Co. 
were used in 
the exterior 
walls of the 
house for 
Julius Lieb- 





DETAIL BY SCHWARTZ \ GROSS, 

ARCHITECTS. 

The New York Architectural Terra Cotta 

Company, Makers. 



m a n n , 
Esq., 
Brooklyn, 
Herts & 
Tallant, 
architects, 
illustrated 
inthe Plate 
Forms of 
this issue. 

The 
brick used 
for the 
house at 
St. George, 

5 t a t e n 
I s 1 a n d , 
N. Y., by 
Harry S. 
Water- 
bury, arch- 
itect, illus- 
trated in 
this issue, 
was fur- 
nished by 
the Sayre 

6 Fisher stork bi ilding, indianapolis. 

q All terra cotta front executed by Indianapolis Terra Cotta 

Company. 
D. A. Bohlen & Son. Architects. 
The 
bricks that were used in the Tap Room of the Hotel 
Belvedere, Baltimore, illustrated in the Plate Forms of 
this issue, were Fiske "Tapestries." 

The architectural terra cotta used in the Ford Building 
at Detroit, illustrated on page 13 of this number, was 
executed by the Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. 

Stebbins & Watkins, architects, formerly at No. 42 
Chauncy street, 
Boston, Mass., 
are now located 
in their new 
offices at No. 
164 Federal 
street. 



Theodore C. 
Link, architect, 
announces a co- 
p ar tnersh ip 
with his son 
Karl E. Link 
under the firm 
name of Theo. 
C. Link & Son. 
Their address 
is Suite 1000- 
1001 Carleton 
Building, St. 
Louis. 




DETAIL BY SOMMKRFE1.D & STECKLER, 
ARCHITECTS. 

The New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



21 




SCHOOLHOUSE AT NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Built of buff brick manufactured by the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company, of St. Louis. 

E. A. Christie, Architect. 



The Five Points House of 
years cared for 
children of the 
poor in its 
buildings on 
Worth street, 
New York 
City, has pur- 
chased a large 
tract of land 
on the White 
Plains Road, 
adjoining the 
grounds of the 
Knollwood 



Industry, which for sixty over by the Children's Aid Society for public school 

purposes. 



Plans have been filed 
for a twenty-story com- 
mercial building, to be 
erected on the site of the 
old Ashland House at 
Fourth avenue and 24th 
street, New York City. 




CITY STABLES, BELLE ISLE, DETROIT, MICH. 

Roofed with German fire-flashed tile, made by Ludowici-Celadon Company. 

Mason & Rice, Architects. 




Country Club in West- 
chester County. Here 
it will build a new 
home in which to con- 
tinue the work aban- 
doned last summer 
when the Worth street 
buildings were taken 



It will front 98.9 feet on the 
avenue and 150 on the street, 
and will cost $960,000. 

Construction of anew "Castle 
Gould" at Port Washington, L.I., 
is soon to be started, under Hunt 
& Hunt, architects. It will be 



DETAIL BY CROW, LEWIS & 

WICKENHOEFER, ARCHITECTS. 

Executed by the Conkling-Arm- 

strong Terra Cotta Company. 





DETAIL I'OR A CHURCH BY K. A. DEMKURON, ARCHITEI I 

The South Amboy Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



DETA1 l i:\ LONG, LAM- 
ORE \ i \ .\ LONG, 

hi i ii rs. 
American Terra Cotta 

ramie Company, Makers. 



22 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




TELEPHONE BUILDING, MILWAUKEE. 
ced with wire cut (lark red brick, made by Western 
Brick Company. 
A. C. Eschweiler, Architect. 



228 feet by 
110 feet, and 
when com- 
pleted, with 
garage, sta- 
bles, etc., will 
cost nearly 
$1,000,000. 

Plans have 
been filed for 
a new twelve- 
story office 
building, 
with a three- 
story theater 
annex, to be 
built on the 
Fitzgerald 
plot, south- 
east corner 
Broadway 
and 43d 
street, New 
York City. 
The struc- 
ture will 
cost about 
$900,000. 



WANTED — Three architectural draftsmen of experience; 
those of academic training preferred. Address Rubush CSi, 
Hunter, architects, Indianapolis, Ind., stating age, experience, 
and salary desired. 

WANTED -Architectural draftsman — immediate engage- 
ment. Send samples of work and state salary desired per 
month. Must be competent to prepare sketches and make full 
working drawings for moderate cost buildings. Permanent 
position to a good worker. H. E. Bonitz, architect, Wilming- 
ton, N. C. 

WANTED — Competition draftsman — steady employment if 
services prove satisfactory. Send references, state experience 
and salary wanted. Foeller CSb Schober, architects, Green 
Bay, Wisconsin. 

WANTED— Good all around architectural draftsman. One 
with knowledge of water colors preferred. State salary wanted . 
Address Box 271, Salem, Va. 



SPECIAL 



COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE 

IN 

SOUTH CAROLINA and GEORGIA 

By E. A. CRANE and E. E. SODERHOLTZ 
52 plates, very finely reproduced in heliotypes, folio size (12$ x 16"), in portfolio 

Exteriors, interiors, halls, mantels, doorways, staircases, 
furniture, details of decoration, etc. Illustrating some of 
the best and most interesting examples of American 
Colonial Work, many of which have now disappeared. 

New edition, identical in size and make-up with the previous issues 
$10.00 net 

THE BRUNO HESSLING COMPANY 
64 EAST 12TH STREET NEW YORK. N. Y. 



A CORRECTION. 

On page 256 of The Brickbuilder for December, in 
connection with the article treating of " Composite 
Hollow Tile," in the table giving weights and costs, the 
weights column is footed wrong. It should be one hun- 
dred pounds instead of ninety, and the paragraph which 
follows should read: 

It will be seen that the depth required in both cases 
was the same, viz.: 15 inches; that the dead weight 
was in both cases identical, thereby making it possible 
to use the same amount of steel in girders and columns 
for either construction, etc. 

McKIM NUMBER— THE REGULAR EDITION 
OF "THE BRICKBUILDER' - FOR FEBRUARY WILL 
BE ENLARGED AND DEVOTED ENTIRELY TO 
THE PRESENTATION OF THE MORE IMPOR- 
TANT WORK OF CHARLES F. McKIM. THE 
PRICE OF THIS NUMBER — TO THOSE WHO 
ARE NOT SUBSCRIBERS OF "THE BRICK- 
BUILDER "— WILL BE ONE DOLLAR. AS THE 
EDITION WILL BE LIMITED THOSE WISHING 
THIS NUMBER SHOULD PLACE THEIR ORDERS 
AT ONCE. 

A HOUSE OF BRICK— THE TITLE OF A 72 
PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS 40 DESIGNS 
FOR A BRICK HOUSE TO COST ABOUT $10,000. 
THESE DESIGNS WERE SUBMITTED IN COM- 
PETITION. THREE INTERESTING ARTICLES 
ON BRICKWORK, COMPARATIVE COSTS, ETC. 
PRICE, FIFTY CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, 
BOSTON. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— i register as- 
sistants FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAYE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AM) 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK- 
ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEREIRA, 
218 La SALLE St., CHICAGO. Long Distance Tel., Franklin 1328. 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITHER WOODEN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Public Buildings. Elastic, Noiseless, 
and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
German Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The Franklin Union Building in Boston, R. Clipston Sturgis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
the North Dakota, the largest Battleship in the United States 
Navy ; the extensions of the Suffolk County Court House in 
Boston, George A. Clough, Architect; and the Registry of 
Deeds, Salem, Mass., C. H. Blackall, Architect. 

We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET. Opp. Boylston Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



i 



Indianapolis 
Terra Cotta Co 

MHUfACTURIRl Of 

Architectural 
Terra Cotta 

IM ALL COLORE 



ST. LOUIS 
TERRA COTTA CO. 

Manufacturer* of 

ARCHITECTURAL 
•nd ORNAMENTAL 
TERRA COTTA 

Main Office and Work* 

3S0I to S8IS MANCHESTER A VENUS 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 



JEWETTVILLE PRESSED 

AND 

PAVING BRICK CO. 

(incorporated) 
BUFFALO. N. Y. 

MAKERS OF 

IMPERVIOUS 
RED FRONT BRICK. 

Moilwa Plant- Unequalled Shipping FadUnei. 



THE NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA CO. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Architectural terra Cotta 

In all colors, enameled, glazed, and semi-glazed 

non-absorbent limestone. 

Office, 108 Fulton St., New York City. 

Phone, 4396 John. 

Boston Agent, TISKE & CO. 

Pittsburgh Agent, McKALLIP & CO. 

Some building, for which we hare recently I urniibed terra cotta : 

CITY HALL ...... YONKERS, N. Y. 

SEATTLE. WASH. 

CHELSEA, MASS. 

NEW YORK 

LONd BEACH, L. I. 

NEW YORK 

YONKERS, N. Y. 

NEW YORK 



KINNEAR APARTMENTS . 
WILLIAMS SCHOOL . 
SINCLAIR BUILOINO . 
NASSAU HOTEL .... 
ADDITION HOTEL MARTINIQUE 
CENTRAL M. E. CHURCH 
COLUMBIA THEATRE 
31ft ST. & FIFTH AYENUE BUILDING 



NEW YORK 



WINKLE TERRA Com CO. 

MANurACTumaa or 

Architectural 
Terra Cotta 

IN ALL COLORS. 

Office, Rooms 502, 503, Century Building 
Wo ?St.Lo-ia. ST. LOWS. MO. 



ESTABLISHED 1845. 

THE 

Kreischer Brick Mfg. Co. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 
THE VERY FINEST QUALITY OF 

Front Brick 

VARIOUS COLORS 

Fire Brick and Clay Retorts 

1 19 East 23d Street, New York 

•arks: KREI8CHERVILLE, $. I. Til., 6360.6861 Gr.m.roy 



OFFICE: 

225 FIFTH AVENUE 

BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN 



WORKS: 
401 VERNON AVENUE 
BOROUGH OF QUEENS 



COLUMBUS BRICK & col o u h?o bus - 



TERRA COTTA CO. 



Manufacturers of 



New York 

Architectural Terra Gotta 

Company 

PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: 
REAL ESTATE TRUST BLDG., BROAD and CHESTNUT STS. 



PLAIN AND ORNAMENTAL BHICK 



Agtntm Cray, Buff 

Person ft Co. 
Flake & Co., Inc. 
O. W. Ketcham 
J. R. Pltcalm & Co. 
S. S. Klmbell Brick Co. . 
Johnson & Jackson . . . 

F. B. Holmes & Co. . 
B. Mifflin Hood 
Hunt, Quelsser, Bibs Co. . 
The Moore &. Handle? Hardware Co. 
John H. Black . . . 

A. B. Meyer & Co. . 
L. H. McCammon Bros. . 
Frederick H. McDonald . 
The National Pressed Brick Co. . 
Sunderland Bros. Co. . . 



and Speckled 

New York City 

Boston 

Philadelphia 

Pittsburg 

Chicago 

Minneapolis 

Detroit 

Atlanta 

Cleveland 

Birmingham 

Buffalo 

Indianapolis 

Cincinnati 

drand Rapids 

St. Louis 

Omaha 



K1TTANNING BRICK 

and FIRE CLAY CO. 

PITTSBURG, PA. 
ataasractaran of HIGH GRADE 

FACE BRICK 



New York, 

Boston, 

Philadelphia I 

Buffalo. 

Chicago, 

St. Loou, 

Cincinaafi, 

Detroit, 

AdaaKCa, 



AGENCIES: 

Pfotmhaoer-NMhit Co., St. Jamet Bnildini 

. „ , . _ _ Waldo Bra... 102 Milk Street 

nd Baltimore, O. W. Ketcham, Bnildera' Excbanie 

John H. Black, Bnildera' Eichante 

Thamu Moaldins Co., Chamber of Commerce Bnildim 

IlliaoU Supply and Coutrnction Co. 

- - .. . A - R - R»H 

F. B. Holme. * Co., 307 Hammond Buildinr 
Scinlt* Sou, Empire Building 



THE NORTHWESTERN 

TERRA COTTA CO. 

CHICAGO 



HYDR AUUG-PRESS BRICK GO. 

MAIN OFFICE, ST. LOUIS, MO. 



SHAWNEE FACE BRICK 

IXacI3F» JE33E*.-\7" IOTJS 
VARIOUS COLORS AND SHAPES 



Manufacturers of High-Grade 

Architectural Terra Cotta 



BHANOM PAOTORIEO 

Washington, D. C. Minneapolis, Minn. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Chicago, 111. 

Cleveland, Ohio Brazil, Ind. 

Zanesvllle, Ohio Menomonie, Wis. 

Omaha, Nebraska Kansas City, Mo. 



"INDIAN 

GENERAL OFFICES: 

96 Wall Street 

NEW YORK 




BRAND " 

WORKS AND SALES 
DEPARTMENT: 

Shawnee, Ohio 



TOTAL ANNUAL CAPACITY, 600,000,000 BRICKS 
Adonis aeiTMt office for tamplei and priest 



'* </.S PAT O' 

Made only by 

THE OHIO MINING & MANUFACTURING CO. 

AGKNCIKS AT CENTItAL POINTS 



WORKS, SOUTH AMBOY, N. el. 



THE 

SOUTH AMBOY 

TERRA COTTA CO. 



K. Y. OPF1CS • ISO NASSAU ST. 



MADS ONLY BY 

The Ironclay 
Brick Co. 

Saccetanra to 

The Columbus Face 
Brick Co. 

COLUMBUS • • OHIO. 

Unique In Character, Composition and Color. 
FOR EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR USES. 




Wrtte tor Catalog No. A. 



SAYRE & FISHER CO. 

Manufacturer ol 

Fine Pressed Front Brick 

Various Colors, both Plain and Molded. 

Superior Enameled Brick, Hard Building Brick, 
Fire Brick, and Hollow Brick 
for Fireproofing Purposes. 

JAMES R. SAYRE, JR., A CO., Agents 

261 Broadway, New York City. 



THE NEW BUILDING MATERIAL 

INTERLOCKING 

MACHINE-MADE 

TERRA COTTA FACING BLOCKS 

Huof adored by 

THE TWIN CITY BRICK COMPANY 

SAINT PAUL, MINN. 

Rote colored tinted (hade* for wainscoting. Mom 
green, buff and brown color* for facing purposes. 



"WESTERN" 
MEDIUM PRICED 

VITRIFIED and IMPERVIOUS 

FACING BRICK 

Sold at prices midway between common back- 
ing and mechanically perfect pressed Brick. 
Capacity 75,000,000 yearly. 

WESTERN BRICK COMPANY 

DANVILLE, ILL. 

Writ* for Catalog-US) 



Bradford Pressed Brick Co. 

Manufacturers of 

Bradford Pressed Brick 

Trade-Mark Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. 

BRADFORD, PENNA. 

AGENTS 

Carter. Black & Ar«rs New York City 

A. S. Raid & Co Newark, N.J. 

Waldo Brothers ...... Boston, Mass. 

O. W. Ketcham Philadelphia, Pa. 

M. W. Facer Harrisburc, Pa. 

Hudson Cement and Supply Co. ... Baltimore, Md. 

"PEARL" 

(Trade Mark reg. U. S. Pat. Office) 

Can be duplicated by no one 
Peculiar grays — 1 specifications 

given preference 

Iron spot grays j- Ask lor 

Soft Shades J samples 

Pearl Clay Products Co. 

BRADFORD, PA. 

AMERICAN 

Enameled Brick and Tile Co. 

1 Madison Avenue, New York 
Works: South Rrrer, N. J. 

ENAMELED BRICK 

Branch Office* in the large cities of all states in 

the United States, and Canada. Let us 

aend personal representative to 

interview you 

So. "Sweat's" lades: or send for individual catalogue 



Terra Cottev 
Hollow 



has been so long and successfully 
used as a fireproof protection for 
the structural members of large 
buildings that the value of this 
material for structural purposes 
has been overlooked. We have 
recently published a book en- 
titled 

Fireproof Houses of 
Terra Cotta HollowTile 

and 

How to Build Them 

which anyone interested in resi- 
dence construction will find ex- 
tremely vaJuable. If you have 
not seen a copy ask for one. 

National 

Fire -Proofing 

Company 

Manuf acrurers of 

Terra Cotta Hollow Tile 

Contractors fot 

Fireproof Construction 



CHICAGO, Commercial National Bank Building; 
PITTSBURGH, Fulton Building 
NEW YORK, Flatiron Building 
PHILADELPHIA, Land Title Building 
BOSTON, Old South Building 
MINNEAPOLIS, Lumber Exchange 
ST. LOUIS. Victoria Building 
WASHINGTON. Colorado Building 
SAN FRANCISCO, Monadnock Building 
CINCINNATI. Union Trust Building 
CLEVELAND. Cuyahoga Building 
CANTON. 0.. City National Bank Building 
TORONTO, CANADA. Trader's Bank Building 



Examination of the official testa recently 
made by the New York Building Department 
proves that for fireproofing purposes noth- 
ing Is equal to Terra Cotta ; the latest schedule 
of rates enforced by the Insurance Companies 
shows that Terra Cotta Is so considered by 
them, securing very lowest rates. 

Henry Maurer & Son 

MANUFACTURERS OP 

Terra-Cotta Fireproof Building Materials 

420 East 23d St., New York City. 



R. Guastavino Co. 

Specialists in the construction of 

Large Masonry Domes and Arches 

in rough pressed and glazed tile 



NBW YOgK OPPICB: 
Pullw Bulldlat 



BOSTON OFPICB: 
Old South Bulldlat 



*?. OUASTAVINO, PrasMeaf 
WM. B. BLODOBTT, Tr—turmr 
A. B. ROBST, StermUrr 



VITRIFIED 

AMERICAN 

s 

ROOFING TILE 

MANUFACTURED BY 

THE CINCINNATI ROOFING AND 
TERRA COTTA COMPANY 

Faotorj: Wlnton Plioi, Ohio 

Off iou : Mltohill At b. and B. 4 . 1. W. Hi. , C Inolnnitl, Ohio 



LUDOWICI CELADON 
COMPANY 

We offer the very highest grades of Terra Cotta 
Roofing Tiles in all the standard and many special 
designs. 

In color we furnish full, matt or sand-blasted 
glazes, and natural red or slipped red ware. 

Our four large factories provide adequate facili- 
ties for prompt service, whatever the magnitude 
of the operation. 

Agencier at all central points. Our own offices 



Chicago 
Washington 



New York 
New Orleans 



Cleveland 
Denver 



TIFFANY 

ENAMELED BRICK 

COMPANY, 

CENERAL OFFICES: 

1202 Chamber of Commerce, 
CHICAGO. 

WORKS: 

MOMENCE, ILL. 

We positively guarantee our brick against scaling or crazing 



CABOPS 

Waterproof Brick Stains 

For Staining and Waterproofing Brick- 
work, Terra-cotta Tiling, etc. Rich, 
handsome colors, and permanent water- 
proofing. 

Samuel Cabot, Inc., Boston, Mass. 

Also 

WATERPROOF CEMENT STAINS 
CABOT'S SHINQLE STAINS, etc. 






THE 






BRICKBVILDER 




ARCHITECVRAL 

MONTHIY 



uu 



U«<««\ FEB 




McKIM 





3 



« f»»»»)l mo 



:<ccccccc< 



r 



x 




PVBLISHED BY ROGERS & MANSON 
EIGHTYFIVE WATER STREET BOSTON MASS. 



THE PRICE OF THIS NUMBER IS ONE DOLLAR. 



TRADE MARK 




Beg US.Pot.Ott 



The Most Artistic and 

Permanent Building 

Material in the World 

There is only one •• Tapestry " Brick. It 
is made exclusively by Fiske & Co. Inc. 
Our trade mark "Tapestry" is branded 
on each brick. It stands for the highest 
product of our skill and 45 years experi- 
ence. It protects you against substitution. 

•' Tapestry " Brick has been used by lead- 
ing architects on ' residences, churches, 
libraries, hospitals, club houses, schools, 
fraternal buildings, and high grade 
apartments. 

X3ISKE 6- COMPANY INC 
IACE BRICKS? ESTABLISH 
JLlRE BRICKSl-ED IN 1864 

BOSTON, 25 Arch St. NEW YORK, Platiron Bldg. 



WW YORK BALTIMORE 

IIVO Broadway American Building 

WASHINGTON 

Nome Lit© Building 

O. W. KETCHAIW 

Master Builders Exchange 
PHILADELPHIA 

Front Brick Enameled Brick 

Hollow Tile Flreprooflng 

Roofing Tile 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 
Works t Oram Lynne, Pa, 



iid-m 



Cenulne New England M Harvard" Brick* 

. Frool . BRICKS E " MELE0 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 



Carter, Black & Ayers 

I Madison Ave., NEW YORK 

Agents for 

K» E. Terra Cotta Co. 

Bradford, Pa. 



PFOTENHAUER-NESBIT CO. 

St. buss Building, Broadwaj, Cor. 26th St., Nes Tort 

IMPERVIOUS 

FRONT BRICK 

In Red, Buff, Gray, Mottled, White, Etc 

Enameled Brick, Roofing TRes, Paring Makers, Etc. 
Genuine "KITTANNINC" Brick 
Cenulne "HARVARD" Brick 



l! 



Atlantic 

Terra Cotta 
Company 

Manufacturers of 

Superior Architectural Terra 
Cotta and Faience 

Main Office : 1 1 70 Broadway 
NEW YORK 

Our mat glaze terra cotta has 
a softness of tone, beauty of tex- 
ture, and pleasing variation of 
shade which at once places it in 
a class by itself. 

It is not " absolutely uniform 
in color," therefore it does not 
present the monotonous ap- 
pearance of painted metal so 
disappointing to the artistic 
architect. 

Our facilities for handling work are 
unequaled and we are able to insure 
prompt and complete deliveries. 



Atlanta Terra Cotta Company 

Central Southern Agent* 

EAST POINT, GA. 



GRUEBY 
FAIENCE CO. 

K AND FIRST STREETS, BOSTON 

TILES FOR FIREPLACES, 
FLOORS, TERRACES, 

FOUNTAINS AND OTHER 
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES 



The Hartford Faience Co. 

HARTFORD, CONN. 



HEW YORK 

1123 BROADWAY 



BOSTON 

OLD SOUTH BL06. 



ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE 

(All Colors) 

FAIENCE MANTELS 
FAIENCE TILE AND BRICK 

Write for our new catalogue. 



ROOKWOOD 

Architectural Faience 

HUT CLAZBS IN ALL COLORS 
ABSOLUTELY PERMANENT 
BXTERIOR AND INTERIOR 

THE ROOKWOOD POTTERY CO. 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 
lew York Office - - I MacUeon Aveewa 



The AMERICAN TERRA COTTA 
410 CERAMIC COMPANY 

Architectural 
Terra Cotta 

CHICAGO - ILLINOIS 



Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Co. 

L L BBEBORT. PROPRIETOR 

MAHUFAOTUIIM OF 

ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA COTTA 

Woibud Hail Office: CORNING. M. T. 

KEN TOW .... L ft. itwam, *UH 
AGENCIES 
AN the Principal ClUee 



G)nkling-Annstrong 
Terra Cotta Co. 

Maonfactnten of 

Architectural Terra Cotta 

Works, PHILADELPHIA 

OFFICES 

BeildW Eu&Ange, PHILADELPHIA 

1133 Broadway, NETT YORK 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XIX 



FEBRUARY 1910 



Number 2 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ... Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1S92. 



Copyright, 1910, by ROGERS & MANSON 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States. Insular Possessions and Cuba 
Single numbers ............. 



....... $5.00 per year 

...... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............. $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ................ $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

,, Terra Cotta 

Brick 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: 

PAGE PAGI 

II Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

II Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

II and III Fireproofing ......... IV 

III Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THIS NUMBER PRESENTS SOME OF THE MORE 
IMPORTANT WORK WHICH HAS BEEN DONE 
BY McKIM, MEAD & WHITE AND WITH WHICH 
MR. McKIM WAS PARTICULARLY IDENTIFIED. 









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DESIGN FOR TABLET 
TO BE PLACED IN 
PAVEMENT OF TERRACE, 
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. 




CHARLES FOLLEN McKIM 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. XIX. NO. 2. FEBRUARY, 1910. 



Some Critical Reflections on the Architectural 
Genius of Charles F. McKim. 



BY ROYAL CORTISSOZ. 



THE discussion of the work of Charles F. McKim in the pages of this magazine is a peculiarly 
sympathetic task. ' The Brickbuilder, ' ' being dedicated to a specific material of architectural 
art, provides an atmosphere exactly adjusted to the whole character and achievement of this 
distinguished American. He was never one of those designers content to rest satisfied with work 
of the sort that merely "looks well on paper." Building materials were to him what pigments 
are to the painter ; he handled them with the same intensely personal feeling for their essential 
qualities that a great technician of the brush brings to the manipulation of his colors, and he left upon 
his productions the same autographic stamp. Eet me say at the outset, and let it be clearly under- 
stood throughout these remarks, that this point involves no invidious detachment of his individuality 
from the partnership in which he labored for more than thirty years. If ever there was a homogeneous 
firm in the history of the architectural profession it was that of McKim, Mead, and White, and in un- 
numbered instances it is next to impossible to say where the inspiration of one of these three collabora- 
tors left off and that of either or both of the others began. Their " team work " has ever been a thing 
to delight in by itself. I shall not attempt to pigeon hole their different contributions to the long list of 
buildings by which they are all known. But if, in a survey of that work, we disengage certain artistic 
traits, we may be sure that they illustrate Mr. McKim's genius no less as a personality than as a 
member of the trio. 

This is emphatically the case where the question of materials is to be considered. Stanford White 
had no keener passion for the effectiveness, as decoration, of a rich Flemish tapestry or a carved and 
gilded old Spanish column, than McKim had for the pure structural character of a well laid course of 
stone. I recall an incident sharply typical of his solicitude for the significance of material, for the 
effect of an idea embodied in the disposition of just so much substance. It was at the time of the build- 
ing of the Boston Public Library. Certain, sheets of marble were to be put in the entrance hall — 
Numidian, I think they were — and their dimensions were determined by McKim with the utmost care. 
He regarded those dimensions as essential to the ensemble but when the marble was delivered it was 
found that they had not been rigidly followed. Forthwith the sheets were rejected. The contractor 
argued at tremendous length and almost wept, but McKim was harder than the Numidian itself. Ik- 
was dealing in marble, I repeat, as an artist deals in paint and he would no more submit to a change in 



24 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



the appearance of the surfaces he had planned than a painter would allow his color-man to dictate the 
final condition of his picture. I make much of this episode because it stands for temperament, for an 
inborn gift. You cannot learn fastidiousness like that. The right dimensions of a piece of material 
for a given position in a building can no more be thought out and communicated by a pedagogue than 
the secrets of color and texture, to be similarly applied, can be formulated in the schools. To think of 
McKim is to think of a genius expressing itself through the stuff of architecture as creative genius 
expresses itself in all the other arts, somehow identifying itself with the very grain and fibre of that in 
which it works. 

The instinctive character of McKim's gift comes out in the very earliest pages of his biography. 
When, as a lad of nineteen, he began his professional studies at Harvard, in 1866, the drift of his artistic 
nature would appear to have been fixed. It was in the strict sense a constructive gift. They say that 
he could draw even then with uncommon facility, but I have never heard of his having passed through 
that sketch-book stage in which a young architect is betrayed into fearful and wonderful performances 
by the ease with which he can use his pencil in Europe and bring back scores of supposedly adaptable 
" motives." Later in life, when he came to give much thought to the training of his juniors, he was 
wont to enforce upon them the excellence of the Ecole des Beaux Arts as a source of instruction, and to 
warn them against its dangers as a source of patterns. He had been there himself and knew what he 
was talking about. Leaving Harvard for Paris he entered the Ecole and stayed three years, but if its 
lessons had imposed any pedantic rules upon him his subsequent travels in Europe and his innate 
tendencies amply protected him from returning to America with a cut and dried hypothesis for the 
solution of his problems. He worked for a time under the late H. H. Richardson, and I know no better 




ORKHNAL HARVARD GATEWAY, 
CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



25 



testimony to his artistic poise than you may find in his emergence unscathed from the powerful influence 
of that brilliant man. It is interesting, by the way — if we may take a little look ahead — to compare 
the Higginson and Whittier houses built side by side in Beacon Street, years ago, respectively by 
Richardson and McKim's firm, the latter then in its first " period. " The two designs were produced in 
the most amicable rivalry. It was intended that they should harmonize. Unquestionably they go well 
together. Obviously, too, both are the work of artists. Let us not look for elements of superiority in 
either the one or the other. But in looking for the points of difference, and this is surely legitimate, 
may we not note that the Whittier design is much lighter in hand than its neighbor, that the makers of 
it were willing to leave a certain weightiness to Richardson, preferring grace, elegance, and a kind of 
delicate linear charm? All that was very characteristic of McKim. 

Sometimes it has seemed surprising to me that McKim was not, at least in his formative years, 
brought more under subjection to Richardson, who was a big man and had a big way with him in his 
work. Yet, on a moment's reflection, one always remembers the importance of sheer taste in the his- 
tory of the three partners and how much this matter meant to McKim. Naturally he swerved aside 
from the broad and luxuriant path along which Richardson moved at such a generous gait. If we 
imagine a Whistler sojourning for a little while, interestedly enough, in the atelier of a Rubens, but 
presently going forth to develop, as a matter of course, a totally different style of his own, we can form 
a fair working idea of what McKim did when he and White and Mead set about making their mark. 
To say that they began to make it with a kind of cleverness would be to understate the case, and at the 
same time there is something justly descriptive in the phrase. Certainly there is no occasion for criti- 
cal solemnities on the buildings through which they felt their way toward a style of their own. I am 




WALKER ART GALLERY, 
BRUNSWICK, ME. 



26 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




MAIN READING ROOM OF LIBRARY, 



BLOCK PLAN OF COLUMBIA UNIYERSITY, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




28 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




LlBKAKTFCE.- J P>taLGAaEAl 



thinking especially of things like the Casino at Newport and divers cottages that they bnilt there in the 
'80-s. I am thinking, too, of the little music hall at Short Hills in New Jersey which I used to see at 
the end of a long walk every Sunday one summer. There was positive refreshment in coming upon 
that modest bit of country architecture, it was so original, so picturesque, and, withal, so perfectly 
adapted to its site. Yon saw at once that here was a new conception of what needed to be done with an 
old problem, a new art in place of an old sort of journeyman's craft. The novelty sprang, of course, 

from the brains of MeKim and his colleagues, 
but it is, perhaps, worth while to note here an- 
other quarter whence the new movement got 
part of its impetus. 

Very little if anything has been said about 
the social developments which synchronised with 
the early progress of this firm. It is in no un- 
complimentary sense that they may be described 
as the fashionable architects of their time. On 
the contrary, the designation is to be employed 
in all seriousness and honor. It was their good 
fortune to come upon the scene just at a time 
when people of wealth were taking a new in- 
terest in the beautificatiou of their environment. 
Private collections of pictures and other works 
of art were not only increasing in number, but 
were being formed with reference to higher criti- 
cal standards. In the furnishing of houses a 
more lavish expenditure was accompanied by a desire for a better scheme of decoration. Modes of 
social entertainment grew richer and more complicated as they grew more costly. It is flattering to our 
self-esteem to believe that we were always at home in palaces, but, as a matter of fact, the splendors 
of American social life date from the last quarter of a century, an educational period if ever there was 
one. At Newport and elsewhere a type of dwelling was in demand such as had not got itself created 
since long before the war. Moreover, prior to the sixties, North or South, the owner of a prosperous 
house let himself go chiefly in respect to scale, and while his taste at the best aimed in the safe direction 
of simplicity he gave little thought to art as art. McKim's clients were quite willing that he should 
think of nothing else. There, I venture to say, you have the secret of his opportunity and one key to 
what he made of it. Men of means wanted new houses and were as keen on having these made beau- 
tiful and distinguished as though they were acquiring the paintings and sculptures of foreign masters. 
The Queen Anne cottage was doomed, as was the three-story-and-basement brown-stone " mansion " of 
our cities. The Casino at Newport is possibly the most representative of the country buildings erected 
by McKim, Mead, and White at this period. It is representative alike in its fitness for the purpose to 
which it was assigned and in what I can only describe as its restrained picturesqueness. In breaking 
with a tradition of dullness the firm did not consider it necessary to turn violent or bizarre. Nothing 
could be fresher, more unconventional, than this Casino, or the house for Robert Goelet at Newport, or 
the Osborne house at Mamaroneck, but then, on the other hand, nothing could be more judiciously 
studied, more refined, more delicately expressive of a luxurious but beautiful ideal. What McKim did 
in the country he did in the city, in such houses as the one for Mr. Whittier, which I have already 
cited, or those for Mr. Drayton, Mr. Cutting, and Mr. Phoenix in New York. He succeeded in the 
difficult task of blending dignity and repose with a certain piquancy. A design framed by him and his 
partners was always a serious work of art, and it was always amusing, to use the word with the implica- 
tions it carries in French criticism. Decidedly McKim, Mead, and White were the architects for an 
expanding social era, as were those masters who built the city palaces and country villas of the rich 
Romans and Florentines of the Renaissance. 

If they had stopped there they would still be gratefully remembered, but they were bound to press 
further and win a wider fame, bound both by the conditions of American life and by the nature of their 
resources. Everything conspired to lead them on from architecture that was charming to architecture 
that was monumental, and, on occasion, in the grand style. Here, I think, is where we cannot but 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



29 



recognize the steadily ripening- influence of McKim. The genius that was so easily and so happily 
exercised upon the problems of dwelling-houses in city and country inevitably craved a larger outlet. 
The firm has for years gone on designing private houses, but it is significant that most of these have 
latterly been very stately affairs, on an imposing scale. The essential history of McKim is to be traced 
in a long succession of heroic buildings, starting with the Villard block in New York and the Public 
Library in Boston, and coming down to the Pennsylvania Station in New York. In the contemplation 
of these edifices we abandon all thought of those "amusing" qualities to which I have alluded, and 
think of graver things ; but before touching upon the purely monumental aspects of McKim's work 
I must glance again, in passing, at that flair of his for materials and at a friendly, intimate quality 
which he carried from his earlier experience on into larger fields. As he attacked more ambitious 
themes he did not lose touch with the sentiment of the life around him, sacrificing personal feeling to 
scholarship. To see how tactfully, how sympathetically he could deal with subjects apart from ordinary 
private life and yet untouched by the heavy hand that governs the purposes of the average public 
building one has but to look at such things as the Harvard Club in New York, the Harvard Gates at 
Cambridge, the big building for the University of Virginia at Charlottesville, the Women's Building 
for the University of Illinois at Urbana, the buildings for the Army War College at Washington, and 
the railway station at Waterbury. In the first place the work done in these designs shows invariably 
with what judgment and taste McKim could use brick, when he chose, a material for which the firm long 
ago declared its effective appreciation. (The vast chateau-like house, built for Mr. C. L. Tiffanv in 
New York, when the firm was coming into repute, is alone impressive evidence of a truly artistic faculty 
for the treatment of this material.) Furthermore, the buildings I have named and the gates at Cam- 
bridge are remarkable for their possession of a dignity that is not too austere. You are impressed but 
you are not overpowered. Something gracious and even beguiling appeals to you through the very 
serious scheme of design that is in each instance worked out. 

McKim knew how to take a high view of his subject. He did not know how to be harsh or bleak. 
Was it not just his gift for beauty that kept him thus on the warm, human side of things, the same 
joyously creative impulse that had caused him to play so ingeniously with the little fabrics the firm put 
together at Newport? By all the rules of the Academy a style so pure as his should have culminated at 
a point spelling mere coldness for the ordinary observer, but McKim had a way of softening his severities 
when he felt that it was required. See how he modified the rather gaunt lines of the Italian palace he 




MODEL OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. 



built for the University Club in New York by the decorative touches which balconies and carven seals 
give to the facades. I remember, too, the brilliant tout de force of the New York State Building at the 
Chicago Fair in 1893. He made it abetter building, a better piece of pure architecture, than the 
Villa Medicis at Rome, on which he modelled it. But what made it so extraordinarily successful was 
nothing more nor less than the festal suavity with which he tempered the majestic character of the 



3° 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



design. The building was Unmistakably monumental but it was a cheerful, welcoming structure, fitting 
with absolute precision into the holiday picture made by the exposition at large. We know how 
devotedly he and his numerous associates in the great undertaking at Chicago strove to preserve a 
classical sobriety amongst the main Exposition buildings, how earnest they were in their plans for a 
really noble sky-line, and, in short, how one of the most popular of modern demonstrations was charged 
with an artistic lesson. No one there was more exacting than was McKim, no one there was more 
steadfast in the advocacy of a lofty architectural standard. But no one, I may add, was a subtler adept 
in the process of enveloping serious ideas in garments of winning loveliness. 

At the bottom of all his studies was not only that gift for beauty which I have mentioned, but a 
profound conviction of the place of character in architecture. The purpose of a building, the use to 
which it was destined, was something more than a practical condition enforced upon him by a client ; it 
was an appeal to his imagination, stimulating his powers of design just as a proposal for a statue will 
set a sculptor's fingers tingling to press the clay. McKim was not, any more than any other great artist, 
infallible, and he had to learn some things by experience. The Public Library in Boston has been 
criticised as falling short of perfection in respect to its utilitarian function. Perhaps it is not impeccable. 
I confess that while I was in and out of it not infrequently at the time of its erection, and have since 
explored it more than once, I have never gone broodingly about the testing of its every corner. It is 
possible, no doubt, that there are corners in which the reader might wish for a little better light. But, 
when all is said, where, in this country, will you find a nobler library building, a nobler library building 
of the same scale and put to the same popular uses? I know that McKim and his partners gave unend- 
ing study to the problem, and I can see him in Rome, years ago, poring over its monuments as one 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



33 



turns the pages of a book, looking for further inspiration. He had one of his draughtsmen with him, on 
whom he would call to sketch one detail or another that interested him. Was it in order that he might 
slavishly reproduce that detail ? Not for a moment. It was rather as though he were yielding himself 
to the play of ideas as he interrogated the old masters, and wanted to jot down suggestive points developed 
in the process. These were not so much coordinated with his central scheme as they were subtly 
absorbed into it, to fertilize and enrich it. He was a striking instance of the artist who consults the 
past for a kind of broad invigoration, never as a methodical copyist. 

In the presence of buildings like the one at Boston, or the State House at Providence, or the Penn- 
sylvania Station in New York, or Mr. Morgan's inimitable little library, the student feels that he is 
down to the bed rock of pure architecture. Nothing experimental is visible, you find nothing irrelevant, 
nothing that is understated or overdone. The bones of the design, so to say, are faultlessly articulated, 
faultlessly with reference to the practical idea at the heart of the problem, and to this unit of construc- 
tion there is given an envelope of beautiful simplicity. If there is decoration to be reckoned with you 
scarcely notice it, it is made part and parcel of the mass with such unerring taste. What you notice 
above all is the achievement of something like grandeur with a singularly elastic touch. Take, for 
example, the pillared facades of the Pennsylvania Station. For a positively Roman weight and majesty 
it would be impossible to beat that building in modern architecture. But neither could you find it any- 
where surpassed for a beauty that I can perhaps best indicate as a beauty brimming over with nervous 
force, really vitalized, as though the thing which we call style were fairly singing in stone. The march 
of those columns is superb, luring the eye until it forgets the immobility of walls, cornices, and so on, 
and is lost in sensuous delight. It is a huge structure, and, for the mind sensitive to the great pageant 




I 



MAIN STAIR IIAI.L, BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



34 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



35 



-*•» 




pg gg 



36 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



of our material progress, it is fraught with ideas of tremendous and even ruthless power. After all, a 
building like this is symbolical of one of the forces of our national life, and a poet might reasonably 
linger before it, presently translating into words the thought it raises of an irresistible might. But the 
right poet would turn what is stark and terrible about such a concentration of energy into terms of pure 



" J ' "7 1 T T 



T-ffl-1 \AA I I 



ytx i.M.'iU,.,; xju.. ■.,>, t 





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PLAN OF READING ROOM FLOOR. 



PLAN OF SPECIAL LIBRARY FLOOR. 




PLAN OF CKoUND FLOOR. 



A Vestibule, i6' x 55'. 

H Entrance Hall, 37' x 44'. 

C Grand Staircase, 20' wide. 

D Landing, 12' x 19'. 

K Cloak Room. 

F Lavatorv and Water Closet. 

G Lobby. 

H Corridor, it/ wide. 

I Waiting Room, 12' x 16'. 

J Elevator. 

K Cataloguer, 42' x 45'. 

L Official Card Catalogue, 30' x 45'. 



M 



Receiving and Ordering Department, 

35' » 42'. 

N Custodian, 14' 6" X2i' 6". 

Stack. 
P Arcade. 

(J Staircase Hall. 14' wide. 

R Duplicate Exchanges, 17' x 31/ t >". 

S Reserved Space, 23' x 2S'. 

1 l'n bound Pamphlets and Duplicate Ex- 

changes, 33' 6'' x 42' 6". 
I* Hound Newspapers, 45' x 55'. 
V Map Room, 2'/ 6 x 45'. 



PLAN OF READING ROOM FLOOR. 



Card Catalogue. 
Bates Hall, 42' 6" x 218'. 
Writing Room. 
Lobby, 8' x 10'. 
Elevator, 6' x (/ 6". 
Hall, 1^x50'. 
Vestibule, 15' x 24'. 
Grand Staircase. 
Landing, 12' x 19'. 
Waiting Room, 33' 6" x 1*5'. 
Delivery Desk. 



L Lavatory. 

M Cloak Closet. 

N Delivery, 12' 6" x «/. 

O Trustees Room, 23' x 27'. 

P Stack. 

(J Arcade. 

R Court. 

S Special Students. 

T Staircase. 

U Attendant. 

V Scientific Periodicals, 33' <>" x 65', 



PLAN OF SPECIAL LIBRARY FLOOR. 



Reading Room Continued, 22' 6" above 
Hall, 24' x 84'. [floor. 

Art Room, 31' x =,'' 
Elevator, 5 x 6' b". 
Reserved, 22' (>" x 25'. 
East Gallery. 

Thayer, Nichols and Franklin Libra- 
ries, 30' X34'. 
Ticknor Library, 30' x 32'. 
Service. 
South Gallery, 9' x 139' 6". 



Medical Library, jc/ x <&'. 

Patent Library, jV '• ' x ;./ 0". 

Barton Library, 2-' \ 

Parker Library, 27' x 48' 6". 

West Gallery, 9' x 157'. 

Court. 

American Public Documents, ycf x 50' 6" 

English Public Documents, | 

Nurth Gallery, 9' x \ytf 6". 

Prince Library, 27' 6" x 30'. 

Bowditch Library, 30' x 34'. 



PLAN OF GROUND FLOOR. 



PLANS, BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



beauty, and this is what has been done by the genius of architecture directed upon so seemingly prosaic 
a thing as a vast railway station. The building is true in its very essence to the railway's need. It is 
also supremely beautiful. 

We think in large terms in this country. Our area is immense, our population is enormous ; politi- 
cally, socially, and in our industrial relations we are incessantly affected by the unprecedented width of 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



37 



our horizon. It is a commonplace of satirical criticism 
that "bigness" is an American foible. Neither the 
painter nor the sculptor is ordinarily required to come 
to close quarters with that foible. The architect alone 
is forever confronted by it, and therefore exposed to a 
cruel temptation. McKim mastered it. He liked, I 
think, to tackle heroic issues. In the latter part of 
his career he threw himself with gusto upon the solu- 
tion of problems like the one presented in the Pennsyl- 
vania Station. His genius had an even more exten- 
sive range as one may gather from the share he took 
in the evolution of the scheme for the beautifying of 
the city of Washington. Who could have blamed him 
if, in the prosecution of campaigns so portentous in 
scope, he had completely lost sight of those ideals of 
exquisiteness, of charm, of delicately fervid art, with 
which he had begun his work side by side with Mead 
and White? They never lost sight of them. Shoulder 
to shoulder they went on as the years passed, rising to 
their greater opportunities with increasing firmness of 
grasp and with increasing feeling for beauty. They were 
always builders in the truest, manliest sense of the term, 
and they were always artists. It is in this dual character 
that McKim remains a shining figure in our annals. 




COLONNADE, BOSTON I'UISLIf LIBRARY, 




FftSE-Cro-'AL! 



mm 



l ILSjHMeI 






_^ 




_ 



MAIN ENTRANCE, BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



38 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Charles Follen McKim--A Character Sketch 

BY HENRY BACON 

CHARLES POLLEN McKIM occupies a place in the history of American architecture, the 
honor of which will increase with passing years. Respected now for a power in the art of 
design which constantly increased and which was manifested in numerous great achievements, 
his works will be studied to advantage in future generations by the student, practitioner, 

and layman. 

More than twenty years ago the writer entered the office of McKim, Mead cc White and enjoyed a 
close relationship with Mr. McKim, whose unfailing friendship was shown to him in many ways. His 
method of working was characteristic and it may prove interesting to read an account of it by one who 
was long privileged to observe it at short range. 

The foremost trait of Mr. McKim was buoyancy of spirit, an invaluable aid to him as well as to 
those under him, in the long and tedious processes he followed in the evolution of a design. With this 
buoyancy he approached the drawing table, bringing with him a rough sketch of the problem to be 
solved. In the sketch his idea was evident, but most indefinitely drawn, and in no stage of planning 
and designing did he make a definite line or contour. With each visit to the table he would express 
appreciation of the draughtsman's work and generally would be enthusiastic over it. Invariably, how- 
ever, he would place tracing paper over the drawing, and, with pencil sometimes in one hand and some- 




THE EDGAR HOUSE, 

NEWPORT, K. I. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



39 



times in the other, for he was ambidextrous, he would lightly sketch a revision of the scheme, 
smudging the already indefinite lines with his finger till the result would look like the sketch for 
Bellevue Hospital which is here shown on page 47. 

As a specimen of his earlier draughtsmanship, the reader is referred to another reproduction on 
page 47 of a charming sketch of a Newport house. Several sketches of this character would be made at one 
sitting, each varying from the others in general composition, but each showing some definite idea. The 
draughtsman was then expected to put into right lines and contours the sketch selected for the project 
and draw carefully the details and ornament. Mr. McKim's inspection of this drawing would result in 
further studies by him, the design then being again drawn carefully by the draughtsman, and so on 
until it was, in his opinion, ready for study in perspective. 

The same study was expended on the perspective that had been devoted to previous drawings. 
Change after change would be made during this stage, and later, in many cases, the design would be 
studied similarly in small plaster models. All of these processes would involve, of course, either changes 
in all the drawings, or entirely new sets of drawings, but no prospect of expense or labor would deter 
Mr. McKim from an endeavor to improve his project. This method was sure to accomplish a well fin- 
ished result. It was arduous, but the fatigue of the draughtsman's mind and body was immensely 
relieved by Mr. McKim's contagious enthusiasm and his unceasing encouragement. 

In preparing letters or telegrams he was extremely particular in the choice of words and arrange- 
ment of phrases and would usually ask for the attendance of one or the other of his draughtsmen, while 
he framed a communication, even on unimportant matters. The writer remembers being asked by 
Mr. McKim to be present on one occasion, when he was about to dictate a telegram. It finallv con- 




4 o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




VIEW OF BANKING RO< >U 
AND 

MAIN FLOOR PLAN. 



BANK OF MONTREAL, 

MONTREAL, 

CANADA. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



4i 




4 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




INTERIOR VIEWS, NATIONAL CITY BANK, 
NEW YORK CITY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 15. 



HALF 45 ra \5TREET 
ELEVATION - - 
PARI ELEVATION 
HARVARD HALL - 



ii.ni i i i i i i i i i ¥=f 

J "o 1 2. 3 + S & 7 8 ■ 




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EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR DETAILS OF HARVARD HALL, HARVARD CLUB, NEW YORK CITY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 2. PLATE 16. 




ELEVATION 



PLAN 
MAIN ENTRANCE 



FIITH 



AVENUE ELEVATION 



Section 




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EXTERIOR DETAILS, UNIVERSITY CLUB, NEW YORK CITY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 17. 




ENTRANCE PORTICO, SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON, MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 2. PLATE 18. 



I J J J I 



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PORTICO OVER ENTRANCE, RHODE ISLAND STATE CAPITOL, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



THE BR1CKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 19. 




SECTION 
THKOVGH WALL 



SECTION AT SIDE 'OF STAIRS 



DETAILS OF ROTUNDA, RHODE ISLAND STATE CAPITOL, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 20. 




CARTOUCHE CVEL CARR.IAGE ENTCANCE 



ELEVATION OF TERXACE AND BALUJTLAPE 



ii-sv-7 



DETAILS, FIRST STORY AND ENTRANCE, RHODE ISLAND STATE CAPITOL, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 21. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 22. 




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VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 23. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 24. 




UNIVERSITY CLUB, NEW YORK CITY. 



THE BR ICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 25. 




DETAILS OF MAIN FACADE, LIBRARY OF J. P. MORGAN, ESQ., NEW YORK CITY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 26. 




.SECTION 



• Of - CEILINC • 1A1 • EAST • ROOM- 





ECTIOAI- Of • CEIL 
IN- WEST- ROOM- 



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■ SECTION - THRO'- VESTIBULE.' 



DETAILS OF INTERIOR, LIBRARY OF J. P. MORGAN, ESQ., NEW YORK CITY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 27. 




DETAILS OF PORTICO AND MAIN ENTRANCE, LIBRARY AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK CITY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 28. 




LrLtiJUULtiJUUlJliiJI Jl-HJLfnLT 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 29. 




- CLIL1NG OF bATLS MALL 

SCALE, f i t^l-f i i i i '° FOR. CEILINGS AND ENTRANCED 



MAIN 5TAIR.CA5L CL1LING 

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VESTIBULE. ENTEMMCL — BATLS MALL-CLNTCAL DOOR- 



DOOR, IN LV\TL,S MALL 



DETAILS, BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY, BOSTON, MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 2. PLATE 30. 




DETAILS OF EXTERIOR AND MAIN STAIR HALL, BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY, BOSTON, MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



43 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



tained less than ten words, but the session lasted nearly an hour, the time being spent in changing 
phrases and weighing synonymous words. Nothing satisfied him which seemed to admit of improve- 
ment, and to no man were possible improvements more visible — or so multitudinous. 

The same care that was expended on the drawings was exercised in all his processes in the art of 
architecture. The full sized plaster models underwent similar changes, both in the modeller's shop and 
at the building, and even the actual work in stone and other materials would be subject to alterations, 
for with him the finished product was the sole thing considered. While he admired beautiful drawings, 
he regarded them as of secondary importance. 

The difference between the first studies and the final drawings of his designs was very great. 
In most cases the finished design bore no relation in appearance to the original sketches, a natural 
consequence of the great range of ideas characteristic of Mr. McKim during the prosecution of 
his work and strongly significant of his freedom in the choice of those actually employed. He 
insisted on having his designs kept in a plastic state far beyond the point at which others would 
have regarded them as finished, and even after buildings were well on in construction he would 
change dimensions and details, to the despair of those erecting them. But here again his qualities 
of buoyancy and enthusiasm would tide over situations in which all but he himself would seem 
stranded. At the crises of these situations there would appear in him a tenacity of purpose which 
nothing could weaken. 

This quality can be best illustrated by incident at the World's P A air in Chicago. During the last 
days of the construction, when overworked men were still furiously working and when the last too small 
appropriations were apportioned, Mr. McKim decided that his building, the Agricultural Building, then 
practically completed, would be improved in design by the addition of an attic story. 

A meeting was called, one hot afternoon, composed of the powers that were, and a drawing showing 

the proposed improvement 
was presented by him with 
an enthusiastic argument 
for its adoption. All those 
present admitted the im- 
provement, but they were 
positive that no money was 
available for its execution. 
Mr. McKim ignored the 
lack of funds and grew so 
buoyant over their approval 
that in spite of interrupting 
statements that the money 
was not to be had, he en- 
larged his argument. All 
of those men, ten or twelve 
in number, could not con- 
vince him that his purpose 
was unattainable. 
Mr. Burnham, as Chief of Construction, was presiding, and the writer remembers that towards the 
close of the session, which lasted two or three hours, he reiterated, in a tone of finality, — " Charles, we 
have no money." Whereupon Mr. McKim again renewed his appeal and with such increased vigor, 
that the Council lost their heads to their hearts. They decided to find some way to provide funds for 
the addition — and the attic story was built. 

It is evident that this demanded a great deal of energy on the part of all concerned, but certainly it 
demanded the most from him, and even in his later years, though impairment of physical stamina 
became apparent, his interest in his work continued undiminished and he used the same ardent, 
persuasive method. 

Mr. McKim constitutionally took on some occasions the longest way to reach the goal and this 
sometimes misled others as to his motives. He was seldom direct in speech or action, but he always 
had but one end in view and that was — to give the best possible results. This unquestionably cost him 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN, RHODE ISLAND STATE CAPITOL. 



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45 




4 6 



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SENATE CHAMBER. 




HOUSE OF REPKESEN TATIVKS. 



RHODE ISLAND STATE CAPITOL. 



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47 



time and money —but time and money were nothing to him. His eyes were constantly fixed on the 
best efforts of his hand and brain, and the long and tedious method of arriving at results was amply 
justified by what he attained. 

Though he was well acquainted with the work done in the past, both in ancient and modern times 



SKETCH BY MR. McKIM 



FOR BELLEYUE HOSPITAL. 






and consulted constantly, during the progress of his designing, the drawings and documents with which 
his library was well supplied, he was no slave to precedent. On the contrary he was a most discriminating 
judge of the possibility of using solutions of problems in the past to the advantage of the buildings in his 
care. Kach of his buildings is stamped with his own individuality and on first sight is instantly 
recognized as his work by anyone familiar with architecture. 

While his foremost characteristic was buoyancy of spirit, his largest quality was an uncompromising 
love of the beautiful and a corresponding hatred of ugliness. 

His patience was always apparent. Though many circumstances occurred that would have been 
disastrous to the poise of an ordinary mind, the writer never heard him utter an impatient word or saw 
him lose his accustomed cheerfulness. 




., 



i 



THE WOLFE HOUSE, 
NEWPORT, R. I. 



A specimen of Mr. McKim's earlier draughtsmanship. 



48 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Influence of McKim. 

BY C. HOWARD WALKER. 

THE work of an architect is not only of interest from the quality of his genius as an artist, and 
from his ability to create, but also from his mental attitude towards the architecture of the past 
and his appreciation of the solutions of problems which have already occurred. The recognition 
of the eminent achievements which have appeared in every stage of the art, and which by the 
tests of time and of use have justified the universal praise which they have received, carries with it the 
acknowledgment that it is probable that some of the present problems in architecture are not as novel as 
they at first appear to be, — and have probably already been analyzed and solved and the differences 
between the work of to-day and that of the past do not require exaggeration. 

It is evident, on consideration, that all architecture has been to an extent " raisonne" and that in 
many cases it has been so admirably reasoned out that the best fundamental solution has been found. 
Regard for this fact always carries with it the appearance of imitation and at times of plagiarism, when 
as a matter of fact it is knowledge. 

While the first work of the firm of McKim, Mead and White was experimental and in many respects 
novel, as time went on a serious study of the past supplemented the enthusiasms of these young archi- 
tects, and it is especially in the recognition of the completed attainments of the great architects of the past 
that Mr. McKim showed a discriminative knowledge, and at times a regard and veneration which tended 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



49 




SYMPHONY HALL 
KOSTON, MASS. 



5° 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




MANTEL IN DINING HAI.L, 
WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON. 

of the spirit of the past. A wise 
past is an admirable foundation for 
Amidst the natural desire for 
individual expression, for dealing 
with what at first glance appear to 
be new conditions, because of the 
use of new materials with new forms 
and combinations of forms ; amidst 
the erratic results which occur from 
imagination out-speeding restraining 
thought, the firm, individually and 
collectively, have held true to the 
fundamental facts of good architec- 
ture and have exercised a judicious 
restraint in the expression of their 
art which cannot be too highly 
praised. And they have always in- 
sisted upon the full development of 
their theme, have given great care 
to detail and to ornament, and have 
made it adequate without being over- 



to greatly dignify his work. He was 
a serious student of classic architec- 
ture at its best. He esteemed it so 
much and considered it to have been 
the result of such wise thought that 
he refrained from disturbing it, and 
from adding extraneous factors to it. 
His attitude was one of a respect 
and affection which made eccentrici- 
ties unworthy of his subject. And 
in this attitude he was supported by 
his partners who had the same point 
of view. Mr. White with his ex- 
uberant fancies in decorative work 
persistently held to simple masses 
upon which that work was expanded. 
His orchestration was elaborate but 
his themes were elemental. Mr. 
Mead has exercised and still exer- 
cises a critical faculty and an appre- 
ciation of the best that architecture 
represents, which has made it diffi- 
cult for eccentric design, however 
fascinating, to appear in the accom- 
plished work. And this influence 
is perpetuated in the admirable work 
of Mr. Kendall, while the younger 
men of the firm who have grown 
up under this influence have so 
thoroughly absorbed the spirit of the 
original firm that it has become to 
them a tradition which must assure 
in their future work a continuance 
appreciation of the qualities of the great architecture of the 
good architecture in the present. 




PLAN OK SYMPHONY HAI.I., 
BOSTON, MASS. 



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5 1 







52 



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53 



done — and soigne in the best sense. The relations of mouldings, their proportions and refinements, 
have been thoroughly considered, and there has been no dependence upon a good parti pn's indifferently 
carried out. The traditions of careful work, serious and restrained attack, freedom from erratic expres- 
sion, which have become integral with their 
work, are self-perpetuating. Men who have 
once recognized that genius can well be 
tempered with restraint, respect, and even 
with veneration, will not find any other 
attitude of mind seductive, — and the appeal 
of vivacious experiment will not attract. 

At the present time in the art of the 
world when there daily appear new cults, it 
is peculiarly gratifying to find a group of 
men who are not overwhelmed by a fashion 
nor are numbed by a convention, but who 
thoroughly appreciate when any type of art 
has reached its apogee, and decline to treat 
it as if it were in an embryonic stage, and 
who have by careful study, learned the 
very spirit of the styles in which they have 
worked — and possessing knowledge of their 
art have expressed it naturally in the terms 
of that knowledge. 

It is because of this clear and serene highmindedness of Mr. McKim's work that it stands forth 
distinguished, and when to this is added the skill of his associates and the quiet, sane appreciation of 
Mr. Mead, there exists an influence for which the profession of Architecture in America is to be 
sincerely congratulated. 




EAST COLONNADE OF WHITE HOUSE. 




___ ^ _ 



EAST FACADE OK WHITE HOUSE. 



54 



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55 



A Tribute. 



BY ROBERT S. PEABODY. 



IT DOES not seem so very long ago that there came into our little circle of architectural students in 
Paris a charming youth, fresh from Cambridge, from the Scientific School and the ball field — a 
merry, cheerful friend — an .athlete — a serious student. We lived a simple, frugal life in the 

splendid Paris of Louis Napoleon, working hard, and he especially with a dogged earnestness. 
There were, however, happv inter- 
ludes in this working life between 
charrettes. When on rare occasions 
ice formed on the lakes in the Bois, 
he, a perfect skater, was the center 
of admiring throngs. When in the 
Luxembourg gardens beneath our 
windows we passed around an Amer- 
ican baseball the Parisians lined up 
three deep at the tennis courts to see 
him throw the ball to incredible 
heights. Fired by his enthusiasm 
we even joined gymnasium classes, 
and, though that now seems improb- 
able, we became proficient on the fly- 
ing trapeze. In summer we rode on 
the Seine and in the ever-to-be-re- 
membered trip for several days down 
that river no one, French or Ameri- 
can, joined with greater enthusiasm 
than the comrade we used to call 
affectionately Follen, or the French- 
men by some unrecognizable perver- 
sion of the name so hard for French 
lips — McKim. 

In view of his later career it 
doubtless sounds strange to say that 
for a long time it was harder for 
McKim than for most foreigners to 
find himself in sympathy with the 
atelier and the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 
What little experience he brought 
with him had been obtained with 
Mr. Russell Sturgis in New York. 
That master and Mr. Babb were his 

ultimate arbiters. Ruskin was the prophet of all that was good and true in art. Plunged into a world 
that did not know these masters even by name and that looked on Victorian Gothic as romantic arche- 
ology, but in no possible sense as architecture, McKim 's inflexible nature had some hard rebuffs and 
conflicts. It required time and other influences to bring him to a sense of the great worth of the 
underlying principles of the Parisian training, but his sympathies were always more with the earlier 
than the later French masters. He never really liked modern French taste and he was in fact more 
close to Rome than to Paris. 

The active and feverish artistic life that is creating a Renaissance of art in New York to-day often 
makes us think of the brilliant periods of that other Renaissance in Tuscany. I would not claim for 
McKim the character of universal genius which history attributes to many of the early sons of the 




HARVARD CLUB, 
NEW YORK CITY. 



5* 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Italian Renaissance ; but when we read how Alberti, that forerunner of Leonardo, was skilled in arms and 
horsemanship and all bodily exercises proper to the estate of a young nobleman — that he enjoyed feats 
of strength and skill — that he possessed a singularly sweet temper and graceful conversation — that for 
music he had genius of the highest order — we are reminded of onr friend. Still more, when we find 
this accomplished son of the Renaissance fusing classic art with the medieval standards of taste and 
introducing Roman arches and Corinthian pilasters to a world that had long forgotten them, we are 
again brought back to New York. These two artists were alike even in the principles that guided their 
art. They did not seek an Architecture Raisonne. They were not greatly interested in logic. Thev 

sought beauty. They found it in its 
most perfect forms in classic art and 
they each applied it to the structures of 
their day. It is enough for most of us 
that their art was beautiful, and we find 
ourselves debating whether onr friend 
and his associates were more charming 
in their earlier work, when in the Herald 
Building and the Century Club they dealt 
with the loveliness of the early Renais- 
sance, or when the noonday splendors of 
the full great Roman orders appeared at 
Columbia College and the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Station and rivaled not only the 
Renaissance but Ancient Rome itself. 

In all of these, however, we see 
McKim as in the case of Alberti — the 





handsome gentleman, the cultured 
scholar, making his city beautiful and 
adapting the beauties of classic archi- 
tecture to the life of his day. 

By the dogged determination and the 
unfailing patience with which he clung 
to his convictions, coupled with his per- 
suasive charm of manner, he had brought 
many loyal clients to build better than 
they knew or had dreamed of, and he had 
reached the top ranks of the profession, 
when that delightful company of artists, 
the Board of Design for the Columbian 
Pair was called to Chicago. At the first 
dinner our friend John Root (the architect 
whose sad death we so soon deplored ) re- 
ferring to the appropriations for the fair 
just made by the government said, 
" Congress has just given us the avoir J aire. We have brought you to Chicago to furnish the savoir 
faire" McKim furnished his full share of knowledge and skill and sympathy to this enterprise 
and he was a great factor in creating that spirit of harmony and generous emulation which pervaded 
the whole enterprise and which was the foundation of its success. 

These are but the slightest reminiscences of a life full of artistic activity and achievement. They 
are what are most prominent in my memory. I am happy in this opportunity to testify on the part of all 
my profession to our admiration for the character McKim displayed in constantly and persistently seek- 
ing a high artistic goal, and to the added influence that has accrued to the whole profession because of 
the dignity with which he endowed his own part in it. For my own personal part I am still more 
happy to speak of my love for this charming artist and generous gentleman. 



INTERIORS, UNIVERSITY CLUB. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



57 




X u. 



58 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Excerpts from Addresses Delivered at the Memorial Meeting in 
Honor of Mr. McKim, Held in New York 
November 23, 1909. 

MR. GEORGE B. POST. The members of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the National 
Academy of Design, the American Academy in Rome, the New York Chapter of the American 
Institute of Architects, the Faculty of Fine Arts of Columbia University, the American Acad- 
emy of Arts and Letters, the National Institute of Arts and Letters, the Brooklyn Institute 
of Arts and Sciences, the McDowell Association, the Municipal Art Society, the National Sculpture 
Society, the National Society of Mural Painters, the Society of Beaux Arts Architects, and the Architec- 
tural League of New York, have called this meeting in honor of the late Charles Follen McKim. Were 
it not that I am to have the honor of introducing distinguished orators, far better qualified than I to 
speak of his character and career, I might well tell you how, by distinguished ability, great attainments, 
sterling worth, singular and insistent devotion to whatever he undertook, enthusiasm for the good and 
beautiful and hatred of sham, combined with a courteous consideration for all, he has won the devoted 
affection of his fellows and a dominating influence in the profession which he loved. He won the 

respectful admiration of the 
community ; his genius has 
stamped an imprint on the 
art of a continent. His life- 
work was not without public 
recognition. He was a 
Master of Arts of Bowdoin, 
and Harvard University, 
Doctor of Letters of Colum- 
bia University, Doctor of 
Laws of the Pennsylvania 
University, National Acade- 
mician, Member of the 
Academy di San Lucca of 
Rome, twice President of the 
American Institute of Archi- 
tects, and Honorary Member 
of the Royal Institute of 
British Architects, whose 
golden medal he has received. 

HON. JOSEPH H. 
CHOATE. We have as- 
sembled in this wonderful 
hall to-day, at the combined 
invitation of all the organiza- 
tions for the promotion of art 
in New York, to pay a trib- 
ute of respect and affection to 
a great artist, a noble gentle- 
man, a self-sacrificing and 
public-spirited citizen, and 
the recognized leader for 
many years of a powerful 
and brilliant profession. I 
library, university club. deem it a signal privilege 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



59 




CnnHBi 'Mm 



and honor, as a lifelong friend of Mr. McKim, to have been asked by this great body of his professional 
colleagues and disciples to address this interested and sympathetic company of his admirers. Interested 
and sympathetic I know you must all be, for it was impossible to come into contact with Mr. McKim 
without loving and honoring him, or to be even the most casual observer of his work without some 
appreciation and admiration of that. 

We have all known him in the zenith of his 
fame — long recognized at home and abroad as the 
foremost of American architects — creating in rapid 
succession building after building, public and pri- 
vate, of singular dignity, simplicity, and beauty; sur- 
rounded by all the signs of affluence and luxury, 
consulted as the leading authority on all matters of 
taste and art, with all sorts of honors and distinctions 
heaped upon him, and yet always as simple as a 
child, as modest and gentle as a woman — shunning 
publicity and shocked at all ostentation. 

It would be interesting to know from what 
beginnings all this greatness, this gentleness, this 
instinct for beauty, came. Some day I hope his life will be written by some competent hand. Recently 
there were placed in my hands some letters of his to his father, written in his twentieth year — probably 
before any person present here to-day had any knowledge of him — which seemed to me to shed much 
light on the formation of his manly and beautiful character. 

We know something of the father and the mother, too — a sturdy abolitionist and a famous Quaker 
beauty. It was from her, no doubt, that he got his striking grace and delicacy of feature. They were 
both as brave and fearless as they were plain and simple in life and manner. To show their faith by 






FIVE VIEWS OK THE MORGAN HOI SE 
WESTBURY, L. I. 



AND GARDENS, 



6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



their works, the} 7 accompanied the widow of John Brown to Virginia to bring home his mangled body, 
which was to lie moldering in the ground while his soul went marching on. 

The letters are from Cambridge in the summer and fall of 1866, where the boy was searching in 
vain in the vacation for a teacher to coach him in chemistry and mathematics to enable him to enter the 
Lawrence Scientific School in the Mining Department. Mining engineering was what he was bent 
upon, with no more idea of becoming an architect than of studying divinity. 

The Quaker discipline and spirit is stamped upon every line of his letters. They are addressed 
to " Dear Home," and they reveal on every page the simplicity, the earnestness, the narrow means and 
self-denial of that home and of the writer. Simplicity, quietness, self-restraint — were not these his 
guiding motives all through life? Are they not the very things that the name of McKim, Mead cc White 
stands for still? Truly the boy was father of the man. He uses the Quaker style and vernacular: 
" Father, does thee think I had better come home to Thanksgiving, or will it be spending too much ? I 
can wait till January if thee thinks it best," but " Do send mother to see me " is his constant refrain. 
" Dear mother, thee must come ! " His prevailing thought seems to have been how best to ease the 
burden of his education on the lightly furnished family purse. What he seems to have intended was 
one year in the Scientific School and then two years in Paris — not at all at the Beaux Arts, but in the 
School of Mines, where the education for his life's calling would be cheaper and better. The spur of 
necessity was the goad to his ambition, as it always has been to most Americans who succeed. Evidently 
he had no love for mathematics or mining, but he could toil terribly even at that. What it was that in 
one short year at Cambridge roused in his soul the dormant love of art and passion for beauty we cannot 
tell. But kindled they were, and at the end of the year he went straight to Paris and to the Beaux Arts 







SHAW MEMORIAL, 
BOSTON, MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



61 



to study architecture and then to travel as long as he could and feast his soul on all the wonderful and 
beautiful buildings which abound in France and Italy. And at last he comes home, fully equipped for 
the arduous and fascinating labors that were to fill and crown the thirty years of his successful and 
brilliant career. In architecture, as in every other profession, opportunity counts for much, and he 
found a golden opportunity awaiting him. 

. . . Perhaps this is hardly the occasion to dwell upon the innate traits and qualities that made him 
so dear and precious to his friends, and his loss so deeply and widely lamented. But in truth he was 
one of the most charming personalities that America has ever known. Wherever he came, he always 
brought light and warmth and sympathy, which seemed to flow from him whether he spoke or kept 
silent. It was impossible to know him and not to love him, and, to borrow the language of St. Paul, it 
may truly be said of him : 

" Whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever 
things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report ; if there be any 
virtue and if there be any praise, we think of these things " as all embodied and transfigured in the life 
and character of Charles Follen McKim. 

HON. ELIHU ROOT. ... As some men have the vision of their country rich and prosperous, 
and some men the vision of their country great and powerful, his imagination kept always before him 
the vision of a country inspired and elevated by a purer and nobler taste ; and unselfishly, with enthusi- 
asm, with persistency and high and noble courage, he devoted himself to that work. The sensitive 
quality of his nature, which made him shrink from conflict, from all the harsh contacts of life, made the 




PARK VIEW OF SHAW MEMORIAL, 



62 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



prosecution of this work by him courageous beyond the ordinary capacity for conception. That gentle, 
diffident, and hesitating manner seemed always to be yielding to opposition and before assault, but 
always, though he swayed to and fro, always he stood in the same place, immovable. However much he 
suffered — and he did suffer ; however hard it was, he never could surrender what he believed to be 
right in art. He never could surrender. It was impossible for his nature to yield in what he believed 
to be best for the future of art. 

Gentle and heroic soul, happy country which has the character to recognize such a man, which has 
the fiber into which can be woven such a thread ! Fortunate are we to have known him and to have 
called him our friend. 

MR. WALTER COOK. On v Sir Christopher Wren's tomb in St. Paul's there is a Latin inscrip- 
tion which says, " If you seek his monument, look about you," and we may well repeat these words 
when we think about Charles McKim. It is useless to enumerate all the buildings, in this city and 
elsewhere, which bear witness to his talent, his almost unerring taste, and his loving care. And it is 
one of the rewards which his and my profession offers, that when we are gone, our monuments, whether 
they be great and imposing structures or not, stand in the great open-air museum of city or country, to 
be seen by all men, and are not shut up in galleries. " If you seek his monument, look about you." 

All this production of a most active career he has left as a heritage to his country ; but more espe- 
cially is it the heritage of the architects who follow him. To them it is a very precious one ; for with 
these examples before us, we cannot fail to approach our work with something of the love and devotion 
to the beautiful which he possessed in so high a degree. ... In all the arts, and especially in the 




WAR (in. I EGE, 

w ASHINGTON, I). C. 



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6 4 



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65 



But \vc in this coun- 



so, I think is due 
of MeKim than to 



arts of the present time, there is such a striving for the individual note, for a different mode of expres- 
sion than any one else has used — a different language I might say — that this desire threatens some- 
times to destroy all other impulses. Let us at least be different, is the cry, even though we may not be 
beautiful . 

Architecture, in common with the other arts, has suffered from this malady 
try have not been the worst offenders ; and 
that we have not been 
more to the influence 
any other one cause. 

. . . He, too, sought as earnestly as 
the rest of us for individuality ; and when 
I think how easy it is to recognize his hand, 
I cannot but think that he attained it. But 
above all was his unwritten law — never, in 
the name of originality or with an ambition 
to be hailed as the daring innovator, to create 
anything which did not primarily appeal to 
him as beautiful. 

From this he never swerved an instant. 
And I believe that this loyalty to a pure and 
unselfish ideal will live as an example, as a 
good tradition among us long after his gen- 
eration has disappeared ; and that McKim 
dead will preserve us from as many mon- 
strous and grotesque creations as McKim 
living did. 



PRESIDENT NICHOLAS MUR- 
RAY BUTLER. ... We like to think 
of him as a member of the great tradition, 
the one great tradition that has shaped the 
intellectual life and the esthetic aspiration 
of the Western world ; the great tradition 
which, despite all changing, fitful tempers, 
all alterations of scene and passings of 
time, remains the one pure well of art and 
literature undefiled, the tradition which 
bears the name of Greece. 

PROFESSOR WM. M. SLOANE. 
. . . Fourteen associations, artistic, tech- 
nical, and literary, here unite to commemo- 
rate the distinction of Charles Follen McKim 
as a citizen, as a craftsman, and as an artist. 
To this end they join in recording these 
convictions. 




PLAN AT STREET 
NEW YORK CITY. 



LEVEL, PENNSYLVANIA RAILWAY STATION, 



. . . His genius was exhibited in his supreme power of collaboration ; he linked his work and fame 
inseparably with those of his two original partners, primarily for the sake of comprehensive mastery, 
but thus incidentally for the perfecting of achievement by each singly as well as by all in combination. 

. . . His work, like that of all true artists, was the expression of his manhood. His character 
was strong as it was pure ; his disposition affectionate and self-sacrificing; his mind vigorous, helpful, 
and noble. He was a lover of his kind, discerning reality behind the ideals of his fellow-Americans, 
intolerant only of pose and sham. Because of his strong and courageous heart he was genial but 
modest ; joyous, even gay, and gentle. 



66 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Public Bath and Gymnasium 
Building Competition. 

AWARD OF PRIZES. 

THE Jury for the Public Bath and Gymnasium Build- 
ing Competition, which was the problem for the last 
annual Terra Cotta Competition conducted by The 
Brickbuilder, awarded First Prize ($500) to Franklin M. 
Chace and Walter W. Cook, associated, Boston; .Second 
Prize ($200) to A. E. Hoyle and H. T. Carswell, asso- 
ciated, Boston; Third Prize ($100) to Charles Romer, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. ; First Mention to H. G. Cjuigley, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. ; Second Mention to Steward Wagner, New 
York City; Third Mention to Thomas Herman, New 
York City ; Fourth Mention to O. R. Eggers, New York 
City; Fifth Mention to Benjamin Courtland Flournoy, 
Washington, D. C. ; Sixth Mention to Clifford Evans, 
Birmingham, Ala. 

The competition was judged in Chicago, January 24th, 
by Messrs. Irving K. Pond, President of the American 
Institute of Architects, Chairman ; Alfred Hoyt Granger, 
I) wight Heald Perkins, Howard Van D. Shaw, and 
Robert C. Spencer, Jr. 



IN GENERAL 



Howell & Thomas, architects, Columbus, Ohio, have 
removed their offices to 151 East Broad street, Columbus. 

C. Howard Crane, architect, Detroit, announces his 
withdrawal from the firm of Watt & Crane, and the 
opening of offices in the Ford Building, Detroit. 

James E. Maher, architect, has opened offices in the 
Maryland Savings Bank Building, Baltimore. Manu- 
facturers' catalogues and samples desired. 

Edward C. Smith, architect, has opened an office at 
42 Market street, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Manufacturers' 
catalogues and samples desired. 

WANTED — Draftsman at once — First class draftsman, 
steady employment for the right man ; salary, $30 to $35 per 
week ; give references and experience. Wetherell GBi, Gage, 
Architects, 202 Youngerman Building, Des Moines, Iowa. 

A HOUSE OF BRICK— THE TITLE OF A 72 
PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS 40 DESIGNS 
FOR A BRICK HOUSE TO COST ABOUT $10,000. 
THESE DESIGNS WERE SUBMITTED IN COM- 
PETITION. THREE INTERESTING ARTICLES 
ON BRICKWORK, COMPARATIVE COSTS, ETC. 
PRICE, FIFTY CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, 
BOSTON. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— i kkgister as- 
sistants FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
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ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEREIRA, 
218 La SALLE St., CHICAGO. Long Distance Tel., Franklin 1328. 



Edward Crosby Doughty, architect, formerly of New 
York City, has been admitted to the firm of John Scott 
& Co., architects, Ford Building, Detroit. 

The first annual exhibition of the Los Angeles Archi- 
tectural Club was in all respects a great success, it having 
been attended by more than 24,000 people. On January 
23d a dinner was given by the club to the patrons of the 
exhibition, at which Mr. A. F. Rosenheim, President of 
the Los Angeles Club and of the Architectural Club 
of the Pacific Coast, was toastmaster. That upwards of 
24,000 people will attend an architectural exhibition is in 
itself a tribute to the energies of the managers and to 
that esprit de corps which is manifesting itself among 
architects all along the Pacific Coast. The officers of 
the American Institute of Architects would do well to 
take heed of this spirit and plan to hold its next annual 
convention in one of the Pacific Coast cities. The archi- 
tects of Los Angeles have filed their claim for first 
consideration. 

On February 16th the newly formed New Jersey 
Architectural Club opened its quarters at 847 Broad 
street, Newark. The idea of forming a club in Newark 
for architectural draftsmen and others in the allied arts 
was originated by the New Jersey Chapter of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects. On January 19th, in re- 
sponse to an invitation, some twenty-five draftsmen met 
members of the chapter at a smoker, when the subject 
was discussed and the chapter's offer to arrange for 
quarters and back a club was accepted. A club was 
formed, temporary officers elected, and a committee of 
organization appointed. The club has been organized 
along similar lines to those of the architectural clubs of 
Boston, Chicago, Pittsburg, and Washington, and the 
T-Square Club of Philadelphia. The main object is 
study, and to encourage self-advancement among mem- 
bers in the profession. 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITHER WOODEN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Public Buildings. Elastic, Noiseless, 
and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
German Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The Franklin Union Building in Boston, R. Clipston Sturgis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
the North Dakota, the largest Battleship in the United States 
Navy ; the extensions of the Suffolk County Court House in 
Boston, George A. Clough, Architect; and the Registry of 
Deeds, Salem, Mass., C. H. Blackall, Architect. 

We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646658 WASHINGTON STREET, Opp. Boylston Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



Competition Program — Small Brick House — Page 88 



THE 



o 






BRICKBVIIDER 




ARCHDECVRAL 

MONTHIY 




■C3I ' /tt 



MARCH 




I 



PVBUSHED BY ROGERS & MANSON 
EIGHTYFIVE WATER STREET BOSTON MASS. 



TRADE MARK 



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There is only one " Tapestry " Brick. It 
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Our trade mark " Tapestry " Is branded 
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product of our skill and 45 years experi- 
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« Tapestry " Brick has been used by lead- 
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apartments. 

EISKE 6- COMPANY INC 
:E BRICKS? ESTABLISH 
US, BRICKSi-ED IN 1864 

BOSTON, 25 Arch St NEW YORK, FUtlron Bldg. 



HI W YORK BALTIMORE 

IIVO Broadway American Building 

WASHINGTON 
Hem* Ufa Building 

O. W. KETCHAM 

Master Builders Exchange 
PHILADELPHIA 

Front Brlok Enameled Brick 

Hollow Tile Flreprooflng 

Roofing Tile 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 

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Genuine New England "Harvard" Brlcka 

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ARCHITECT URAL TEB BA COTTA 

Carter, Black & Ayers 

I Madison Ave., NEW YORK 

Agente for 

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Bradford, Pa. 



Atlantic 

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Manufacturers of 

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Every effort is made to carry 
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Atlanta Terra Cotta Company 

General Southern Agentt 

EAST POINT, GA. 



GRUEBY 
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TILES FOR FIREPLACES, 
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1133 Broadway, NEW YORK 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XIX MARCH 1910 Number 



3 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1910, by ROGERS & MANSON 

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ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

Agencies — Clay Products ....... II 

Architectural Faience ........ II 

,, Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick Ill 



PAGE 

Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

Fireproofing ......... IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

RAYMOND F. ALMIRALL; FIELD & MEDARY; HUNT & HUNT; CHARLES BARTON 

KEEN; PARKER, THOMAS & RICE; POND & POND; STRATTON & BALDWIN; 

HORACE TRUMBAUER; WHEELWRIGHT & HAVEN. 

LETTERPRESS 

I'AGB 

GROTTO NEAR THE OUTLET OF LAKE ALBANO Frontispiece 

THE PLANNING OF A PRISON OR PENITENTIARY Frederick G . Frost 67 

SOME ENGLISH BRICKBUILDERS -THE WORK OF P.W.TROUP R. Randal Phillips 75 

AN INEXPENSIVE AND DURABLE TYPE <)F CONSTRUCTION Charles H. Hughes 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 

COMPETITION PROGRAM — A SMALL BRICK HOUSE 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. XIX. NO. 3. 



MARCH, 1910. 



The Planning of a Prison or Penitentiary. 



BY FREDERICK G. KROST. 



A PENITENTIARY or prison is perhaps one of the 
most unusual types of plans to design as there are 
few examples from which to draw any precedent. Euro- 
pean examples are not applicable to this country for their 
method of confinement is somewhat different from ours. 
In Europe the prisoners are usually kept in solitary con- 
finement, and when sentenced to labor the work is per- 
formed in their own cells. For exercise the men are taken 
out singly into a small yard. These yards are so arranged 
that there 
can be no 
communi- 
cation be- 
tween the 
prisoners, 
and one 
guard sta- 
tioned at a 
central 
point sur- 
veys them 
all. The 
cells, be- 
ing used 
for work 
as well as 
d ormito- 
ries, are 
large and 
arranged 
along the 
outside 
walls with 
the corri- 
dor in the 
center. 

The method of confinement in this country consists in 
furnishing the prisoners with a cell for sleeping pur- 
poses only, while during the day they work collectively 




The health of the prisoner requires that he be given 
an abundance of sunlight, fresh air, exercise, and good 
wholesome food. Discipline to be effective must be main- 
tained through a system of direct and concentrated su- 
pervision, with undivided responsibility, combined with 
rigid and careful classification to prevent moral con- 
tagion. 

Taking these points as a basis for planning a peni- 
tentiary, the first and most important thought is to find 

the best 
arrange- 
ment for 
the cell 
houses or 
sleeping 
quarters. 
The ac- 
company- 
ing illus- 
tration of 
the cross 
section of 
s u c h a 
building 
will ex- 
plain it- 
self. It 
shows the 
a r range- 
in e n t of 
the cells 
with the 
utility cor- 
ridor be- 
t w e e n , 
through 
which run all plumbing pipes, lighting arrangements, 
and ventilation for the cells. The prisoners' corridors 
surround the cells, and outside of the prisoners' corridor 



in the shops, and are not allowed to communicate one is the guards' corridor. This arrangement, with slight 



with another. Nevertheless, in spite of the great differ- 
ence of opinion as to the methods of confinement, all au- 
thorities agree upon the general principle that health 
and discipline are the prime requirements for the proper 
confinement of criminals. 



modifications, is conceded by most authorities to be the 
best for the cell houses. 

The problem then arises as to how many prisoners 
such a cell house can accommodate without impairing 
the health, supervision, and classification. The authori- 



68 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ties are somewhat divided on the subject, but by care- 
fully considering all sides it seems inadvisable to have 
more than four stories of cells, and not more than five 
hundred in a wing. 
Such an arrangement 
gives sixty-two or 
sixty-three cells in 
one row, which is 
about the largest 
number of cell doors 
that can be operated 
by the modern lock- 
ing devices. 

Having thus de- 
termined the arrange- 
ment and capacity of 
a cell wing, the next 
thing to decide is the 
arrangement of sev- 
eral cell wings. The 
straight cell wing 
with the guardhouse 
in center or at one 
end, according to the 

number of cells, seems to be the most appropriate for 
small penitentiaries, while for large penitentiaries the 
best solution appears to be the stellar arrangement ; 



It S h 




£>ATM MOUSE. . . P!I^>T PLOOf^PLAN 

INKERS ISLAND PLNITENTIA1^Y-/J.YC. s«^. t ,,rf ? , y , T fht 



providing, however, that there shall be not more than 
four wings abutting on a central guardhouse. If there be 
more than four wings converging upon a single point then 

theinterveningangles 
become less than right 
angles and therefore 
so acute as to deprive 
the cells nearest the 
intersection of the 
proper amount of sun- 
light and air. 

The next problem 
that arises is the 
orientation of these 
cell wings. In The 
Brick h u ii.de r Hos- 
pital Competition 
Special Number there 
was an able article on 
the Orientation of 
Hospitals; and what 
is true about hospital 
orientation is equally 
true of a penitentiary. 
For the small penitentiary the straight cell wing should 
be placed north and south, while for the large penitentiary 
on the stellar system the wings must lie between the 




GROUND PLAN, RIKERS ISLAND PENITENTIARY, NEW YORK CITY, 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU1LDRR. 



69 




points of the compass. By this method the maximum Adjoining the mess hall should be located the work- 

amount of sunlight is obtained. There should be but shops, and as the prisoners are in them the greater 
one entrance to each cell wing and this entrance should part of the day the necessity of proper arrangement 
lead directly into the central 
guardhouse, where the main 
or central guard is stationed 
and where the entrance and 
exit of every prisoner and 
guard are observed and re- 
corded. The cell wings are 
easily supervised from this 
point and any disturbance 
or infraction of rules on the 
part of the prisoners or 
guards is strictly reported. 
This guardhouse should be 
arranged so that the walls 
between the cell houses con- 
tain as much window surface 
as possible in order that all 
persons using the staircases 
can be seen by the central 
guard. 

The mess hall should be 
located in close proximity to 
the central guardhouse, 
either attached or connected 
by a covered passageway. 
Close attention should be 
given this building regard- 
ing ventilation in order that 
the hall shall be at all times 
perfectly fresh and clean. 
The tables or benches should 
be arranged to give easy 
access for the service from 
the kitchen, which should 
be closely attached with its 
various storerooms, butcher 
shop, vegetable rooms, dairy 
and bakery. 




5ECT10AI 
TMRO -5TAIR MALL 



SECTION 
THRO' CELLS t CORRIDOR 



CELL M0O5L5 FOR THE. RIKLR5 ISLAND PEMTl^TIART-AYC. 



7° 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




3ECQAID rLOOR. PLAN. 

LAUA1DRY Of 
I^IKE.1^5 ISLAND PENITLNTIARy-AYC 



for light and air is very essential. Hygiene should come 
before economy, and these buildings would be better 
if planned as separate buildings. Stairways should be 
arranged at both 
ends, with a sin- 
gle entrance to 
the building. 
They should 
also be care- 
fully planned for 
the different 
branches of in- 
dustry carried on 
therein. 

The chapel or 
assembly hall, 
where three dif- 
ferent religious 
services (Protes- 
tant, Catholic, 
and Hebrew), lec- 
tures and enter- 
tainments are 
held, should be 
arranged, to meet 
the varied re- 
quirements. The 
bathhouse should 
be reached di- 
rectly from the guardhouse, so that the gangs of prison- 
ers may bath quickly, in order that the entire number of 
inmates may bathe at least twice a week without interfer- 
ence with the regular prison routine. To accomplish this 
purpose showers seem to be the most convenient form of 
apparatus. These showers should be so arranged that 
the prisoners can step from a dressing alcove to the 



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r!l\ST rT-OOF^PLAN 



shower at a given signal. All the showers should be con- 
trolled by the attending guards, stationed on elevated 
platforms, with a complete survey of every shower under 
their control. The necessary clean and soiled linen rooms 
should be located in this building. 

The hospital differs little from the regular type of ward 
hospital. Twenty patients seems to be the greatest 
number a ward should accommodate. Each ward should 
have its linen, bath and toilet rooms. The position of 
the nurse in the ward should be such that a complete 
view of every bed may be had. An operating room 
with the usual recovery, instrument, etherizing rooms, 
etc., used for minor operations, is necessary. It is 
also essential that a small isolation ward be provided in 
a separate building to guard against the spreading of 
any contagious disease. 

The laundry should contain only simple machinery, as 
the work is done entirely by the prisoners and a great 
deal of it by hand. A separate space should be allotted 
for the staff laundry in order that their clothes may not 
mingle with those of the prisoners. The power house 
should be planned in connection with the workshop and 
transit facilities. A storehouse for the manufactured 
articles should be located near the transit facilities with 
a trap or double-gated yard for shipping. 

The administration building should provide on the 
ground floor rooms for the clerical force, warden, deputy 
wardens, and general reception, as well as accommoda- 
tions for the reception of the prisoners. Inasmuch as 
the great majority of prisoners arrive at the institution 
in an unwholesome condition, a separate entrance is 
advisable where they can be conveniently guarded in a 
waiting room adjoining the office. 

Each prisoner is registered and conducted directly to a 
bathroom, while his clothes are taken and sent to a 
laundry and sterilizing room, where they are marked and 




■■■■■ 

BIRD'S-EYE PERSPECTIVE OF THE NEW STATE PRISON AT STILLWATER, MINN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



7i 



assigned to the storeroom for prisoners' clothing. In 
conjunction with these baths there should be a store- 
room for prison uniforms, so that after the prisoner has 
bathed he may be taken directly to the Bertillon room 
to be photographed and measured. After the examina- 
tion by the prison physician for the detection of conta- 
gious disease, etc., the prisoner passes to the assignment 
room, where he is given his number, and cell, and his 
duties determined. 

The arrangement for the visiting of prisoners usually 



The entire institution should be surrounded by a wall 
high enough to prevent a prisoner from scaling it and at 
such a distance from the buildings that the surrounding 
air and sunlight will not be shut out from them. There 
should be as few entrances through this wall as possible 
— only one if it can be conveniently arranged. 

In general it is of primary importance to arrange all the 
buildings with special care as regards surveillance and 
orientation, avoiding all forms of courts, and as few angles 
as possible. The buildings as far as practicable should 




GROUND PLAN, MINNESOTA STATE PRISON, STILLWATER, MINN. 

C. H. Johnston, Architect. 



consists of a visitor's waiting room, and a searching 
room where visitors are thoroughly searched before be- 
ing allowed to see the prisoner. The prisoners' visit- 
ing room should be arranged so that the prisoner and 
visitor may converse and yet be separated from each 
other to avoid the passing of articles. 

In the upper floors should be located the guards' bed, 
dining and sitting rooms, doctors', chaplains', deputy 
wardens', and wardens' apartments. 



be connected by covered passages affording protection to 
prisoners in inclement weather. 

Below is given a list of books with information regard- 
ing prisons. 

Charles Richmond Henderson — Modern Prison Systems. Prin- 
cipal countries of Europe and each state of the United Sti 

Samuel J. Harrows International Prison Commission Reports. 

K. Krohne — Handbuch der Gefangnissbaukunst. Handbuch 
tier Architectur. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



L. Klasen — Grundrissvorbilder, Degaude fur Justizzwecke 

J. Gaudet — Elements et Theorie de 1' Architecture. 

1 lesportes and Lefebure — La Science Penitentiaire. 

Charles A. Collin — Principles of Modern Prison Science. 

Jay S. Butler — The Prisons of Great Britain. 

William F. Harris — The Philosophy 
of Crime and Punishment. 

Hamilton I). Wey — Criminal An- 
thropology. 

Eugene Smith — New York's Prison 
Laws. 

Prison Labor System — The Elmira 
Reformatory I Published by the 
Inmates of the Institution I. 

Reports of 1 )epartment of Correction, 
New York State. 

THE NEW MINNESOTA 
STATE PRISON BUILD- 
INGS AT STILL- 
WATER. 

Before this work was under- 
taken the warden and Board of 
Control visited eighteen prisons 

in the United States for the purpose of familiarizing 
themselves with the very best and latest results in 
modern prison buildings. 

The prison proper enclosure contains twenty-two acres 
of land, and the prison farm one hundred and sixty 
acres. The buildings are plain, substantial, and comfort- 
able, and in planning all the laws and rules for obtain- 
ing the best hygienic and sanitary conditions have been 
carefully followed. The buildings are also fireproof. 
The entire group when completed will cost $2,500,000. 

It is estimated that the work carried 
on by the prisoners in the shops and 
on the farm will show an annual profit 
of $300,000 a year. 

One feature of the prison will be a 
library containing 6,000 volumes. 

The administration building has a 
well lighted hall which opens into a 
wide rotunda. On the right is the 






warden's office and an open hallway leading to the large 
office room, which occupies nearly one-half of this floor, 
where all of the business of the prison will be conducted. 
A little farther on the right is a large office for convict 
clerks, which connects with the main office. On the left 
of the rotunda is a reception room for the accommoda- 
tion and convenience of visitors. Here also is the office 



of the State Board of Control, which is connected with 
the turnkey's office, and all other inner offices, from 
which the prisoners may come direct to the Board's 
office without coming from behind locked doors. Lava- 
tories and water 
closets are planned 
for the accommoda- 
tion of the public 
and the office force. 
The rotunda opens 
into the turnkey's 
hall, on the left of 
which is located the 
usher's office, lava- 
tory, water closets, 
lounging room with 
lockers, for the con- 
venience of employ- 
ees; while on the 
right there is an 
office for convict 
clerks, a barber shop 
for employees, and telephone exchange. Two stairways 
lead up to the second and third floors of the administra- 
tion building. One-half of the second floor will be occu- 
pied by employees' kitchen, and three dining halls — two 
for officers and employees and the third for special use. 
The other half of the second floor will be used for a 
parlor and guest rooms. The third floor will be used for 
employees' sleeping rooms, a female prison, the matron's 
bedroom, parlor, etc. The turnkey's hall opens into the 
large central corridor, which leads to two large cell 
houses containing five hundred and twelve cells each. 
The cell houses are divided into two sections and contain 
altogether one thousand and twenty-four cells. 

The administration building and cross section to the 
cell houses will be built of concrete foundations and 
walls of brick, with pressed brick facings. The cells will 
be built of reinforced concrete, in size 6 feet wide, 9 feet 
long, and 8 feet high, with well lighted halls surrounding 
them. About one-third of the outside walls of the cell 

houses will be taken up 
with windows running 
nearly to the roof. There 
will also be large sky- 
lights in the cell house 
roofs over the halls, so as 
to make them as light 
and airy as possible. The 
second and third floors 
over the central corridor 
between the two cell 
blocks will be used for 
schoolrooms and lecture 
halls. On the ground 
floor of this building, off 
from the central corridor, the prison library is located in 
the first room to the left, and on the right side of the 
hall opposite, the Mirror office and printing room. 

The next building on the left contains the laundry, 
wash room, and the bathroom for all the prisoners, while 
the building on the right provides for the deputy warden's 
office, waiting room, office for the Bertillon and finger 



fUZJZIZIZJ 

PUN15M^\£NT CELL-BLOCK. 



1 



i iujiuiJiJ 

DETENTION CELL-BLOCK. I 



I 

■ 

j-i 



CELL MOUSE C. 



MINNESOTA STATE PRISON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



73 



print operator, with necessary room for the files, ten 
solitary cells, and ten detention cells, all on one floor. In 
the rear of the laundry building and cell house C — see 
plan — there is space allotted for two subsidiary cell 
houses, which will not be built now, but are planned for 
future contingencies, containing three hundred and sixty 
cells, making the maximum capacity thir- 
teen hundred and eighty-four cells. At the 
end of the central corridor is a wide vesti- 
bule which opens into the large dining hall 
for prisoners, the prison chapel, and into 
the convict kitchen, service room with cold 
storage, and general store 
in the rear of the kitchen, 
the latter facing the main 
street of the prison. All 
three of these buildings are 
one story. 

To the right of the group 
of buildings described a 
plot of land containing three 
and one-half acres will be 
used for parade grounds; 
to the left on the opposite side of the yard the same 
amount of ground will be converted into a prison 
park, in the midst of which will be located a modern 
prison hospital and greenhouse. Facing the main street 
where teams may enter the grounds through a large, 
double gate on the north side, or pass out of the prison 
from the south gate, there is the large central power 
plant which is to furnish electric power for the two large 
industries — the manufacture of binding twine and cord- 
age and farm machinery — which will supply work for all 
of the prisoners. This power plant will provide for all of 
the heating and ventilating of the buildings by means of 
the fan system. It is estimated that it will require from 
1,200 to 1,600 normal horse-power. Beneath the power 
plant is an underground coal storage vault of 2,000 tons 
capacity. The large water tower, 115 feet high, contains 
two large water tanks, one for domestic and the other for 
general purposes. Here the railroad tracks and switches 




NEW STATE PRISON AT STILLWATER, MINN. 



pass through the grounds from the north to the south 
entrances between the factory and warehouse buildings. 
Facing north from the power plant the twine fac- 
tory buildings are located. The factory building when 
completed will be 360 feet long, 86 feet wide, and 
three stories high, and will furnish ample room for five 
hundred spindles with necessary preparing 
machinery divided into four complete sys- 
tems, giving an annual manufacturing ca- 
pacity of 18,000,000 pounds. The large 
warehouse for raw material and the finished 
product of the twine factory is one story, 360 
feet long, 120 feet wide, and 
■!i) feet high, divided into 
four sections. 

The factory buildings and 
warehouses for the farm 
machinery plant will be 
located on the south half of 
the prison grounds set aside 
for manufacturing pur- 
poses. The size and design 
of these buildingswill not be 
determined until the management has had time to meas- 
ure and estimate the probable manufacturing capacity 
required. All of the other buildings will be erected first. 



nnai r-i.00R. pi^n 

^jy\INIiTRATJON bUILDINO 



THE ULSTER 



COUNTY JAIL 

N. V. 



AT KINGSTON, 



The new jail stands in the rear of the famous old 
Ulster County Court-house, where the first governor of 
New York State was inaugurated, and where the consti- 
tution of the state was promulgated. 

The building is an isolated structure 50 by 80 feet. 
In the basement are four station-house cells, one large 
tramp cell, shower bath, toilets, boiler rooms, etc. 
There is no entrance to the upper floors, except by a 
bridge or passageway leading from the old jail or court- 
house. The first floor contains sixteen steel cells, placed 
back to back, with a 5 foot corridor between. This 
corridor is closed at both ends by steel doors. In front 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



THIRD I I DOR PLAN. 





BASEMENT PLAN. 



iECOND I LOOK PLAN. 



ULSTER COUNTY JAIL, KINGSTON, N. V. 

Stoi kton B. Colt, Architect, M. S. Teller, Associated. 



74 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



of the cells is a steel 
grating, reaching 
from floortoceiling, 
which forms an ex- 
ercise corridor 48 
feet long and 8 feet 
wide, extending 
from the cells to 
within 4 feet of the 
windows, thus leav- 
ing ajailer'scorridor 
entirely encircling 
thecellsandexercise 
corridors, and enab- 
lingthe jailer tolook 
into each cell with- 
out mingling with 
the prisoners. All 
the cells and win- 
dow guards are of 
tool-proof steel. 

The second story 
is 28 feet high and 
contains two tiers 
of sixteen cells each, the upper tier being reached by a 
separate stairway. Here is also an exercise corridor in 
front of the cells. The cells are 6 by 7^ feet in dimen- 
sion, and are lined throughout with x / x inch steel plates, 
except the front steel bar grating. Each cell has an iron 
cot, hung at the side so as to fold against the wall. There 
is also a wash-basin and toilet, supplied with running 
water in a niche, which projects into a utility corridor 
that extends from basement to roof and contains all soil 




vent, water pipes, 
and closet bowls. 
The iron smoke- 
stack passing 
through the center 
creates a forced 
draft, carrying all 
odors out through 
openings intheroof, 
and affords ventila- 
tion for the cell, 
under control of the 
prisoner. 

All cells have 
sliding doors, with 
a lever locking de- 
vice worked from 
the jailer's corridor, 
which locks or un- 
locks any or as 
many doors as may 
be desired in each 
row. There is a 
combination dun- 
geon cell, also shower-bath cells on this floor. 

The old jail building was remodeled throughout. From 
this building the administrative functions of the new iso- 
lated jail are controlled. It contains the jailer's office, 
cuisine, storage rooms, lockers, laundry, women's and 
juvenile department, witnesses' rooms, visitors' rooms, 
women's hospital ward, matron's room, padded cell, etc. 
There are sixteen cells for women and juveniles. Both 
structures are fireproof throughout. 



WING, STATE REFORMATORY, RAHWAV, N. J. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



75 



Some English Brickbuilders. 



THE WORK OF F. W. TROUP, F. R. I. B. A. 



BY R. RANDAL I'H I I.I.I PS. 



THE opinion of the man in the street, though based 
on very limited knowledge, always offers some 
points of contrast which are well worth the consideration 
of those within the charmed circle of the profession. 
Coteries of architects tell one another what they think of 
the public taste; they rail against it; grow fervid with 
accusation; demolish in scorn the pet likes and dislikes 
of the uninitiated layman. And they go away feeling 
very satisfied, their heads brushing the stars. Some of 
them, alas, show a different front to things when they 
have to face them 
next morning in 
the course of 
everyday busi- 
ness; when they 
have to meet the 
stated require- 
ments of a client 
who, other than a 
client, is an egre- 
gious evil. And 
amid such condi- 
tions the architect 
sometimes falls 
from his high 
estate. Perhaps, 
indeed, he never 
possessed the 
ability to soar to 
any heights of ex- 
cellence, except in 
words — words 
which come with 
such facility when 
punctuated by the 
applause of those 
who professionally 
think the same as 
the speaker. So 
that not unseldom 
we have the sad 
example of an 
architect who talks 
well, yet does 
monstrous ill. It 
has been said of 
the craftsman, as 
of the architect, 
that the more 
fluent his thoughts 
are, as expressed 

in his work, the less likely it is that he will be found 
fluent in speech. 

But there is still another class besides those whose 




NORTH KNTRANCK TO " SANDHOUSE, WITLEV, SURREY. 



chief merit is in words alone. Among architects in 
practice will be found a certain number who unquestion- 
ably possess ability, but who are obsessed by the idea of 
doing something fresh. They wish to proclaim emphat- 
ically that they are not of the Ephraimites. In the 
secret of their own judgment they place themselves in 
the van. They are content to regard with very mild 
approval the efforts of those who work within the pre- 
scribed limits of any one style. Some of them abandon 
precedent, cast aside all design by rote. They take the 

orders, elongate 
and compress 
them, cut off cor- 
nices and mould- 
ings, and then, 
with an infusion 
of their own cher- 
ished ideas, they 
produce a new 
style — the Ugly 
Style. Truly the 
cult of these archi- 
tects is no other 
than the cult of 
barren ugliness. 
The public howl 
at their produc- 
tions, and the rank 
and file of their 
professional 
brethren are 
hardly less un- 
compromising in 
their criticism. 
This, however, is 
but the extreme 
expression of a 
movement which 
has some elements 
of good in it. In 
England to-day, 
while the general 
trend is towards 
the English Re- 
naissance, con- 
tinued in the spirit 
of our own times, 
there is no sym- 
pathy with the 
now dead formal- 
ism of the classic. 
But the architects who have done most to foster this 
movement are men of moderation. They have no desire 
to throw over the past in toto, yet they see very clearly 



7 6 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



that modern work, if it is to be worth anything at all, 
must be imbued with modern feeling; while, with regard 
to domestic architecture especially, they insist upon a 
proper recognition of the crafts that were united in the 




THE Workshop. 



SANDHOUSE, " WITI.EY, SURREY, 



old work. Mr. F. \V. Troup stands prominently among 
the architects who take up this position. His work runs 
on traditional lines, but it is full of his own individuality, 
always kept well within the proper limits of the material 
by which it is expressed. Anything affectedly abnormal, 
any display of mere cleverness, is insufferable to him. 
To quote his own advice to young architects: "In 




WORKSHOPS, "SANDHOUSE," WITI.EY, SURREY. 



designing, above all things avoid being clever merely for 
the sake of effect. Cleverness is not art — more often it 
is mere license and a want of restraint. Be certain of 
this, that your best work is not that part in it which you 
most admire yourself, and you will be safe ruthlessly to 
cut out that part from your design. The clever features 
are like the smart sayings of an author. The latter often 
ruin a book as the former may ruin a design — they dis- 
tract and disturb, even if they tickle the fancy. Although 
they may be admired for the moment it is more than 
likely they will live to be laughed at." 

Mr. Troup's work has been almost exclusively domes- 
tic. He is a great builder of houses, and an able expo- 
nent of brickwork. So far, the largest example which he 
has carried out is "Sandhouse," near Witley, in Surrey, 
though at the present time an even more elaborate house 
built entirely of brick is being .completed from his de- 
signs. Hut "Sandhouse" serves very completely to 
illustrate his 
methods. The 
house is built with 
wood-burnt bricks 
of a good red 
color, obtained in 
the neighborhood, 
with headers — 
" flare-ends " of a 
soft gray color — 
arranged to form 
a diaper. The 
roof is tiled, and 
all exterior wood- 
work is of oak. 
The main entrance 
is on the north 
front. From the 
accompanying il- 
lustration it will 
be seen that the 
"porch " is an un- 
usual one. It is 
carried on stone 
pillars and has a 
decorative panel 
in cement as a cen- 
tral feature. On 

the dormer in the roof above is to be seen some inter- 
esting lead work, and especially in the several rain-water 
heads and down-pipes, which were all designed by 
Mr. Troup and proclaim his zeal for the crafts — a zeal 
which shows itself, in fact, throughout the house. 

The porch leads into a large hall having a fireplace at 
one end. This hall is wood-paneled, the paneling in- 
cluding some fine work. Over it is a decorative frieze 
of colored plaster, though this was not in the archi- 
tect's original design, and is rather too heavy in char- 
acter. The beams and joists are of Oregon pine, the 
floor is of oak. 

As the illustration shows, the furniture of the hall is 
in keeping with the design, and the total effect is par- 
ticularly pleasing. In the drawing room a feature is 
made of the fireplace, which is arranged in an ingle- 
nook at one end, surrounded by large square green tiles, 




TURRET OVER COACH-HOI'S E , 

" SANDHOUSE," WITI 1 \ , 

SURREY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 3. PLATE 31. 






2 

O 

W 

D 
O 

X 



H 

W 

w 

H 
w 

OS 
O 
H 

< 



o 




o 




< 


J 


u 


J 






X 




■J 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 3. PLATE 32. 




HOUSE ON LOCUST STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA. 

Horace Trumbauer, Architect- 









1 wo Uilipillll 


\H 


Pec// cio/ 1 j, ATH 1 




,*.:.,<>... r^S, Ma|n y 


ALL 

— 1 

"tlAMBta 


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L|o ,; ■»■"■■• ,{A W " 

■ C to" |0] 0| 


• Thiud fLooa VI 


*iN • 





^AOErMErNT PLAN 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 3. PLATE 33. 




T. A C M 







T 



< > 



M MM 









B 



« i™J 




BATH HOUSE, BELLE ISLE, DETROIT, MICH. 
Stratton & Baldwin, Architects. 



THE BRICK BUI LDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 3. PLATE 34 




X ■ 

o & 

o a 

. < 

<; s 

< 

o • 

J o 

m z 
s ° 

z" 

!* 

J 
X 

o 
o 

OS 

m 



THE BRIC KBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 3. PLATE 35. 



C.OJK*. -.3TCM£^*e 







BASEMENT PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 3. PLATE 36. 



:-: fa 



ROQKLTNPVBUGBATH' 

roVETHAVDJVcS PECSIDCNT STREET - 



\ I, Raymond rALMiR.ALhAR.CHT. ,1 
" J CHATIBEES ST. N. Y.CITY 



ll WtlJj" ' 




DETAIL OF FRONT ELEVATION, BROOKLYN PUBLIC BATH. 

Raymond F. Almirall, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 3. PLATE 37. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 3. PLATE 3B. 




< 
£ 

u 
o 

Q . 
DC t 

m £ 

< 2 
u < 

Zl" 
o 5 

o x 

2 _ 

<: x 

Ji 
q5 

5* 

DC 
<C 

X 

u 
DC 

H 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 19, NO. 3. PLATE 39. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 3. PLATE 40. 





INTERIOR VIEWS. 

THE HARVARD LAMPOON, 

CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 




THE BRICKBUI LDE R. 

VOL. 19. NO. 3. PLATE 41. 




HOUSE, EIGHTY-FIFTH STREET AND PARK AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY. 

Hunt & Hunt, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 3. PLATE 42. 




■SEC07W ■ 3TORY PJ.XW- 



Fifth Story Pjlaw- 




Fourth Story Flam- 



■FIRST J TORY Pi. AT/- 





Third Story Plxw- 



BXSEMETfT PLX7V- 



HOUSE, EIGHTY-FIFTH STREET AND PARK AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY. 

Hunt & Hunt, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 3. PLATE 43. 




• flEJT rtOOU Pi Art -[J 

HOUSE ON LOCUST STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 
Field & Meoary, Architects. 



OCCOND 7*LOOE PLAH - Chamomu im i»'«Bo'TbM»TM tioocm. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 3. PLATE 44. 




•I>AJEMtHT Pi AH 



fiEST fiooft Plah • • -5ECOHD Tiooz Plah • -TVllBD TLOOB PlAN • 

HOUSES ON LOCUST STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 
Charles Barton Keen, Architect. 



TOVPTH ri00BPLM1< 



THE BRICKBUILDEK 



77 




THE HALL, " SANDHOUSB, WITLEY, SURREY. 



7« 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THK FORECOURT WALLS AT "BELCOOMBE," SAXI. ING- 
HAM, NEAR NORWICH. 

with narrow blue tiles between. The woodwork in this 
room is of oak. 

In the outbuildings — the coach house, stables, work- 
shops, etc. — Mr. Troup has continued the treatment 
adopted for the house itself, and innumerable instances 
of his individuality are displayed; such, for example, as 
the turret on the coach house, with its lead-faced clock, 
and the combination of elm-boarding and brick in the 
workshops. The whole design is essentially English in 
character, unostentatious, and satisfactory. 

Another house by Mr. Troup is "Belcoombe," Sax- 
lingham, near Norwich. It is not by any means so large 
as " Sandhouse, " and it does not offer so many points of 
interest as a piece of modern brickwork, but it possesses 
two features which merit notice as curious practical ex- 
periments on the part of the architect. These are the 
forecourt wall and the wall dividing the kitchen garden. 
Economy was a great consideration in this case, and in 
order to meet the requirements Mr. Troup had recourse 
to single brick walls. To build them straight in the 
ordinary way would have been useless, because the walls 
would have been unstable. In the forecourt, therefore, 



they are planned in short segments bound together with 
piers, and rendered more attractive by the omission 
of certain bricks so as to form a pierced pattern. 
Mr. Troup has thus been able to use only A l / 2 inch walls 
— that is, one brick thick instead of two. But the most 
ingenious attempt in this direction is the wall in the 
kitchen garden at "Belcoombe." The accompanying 
illustration, taken from a height shortly after the house 
had been completed, shows what an amazing thing this 
wavy wall is. Yet it is not a freak, but a genuinely 
practical and most successful endeavor to secure econ- 
omy combined with efficiency. Like those in the fore- 
court, this wall too is only one brick thick (4^ inches). 
It is built of ordinary 3 inch bricks and set out in curves 
or bays measuring about 16 feet center to center, and 
3 feet across from an imaginary cord drawn at the base. 
By building the wall in this way it was possible to effect 
a saving of $25 on a 9 inch wall. The linear measure- 
ment of the wall is more than that of a straight wall of 
the same length, but the cubic measurement is only five- 
eighths that of a straight wall two bricks thick. The 
curved wall, of course, though only one brick thick, has 



• 




CURVED WALL AT "BELCOOMBE," SAXI INGHAM, NEAR 
NORWICH. 




THE FORECOURT WALLS AT " BELCOOMBE, SAXLING 
HAM, NEAR NORWICH. 



a substantial base area, and its efficacy was tested soon 
after it had been built, for at that time it withstood a 
very severe gale; the brickwork was then green and the 
coping had not been put on, so that the ultimate strength 
of the wall was at once made evident. Moreover, in 
this particular case, the curved wall bays have the merit 
of acting as " sun-traps" for the fruit-trees which they 
enclose. 

The view of the wall taken at ground level is free 
from the exaggeration of the other view, taken from 
above, and shows that the attempt here made is a 
most successful one. The wall was Mr. Troup's own 
idea, though an example at Wroxall Abbey, Warwick, 
reminds us again that there is nothing new under the 
sun — for here is to be found a wall planned in semicir- 
cles with straight connecting pieces, attributed to Wren, 
though the wall is not any such attempt at economy as 
Mr. Troup's, being 18 inches thick for the first 2 feet, 
and 12 inches above. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



79 



The foregoing ex- 
amples serve to illus- 
trate the character 
of Mr. Troup's do- 
mestic work. That 
he does not lose his 
merit when brought 
under city condi- 
tions, we may see by 
turning, in conclu- 
sion, to the extension 
which has recently 
been made to White- 
field's Tabernacle in 
Tottenham Court 
Road, London. The 
extension, for the 
most part, takes the 
form of a small hall 
at the side of the 
main building and 
partly under ground, 
but on the street 
side a shop has been 
erected, with rooms 
over. The walls are 

of gray bricks, with Portland stone dressings. At each 
side of the shop front are glazed brick piers, and above 
the sign (which is painted on a slab of slate) are panels 




WAVY WALL AT " BELCOOMBE, SAXLINGHAM, NEAR NORWICH. 



filled with small red 
and black Dutch 
bricks, arranged to 
form a pattern; a 
similar treatment be- 
ing followed at the 
rear, the whole 
showing that even 
with so limited an 
opportunity as this 
little building offers, 
Mr. Troup has been 
able to produce a 
result full of inter- 
est. Here, too, his 
love of craft work 
has not been left un- 
expressed, for the 
ridge is covered by 
ingeniously con- 
trived lead plates, 
decorated with a 
raised pattern, these 
plates being arranged 
with a lap at the 
sides, and at the top 
a lug through which is driven the nail that holds the 
plates in position, the lug being afterwards folded over 
the nail-head, thus ensuring a sound piece of work. 




REAR VIEW, EXTENSION TO W II II El I El. I) S TABER- 
NACLE, TOTTENHAM COURT ROAD, LONDON. 




KRONT VIEW, EXTENSION TO WHITEFIELD S TABER- 
NACLE, TOTTENHAM COURT road, London. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



An Inexpensive and Durable Type of Construction. 



BY C. II. HUGHES. 



ANEW type of construction is here shown which 
employs hollow blocks, made from hard burned 
clay having ribs on the sides about % inch wide by ' s 
inch deep and grooves on the top and bottom about 

1 inch wide by 
: 'ii; inch deep 
(Fig. 1). Other 
blocks are made 
with only one of 
the sides ribbed, 
but with grooves 
on the top and 
bottom. Owing 
to the shape of 
the ribs a stucco 
or plaster finish 
can be applied 
which will cling 
fic. i. firmly to the 

sides. 
The following table gives the sizes, weights, and num- 
ber of air spaces of these blocks. 

4" X 8" X 12" 16 lbs. 24 lbs. per sq. ft. 2 air spaces. 

6" x 8" x 12" 22 „ 33 „ „ „ „ 4 „ „ 

8" X 8"X12" 28 „ 42 „ „ „ „ 4 „ „ 

12" X 8"X12" 34 ,, 51 „ „ „ „ 6 „ „ 




m m 



T 






The blocks are 
adapted particularly 
for wall construction, 
either for buildings 
or retaining purposes 
where an even tem- 
perature is required. 
This is brought about 
by the air spaces, 
which allow a cushion 
of air to be always 
between the two 
sides of the wall. 
The blocks are laid ,,,, 

with the air spaces 

horizontal, and a steel band 1 inch by V s inch is placed 
between them and embedded in Portland cement, which 
thoroughly binds them together, the grooves preventing 
the cement from 
slipping. The 
bands add greatly 
to the strength of 
the wall, and per- 
mit with safety a 
reduction in the 
thickness. It is es- 
timated that an 8 
inch wall of these 
blocks built in the 
manner described 
equals in strength buildings for haker oi 

one of 12 inch of Showing terra cotta holl< 



common brick. When a wall has a long reach piers are 
used to reinforce it. The piers consist of two lines of 
blocks witli notches on the sides, to receive the wall 
blocks, as illustrated in Fig. 2. The steel bands protrud- 
ing from 
the rows of 
blocks will 
be noticed, 
also the ver- 
t i c a 1 air 
spaces in 
the piers 
and the hor- 
i z o n t a 1 
spaces in 

the wal1 ' 
and that 

part of the wall has a stucco or plaster finish and part 

has none. 

In Fig. 3 are different combinations of piers and walls. 

A is used around openings. The wall blocks fit into the 

notches in the piers and the steel bands are stopped 

either with the wall or bent down into the air spaces in 

the piers. B is for reinforcing a wall. Although the 

blocks are stopped the steel bands extend through the 

piers and tie the blocks on each side together. C is 

a corner pier with the bands bent at right angles and 

following the blocks. 




II II 
II II 
II II 



■ I II 

■ ■ II 

■ I II 






I ) is similar to B, 
with a partition 
added. E is a center 
pier with four walls 
or partitions. The 
bands in D and E are 
continuous, tying to- 
gether in both cases 
the sections of the 
wall divided by the 
piers. 

These combina- 
3. tions have many ad- 

vantages over the 
ordinary brick pier and wall. For instance, 12 inch 
piers weigh 66 pounds per square foot, while those of 
the same size of brick weigh 84 pounds per square foot. 

The former is fully 
equal to the latter 
in strength as a 
column, and has 
the further advan- 
tage of saving 
about twenty- five 
per cent in the 
weight, thus de- 
creasing the ship- 
ping charges and 
cheapening the cost 
works, bayway, n. j. of the foundations, 

w tile wall construction. The piers may be 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



81 



spaced to carry the floor girders, doing away with the 
steel columns. When, however, columns are used, 
special blocks are made to fit them, the steel bands being 
stopped at the col- 
umns. 

The accompany- 
ing illustrations are 
of two buildings 
erected by the 
.Standard Oil Com- 
pany, and are good 
examples of this 
type of construc- 
tion. The walls of 
the building at East 
Boston are of 6 
inch blocks, the 
columns dividing 
the walls into 
panels — the larg- 
est panel being 21 feet long by 12 feet high, 
ing cost about 9% cents per cubic foot. 




BUILDING FOR STANDARD Oil. COMPANY, EAST BOSTON, 

Showing terra cotta hollow tile wall construction. 



This build- 



The building at Bay way has a steel skeleton of stand- 
ard 8 inch I beams covered with these blocks 6 inches in 
thickness. The largest panel is 37 feet high by 20 feet 

6 inches wide. In 
estimating new 
work the Standard 
( )il Company allows 
16V1> cents per cubic 
foot for walls built 
with 4 inch blocks — 
22' •> cents per foot 
for walls built of 6 
inch blocks, and 28 
cents per square 
foot for walls built 
with 8 inch blocks. 
These prices in- 
clude blocks, scaf- 
folding, steel 
bands, cement, etc. 
Besides the blocks described others are made which are 
suitable for copings, lintels, sills, and covered surfaces. 



MASS. 



Plate Illustrations — Description. 

The Brooklyn Public Bath, Brooklyn, N. Y. Plates 
34, 35, 36. The materials used on the exterior of this 
building are brick, terra cotta, bluestone, and bronze. The 
colors of these materials have been carefully selected with 
the purpose of giving dignity and harmony to the struc- 
ture. The plan provides for a basement partly below the 
sidewalk, first floor 6 feet above the sidewalk, and a second 
story. In the basement the pool, which is 40 feet wide 
and 58 feet long, was planned so that five lengths with 
the turns would give a standard distance of 100 yards. 
Surrounding the pool is a passage 6 feet wide, the floor 
of which is always kept warm by the main hot air ducts, 
which are located in a chamber beneath. The pool has 
a capacity of 80,000 gallons of water, with an inflow and 
outflow of 20,000 gallons per hour, giving a complete 
change of water every four hours. The hot water supply 
for the pool is entirely independent of the supply for 
showers. By introducing a part of the inflow at the top 
of the pool there is a constant supply of clean surface 
water. The pool and floor of passage are surfaced with 
non-absorbent marble granolithic, the floor of passage 
being pitched to drain away from pool. The heating 
system combines the direct and indirect. The indirect 
system supplies 40,000 cubic feet of air per minute, 
and has been arranged so that the rising vapor, which 
always occurs where hot water is used in large quanti- 
ties, will be thoroughly dissipated. The system of heat- 
ing is reversible, supplying hot air in winter and cold 
air in summer. For ventilation, a complete blower sys- 
tem has been installed, with a capacity to deliver 20,000 
cubic feet of air per minute. 

On the first floor the men's waiting room is approxi- 
mately one-third larger in area than the women's, as it 
has been found by experience that a larger percentage 
of men use the public bath. The office is used for the 
distribution of towels and general supervision of this 
floor. The entrance and exit of patrons between wait- 
ing room and bath are well regulated by an electrically 



controlled turn idle. Thirty-four cleansing showers and 
seventy lockers are arranged about four sides of a bal- 
cony overlooking the pool ; the lockers are placed at the 
front end of balcony to form a robing and disrobing 
space for those using the pool. It is intended, by a 
regulation of hours, to use the cleansing balcony to- 
gether with the pool for men or women. On the second 
floor the shower and tub baths are disposed on a corridor 
plan, which facilitates supervision. Each compartment 
consists of a dressing room, separated by a marble parti- 
tion from the shower, the floor of which is depressed and 
separately drained. The partitions for all showers and 
toilets throughout the building are of Italian veined 
marble, the floors of non-absorbent materials. As far 
as possible all angles have been eliminated by using 
rounded corners and sanitary bases. The showers for 
women throw the water at an angle on the body, and 
are provided with a self-closing valve and an automatic 
anti-scalding valve. The building complete contains 
one hundred and five showers and nine bath tubs, giving 
an estimated capacity of 1,500,000 baths a year. 

House at Chicago, III. Plate 31. The exterior treat- 
ment is in two tones of face brick with considerable 
texture. Upon the interior oak is used for the trim in 
the entrance, staircase halls, corridor, den, and dining 
room. The library is finished in mahogany, while the 
drawing room and chamber stories are in white enamel. 
The ceilings of the den and dining room are beamed, 
that of the drawing room is finished in ornamental 
plaster, while that of the first floor passage is vaulted. 
All floors are of oak except the kitchen, which has rubber 
tile, and the laundry, which has cork tile. There is no 
waste space either in the attic or cellar. Provision has 
been made for the installation of an electric automatic 
elevator. The laundry is equipped with a power laundry 
plant. A vacuum cleaner has also been installed. In 
cubing, the entire ground area was taken and the height 
measured from 6 inches below the basement floor to the 
top of the parapet. The cubage on this basis was 
approximately 36 cents. 



82 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Harvard Lampoon Building, Cambridge, Mass. 
Plates 38, 39, 40. The building was erected to house 
the Harvard Lampoon .Society, which publishes the 
Lampoon. In addition to the publication offices and club 
rooms there are small shops on the ground floor. The 
exterior of the building is of hard burned red brick 
with dark headers. The old Weigh-Houses of Holland 
furnished a suggestion for the architectural treatment. 
One of the rooms illustrated is finished in Delft tiles, 
of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth cen- 
turies, which were 
purchased by the 
architects in Hol- 
land. Further in- 
spiration was drawn 
from the old church 
at Jamestown, Vir- 
ginia, which has 
been restored re- 
cently by the 
architects of the 
Lampoon Building. 
This old church 
itself is patterned 
after one at Smith- 
field, Virginia, 
which is an ex- 
ample of indige- 
nous American 
Gothic architecture. 

Public Bath, 
Detroit, Mich. 
Plate 33. The 
present building 
has four hundred 
and fifty-one rooms 
and two hundred and eighty-five lockers in the men's de- 
partment and one hundred and ten rooms in the women's 
department. The architects have prepared plans for in- 
creased accommodations, which will result in a maximum 
capacity of one thousand seven hundred and thirty-eight 
rooms in the men's department and three hundred and 
ninety-eight rooms in the women's department. The 
administrative arrangements are very simple. The 




OLD CHURCH AT JAMESTOWN, VA. 

Restored by Wheelwright & Haven, Architects 



bathers enter the open vaulted corridor in the center 
and after purchasing tickets proceed into the separate 
rooms for men and women, where suits are distributed. 
Here they deposit their valuables with an attendant and 
proceed into the court, where the dressing rooms are 
located. From this point they pass to the beach through 
a gate in the wall. After bathing they return to the 
court and dressing rooms, from where they leave without 
re-entering the central part of the establishment. All 

entrances and exits 
are controlled by 
registering turn- 
stiles. The wet 
bathing suits are 
immediately sent 
on mechanical con- 
veyors to the laun- 
dry, which is located 
in the second story 
and equipped com- 
pletely with modern 
laundry machinery. 
After the suits have 
passed through the 
laundry they are 
lowered by eleva- 
tors to the suit 
rooms for distribu- 
tion. The maxi- 
mum capacity of the 
laundry is 17,000 
pieces per day in- 
cluding suits and 
towels. The first 
story of the central 
building and all 
walls about the 
courts are faced with vitrified paving brick of a rich red 
color. The entire building is of fireproof construction 
and in addition to the administrative conveniences above 
mentioned, there is a well equipped infirmary for use in 
emergencies. The present building cost $70,000 and it 
is estimated that the proposed addition will cost $65,000 
more. The addition will increase the accommodations 
about two and one-half times. 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany. 

THE New York Chapter of the American Institute of 
Architects offers medals for the handsomest build- 
ings of the tenement house and high class apartment 
house type erected in the city of New York during this 
year. In offering the medals the object has been to en- 
courage the erection of houses that will add to the beauty 
and attractiveness of the city. The idea as explained by 
Mr. Arnold W. Brunner, president of the Chapter, "is 
to stimulate a desire among the men who put up our city 
structures to add, as far as possible, to its beauty. To 
secure a medal does not mean that the builder will be 
required to spend any additional sum of money. Many 



of the simplest structures are far handsomer and con- 
tribute more to the charm of their locality than buildings 
of a highly ornate character." 

Mr. Brunner admits that the plan is an experiment on 
novel lines, and the exact system to be adopted in de- 
termining the manner of making the award is now under 
consideration by the executive committee, consisting of 
Mr. Brunner, Henry Bacon, Frank H. Holden, Robert 
D. Kohn, and Burt L. Fenner. 



CONVENTION OF THE NATIONAL BRICK 
MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION. 

AT THE convention of the brick makers held at 
Pittsburgh early in February, which was attended 
by the leading manufacturers of the country, the domi- 
nating thought seemed to be to improve the methods of 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



83 



manufacturing brick and to 
lessen the cost so that the 
product should meet the every 
demand of the architect and 
be able to compete favorably 
with all other kinds of build- 
ing material. Never in the 
history of this or any other 
country has there been given 
into the hands of the architect 
a better variety and quality 
of brick. The manufacturers 




THE VIRGIN AND THE APOSTLES. 



home builders especially, in 
behalf of brick. The conven- 
tion was addressed during its 
sessions by Henry Hornbostel 
and Donn Barber, architects, 
of New York City, and Prof. 
Henry McOoodwin, Pitts- 
burgh. 

MASONIC HOMES COM- 
PETITION. 

The Grand Lodge, F. and 




DRAPED FIGURE. 





DRAPED FIGURE. 



DETAIL OF ENTRANCE, CHURCH OF THE HOLY GHOST, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 
Entrance of white matt glaze terra cotta with depressions tn ated in Sienna. Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

Murphy, Hindle & Wright, Architects. 



take the ground, and rightly, that if our annual loss by 
fire is to be reduced from $2.50 per capita, as it now is 
in the United States, to 33 cents per capita, as it is in 
Europe, a greater use of brick must be depended upon to 
bring about the change. It is conceded that the initial 
cost of a house of brick will be from eight to fifteen per 
cent more than if the same house was built of wood. It 
can also be proven 
that this initial cost 
is soon offset by the 
relative cost of 
maintenance. 

The leading brick 
manufacturers of 
the N. B. M. A. 
have organized 
the Building 
Brick Manufactur- 
ers Association of 
America. It is the 
purpose of this or- 
ganization to carry 
on a campaign 
among prospective 




HIGH SCHOOI , EV] 111 11, MINN. 

Built of (lark gray brick manufactured by the Columbus Bri< k & Terra Cotta Company. 

Bray & Nystrom, Architects. 



A. M. of Pennsylvania, proposes to build a home for 
aged and infirm members, and wives, widows, and 
orphans of members of the Masonic Fraternity, upon a 
site adjoining Elizabethtown on the main line of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad between Lancaster and Harris- 
burg. The tract here owned by the lodge comprises 
nine hundred and fifty-seven acres, of which about two 

hundred and forty 
are reserved for the 
buildings ulti- 
mately to be re- 
quired for the home. 
These, estimated to 
number upwards of 
eighty, will com- 
prise acentral build- 
ing for community 
life, sixty to seventy 
cottages, chapel, 
hospital, schools. 
service buildings, 
etc. 

The Grand Lodge 
has placed this 



8 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




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m 

mm 




BLAKE BUILDING, I'.OSTON. 

Exterior of building in soft white matt glaze terra cotta with rich de 

tail. Work <_-xi.-iuti.-il by Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. 

Arthur H. Bow ditch, Architect. 

project in the hands of a "Committee on Homes," 
with full authority to engage an architect and proceed 
with construction. 

To procure a general plan for the group and an archi- 
tect for initial constructions costing about $350,000 a 
competition has been established by the committee and 
will be conducted with the advice of Prof. Warren I'. 
Laird, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

The competition will be restricted to invited archi- 
tects, three of whom will be especially selected and 
paid, while others will be chosen from among those of 
the open field who desire to enter and who may be 
approved by the committee. This approval will be 
given only to architects of such mature experience and 
reputation in the execution of large work that no hesita- 
tion would be felt in their selection under a method of 
direct appointment. As this might exclude younger 
practitioners whose ability in design would be of value 
to the competition the committee will consider applica- 
tions from "associated architects " if a member of such 
association be qualified as above. 

A competitive fee of §800 will be paid to (a) each of 
the three especially invited architects, and (l>) each of 
those three others who rank highest in the judgment. 
Also to each of these will be paid such traveling ex- 
penses as may have been incurred by him in a prelimi- 
nary examination of the site. 



The competition will close June 18, 1910. Required 
drawings will be as few and simple as possible. 

Judgment will be rendered by a jury composed of 
Professor Laird and two architects to be chosen by the 
competitors. 

The appointed architect's commission will be at the 
rate of six per cent, under the statement of practice of 
the American Institute of Architects, and he will also 
receive for the use of his group plan, as restudied, the 
sum of $1,000. 

Programs will be issued to duly invited competitors. 

Request for blank forms to be used in applying for 
admission to the competition should be addressed to 
Hon. George W. Guthrie, Grand Master, Masonic Temple, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

"PHOENIX" TILE CONSTRUCTION. 

THE terra cotta hollow tiles of which the buildings 
for the Standard Oil Company were constructed — 
the work is described on another page of this number — 
were manufactured by Henry Maurer & Son, 420 East 
23d street, New York. The tiles are known as Phoenix 
tiles. 

CREDIT TO THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT. 

THE interior views of the Morgan Library and the 
interior view of the Harvard Club, which were illus- 
trated in Thk Brickbi elder for February in connection 
with the work of Mr. McKim, were made from photo- 
graphs taken expressly for the American Architect. 




■ •■»•■■» ■■■■■■■Iff ■«■■■« ««M« 

!■»««• m w « » ««H»« tUMt ■■»■■■»■ 





^■■■■aViuiiaiMnaB" 

;§»"•"• ■"iVSmi Writ »■"•••! 




DETAIL OK BRICKWORK, RIT2-CARLTON HOTEL AND CARL- 
TON HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 

Carter, Black & Ayt-rs furnished 800,000 Harvard brick for the exterior 

treatment of this building. 

Warren & Wetmore. Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



85 




Mr. Morgan gave 
permission to this 
journal only to pho- 
tograph the interior 
of his library. 



DETAIL BY FOLTZ &• PARKER, 
ARCHITECTS. 

Indianapolis Terra Cotta Company, 
Makers. 



NEW BOOKS. 

Gothic Architec- 
ture, Furniture and 
Ornament of Eng- 
land from the Elev- 
enth to the Sixteenth 
Centuries, compris- 
ing exteriors, interi- 
ors, ornamental carv- 
ing, sculpture, rare 
paneling, fonts, capi- 
tals, ceilings. Two 
volumes in one port- 
f olio. Price $40. 
Boston, George H. 
Polley & Co. 



The Architectural Forms of the Classic Ages, compris- 
ing the principal examples of the orders of columns and 
their entablatures with descriptive text, by Constantine 
Uhde. Second edition revised by R. Phene Spiers. In 
cloth portfolio, size 18^ inches by 14 inches. Price $20. 
New York, The Bruno Hessling Company. 



IN GENERAL. 
Ellis F. Lawrence, architect, formerly of MacNaugh- 
ton, Raymond & Lawrence, has opened offices in the 
Lewis Building, Portland, Oregon, and at Walla Walla, 





DETAIL Ol TANK I OR THE RANDOLPH RACQUET .\ TENNIS 

CLUB, CAMBRIDGE. 
The life rail and ^nU^r tile are designed and controlled by the American 
Enameled Brick and Tile Company. 
Coolidge & Carlson, Archifc 



FIREPLACE IN TICONH NATIONAL RANK, WATERVILLE, 
MAINE. 
Exeented by the Hartford Faience Company. 

Washington. Manufacturers' samples and catalogues 
desired. 

The firm of Watterson & Schneider, architects, Cleve- 
land, has been dissolved. William R. Watterson succeeds 
to the business with offices in the New England Building. 

H. M. Chapin and T. J. Bryson, architects, have formed 
a co-partnership and opened offices in the Xettleton 
Building, Ashtabula, Ohio. Manufacturers' catalogues 
and samples desired. 



Garnet W. Wilson, archi- 
tect, has opened an office at 
50 Princess street, St. John, 
N. B. Manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples desired. 

Herman J. Stroeh, archi- 
tect, has removed his offices 
to the Commercial Build- 
ing, Kansas City, Mo. 

Louis Preuss and Thomas 
F. Imbs, architects, have 
formed a co-partnership 
with offices in the Cranite 
Building, St. Louis. Manu- 
facturers' catalogues de- 
sired. 

The Seattle Architectural 
Clubwill hold theexhibition 




Dl 1 mi. BY KIRKHAM 4 

PARLETT, \ Rl ill 1 E( is. 

Made byConkling Armstrong 

Terra Cotta Company. 



86 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



i 




sketch for competition in design on 
Saturday, April 16th. The successful 
candidate receives $2,000, to be ex- 
pended in foreign travel and study 
during two years. Candidates must 
be under thirty years of age, and 
must have been engaged in profes- 
sional work during two years in the 
employ of a practising architect resi- 
dent in Massachusetts. 



DRILL HALL, FORT DES MOINES, IOWA. 

Roofed with German tilt- and glass tiles, made by Ludowici-Celadon Company . 
J. Knox Taylor, Architect. 




- Si*!* 



of the Architectural League of the Pacific Coast, April 
16th-30th, in the Public Library Building, Seattle. 

The fifth exhibition of the Pittsburg Architectural 
Club was held in Carnegie Institute, March 2d-16th. 

The Architectural Arts League and the Atlanta 
Chapter A.I A. will hold their first annual architectural 

exhibition in Taft 
Hall, Atlanta, Ga., 
May 2d-llth. 

The Second Na- 
tional Conference on 
City Planning will be 
held in Rochester, 
N. Y., May 2d-4th. 

The Rhode Island 
Chapter A. I. A. will 
hold an exhibition of 
architectural drawings 
and photographs at the 
Rhode Island School 
of Design, Provi- 
dence, March 26th- 
April 10th. 

The Bridgeport 
Architectural League, 
Bridgeport, Conn., has 
been organized by 
members of the archi- 
tectural profession located in and about Bridgeport. 
Officers were elected as follows: President, E. Moss 
Jackson; vice president, F. H. Beckwith; secretary. 
C. W. Walker; treasurer, H. V. O'Hara; press agent, 
William Schmidt. 

The sixteenth annual exhibition of the T Square Club 
and the Philadelphia Chapter A. LA. will be held in The 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, April 9th-May 
8th. The exhibition will be one of domestic architecture 
only, the object being to create a greater interest on the 
part of the general public. The catalogue will be issued 
in the form of an illustrated book on domestic architecture. 

The preliminary examinations for the Rotch Traveling 
Scholarship will be held at the office of the secretary, 
C. H. Blackall, 20 Beacon street, Boston, on Monday and 
Tuesday, April 11th and 12th, to be followed by the 




DETAIL BY ROOT A' SIEMENS, 

ARCHITECTS. 

Made by the American Terra Cotta 

and Ceramic Company, 



The music rooms in Russell Sage 
Hall, Northfield, Mass., Delano & 
Aid rich, architects, illustrated in The Brickbuilder for 
December, 1909, were deadened with Cabot's Deadening 
"Quilt." 

R. Guastavino Company has been awarded the con- 
tract for 
the tim- 
brel arch 
tile work 
in the new 
Vander- 
bilt Apart- 
m e n t s , 
East 77th 
street, 
New York 
City, II. 
Atterbury 
Smith, 
architect. 
The work 
includes 
the stair- 
cases 

throughout the building, the lining of the cornices, and 
the erecting of several ceilings in finishing tile. 

Among the buildings recently completed which have 
been built of brick manufactured by the Pearl Clay 
Products Company, Bradford, Pa., are the following: 
Hospital, Bronxville, N. Y., Wilder & White, architects; 
United States Government Hospitals at Chelsea, Mass., 
Newport, R. I., and Portsmouth, N. H. ; Post-office 




DETAIL BY J. WALTER STEVENS, ARCHITECT. 
Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers, 




DETAIL BY I'ENN VARNEV, ARCHITECT. 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



«7 




PORT COCHERE, BETH ISRAEL HOSPITAL, 
NEWARK, N. J. 
Terra cotta work executed by the New York Archi- 
tectural Terra Cotta Company. 
Nathan Myers, Architect. 



Buildings at 
Bar Harbor, 
Maine, and 
Carlisle, Pa. ; 
John Hay Li- 
brary, Provi- 
dence, R. I., 
Y. M. C. A. 
Building, 
Plattsburg, 
N. Y., Jack- 
so n & Ros- 
en era 11 s , 
arch itects; 
Chem i s t r y 
Building, 
Yassar Col- 
lege, Evving 
& Chappell, 
architects; 
Hotel Sher- 
man, Chi- 
cago, 111., 
Holabird & 
Roche, archi- 
tects; Union 

R. R. Station, Worcester, Mass., Peabody & Stearns, 

architects. 

WANTED — Draftsman at once — First class draftsman, 
steady employment for the right man ; salary, $30 to $35 per 
week ; give references and experience. Wetherell C&, Gage, 
Architects, 202 Youngerman Building, Des Moines, Iowa. 

W 4 T> lV'T]V'/^ , Take notice that the Publisher of 
TT xm. JVl^l Xi.^1 VJ •'Building Details" does not ac- 
cept, and never has accepted, any responsibility, financial or 
otherzvise, in connection with the sale or delivery of "Building 
Details" except upon receipt of the purchase price by him. 
Any Solicitor taking orders for the work does so on his own responsibility 
only, and purchasers must satisfy themselves as to the reliability of parties 
offering the work for sale. 

Anyone who has not received the copies paid for, or (if for future Parts) 
my receipt and has any reason to doubt the transaction, please advise at 
once, giving all the facts, date, amount paid, representations made, etc., 
and all reasonable means will be used to cause the person responsible to 
fulfill his obligation. 

Frank M Snyder Publisher of " Building Details " 2754 Broad- 
way New York City 

A HOUSE OF BRICK— THE TITLE OF A 12 
PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS 40 DESIGNS 
FOR A BRICK HOUSE TO COST ABOUT $10,000. 
THESE DESIGNS WERE SUBMITTED IN COM- 
PETITION. THREE INTERESTING ARTICLES 
ON BRICKWORK, COMPARATIVE COSTS, ETC. 
PRICE, FIFTY CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, 
BOSTON. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— 1 register as- 
sistants FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK. 
ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEKEIRA 
218 La SALLE St., CHICAGO. Long Distance Tel., Franklin 1328. 



"SOUND-KILLING " WALL. 

THE " sound-killing" wall between 
50 and 54 East 59th street, New 
York City, which was built to protect 
the ears of the occupants of No. 54, has 
proven a success. The plans for the 
wall are the only ones of this type of 
construction ever filed with the Build- 
ing Department. 

The second and third floors of No. 
50 contain large printing presses. The 
upper floors of No. 54 are occupied by 
apartments. The roar of the printing 
machinery proved so disturbing to the 
flat-dwellers that they appealed to their 
landlord for relief. 

The wall is made of hollow terra 
cotta blocks stuffed with mineral wool. 
The blocks are of the kind used in fire- 
proof floors and partitions. They have 
been known as good absorbers of sound 
waves, but this is the first test of them 
purely for that purpose. The mineral 
wool, in the hollow spaces, serves as a 
muffler. The wall also keeps the odor 
of printer's ink out of the apartments 
in No. 54. 











DETAIL. 
Made by the Smith 
Amboy Terra Cotta 

Company. 



STENOGRAPHER — Architectural specifications a specialty 
— experienced in all classes of work. Prices reasonable. Work 
first class. Room 56, IS State St., Boston. Tel. Main 2701-1. 

MECHANICAL DRAFTSMAN — Twelve years designing 
heating and ventilation apparatus with knowledge of building 
superintendence, desires to associate himself with first class 
architect to handle work of this class. For further particulars 
address, F. Gardner English, 1524 Jefferson St., Duluth, Minn. 

WANTED — Architectural draftsman. We offer an oppor- 
tunity to a young man of ability and good academic training to 
work into position of designer and to take charge of the draft- 
ing end of the work with a chance for future interest in busi- 
ness. Give full particulars as to training, experience, salary, 
etc. Address, " Near Pittsburg," care of The Brickbuilder. 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITHER WOODEN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Public Buildings. Elastic, Noiseless, 
and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
German Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The Franklin LJnion Building in Boston, R. Clipstoo Sturgis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
the North Dakota, the largest Battleship in the United States 
Navy; the extensions of the Suffolk County Court House in 
Boston, George A. Clough, Architect; and the Registry of 
Deeds, Salem, Mass., C. El. Blackall, Architect. 

We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646 658 WASHINGTON STREET. Opp. Boyl.ton Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



88 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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COMPETITION FOR A SMALL BRICK HOUSE. 



To Cost not more than $4,000. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. SECOND PRIZE, $250. 

FOURTH PRIZE, $100. 



THIRD PRIZE, $150. 
MENTIONS. 



THE COMPETITION CLOSES JUNE 1, 1910. 



PROGRAM. 

THE problem is a small brick house suitable for a family of moderate means. 
The location may be assumed in any town, small city, or suburb of a large city. 
The cost of the house — exclusive of the land — shall not exceed $4,000; method of 
heating, plumbing, other fixtures, and finish to be governed by the limit of cost. 

A detailed statement of cost must accompany each design, this statement to be type- 
written on one side only of a sheet of paper measuring 11 inches by 8)4 inches. 

Designs which in the opinion of the jury call for a house which would cost more than the 
amount named will not be considered. 

The object of this Competition is to obtain designs for Small Brick Houses. This is a problem 
which will have a very great deal of interest for very many people. Not all those who wish to 
live in mansions can do so — the great majority must house themselves from limited means. If we 
seek to improve the architecture of our country-side we shall find a fruitful field in the develop- 
ment of the small house along rational lines, depending for the element of beauty upon the de- 
signer's ability to treat the problem with intelligence and skill. It is hoped that the results of this 
Competition will help to point the way to a better class of moderate cost houses to the end that here 
in America we shall become possessed of a domestic architecture which in its simple beauty will 
compare favorably with the best that Europe has to offer. 

To summarize and emphasize the requirements, — this Competition calls for a Small Brick 
House, the cost of which is not to exceed $4,000. 

CONSTRUCTION : There are no restrictions as to general type of construction except that 
the exterior walls are to be built of brick. 

DRAWING REQUIRED (there is to be but one) : 

On one sheet a pen and ink perspective, without wash or color, drawn at a scale of 4 feet to the 
inch. Plans of the first and second floors at a scale of 8 feet to the inch. A sketch showing detail 
of front entrance. In connection with the plan of the first floor show as much of the arrangement 
of the lot in the immediate vicinity of the house as space will permit. The plans are to be blocked 
in solid. A graphic scale must accompany the plans. The brickwork must be clearly shown on the 
perspective and detail. Make or style of brick is not to be mentioned on the drawing. 

The size of the sheet is to be exactly 24 inches by 18 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn 
on the sheet 1 inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 11 inches by 16 inches. The 
sheet is to be of white paper and is not to be mounted. 

The drawing is to be signed by a nom <ic plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a 
sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of 
the contestant. 

The drawing is to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at 
the office of The Brickbuilder, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., on or before June 1, 1910. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition are at owner's risk from time they are sent until re- 
turned, although reasonable care will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The designs will be judged by three or five members of the architectural profession. 

In making the award the jury will not consider those designs which obviously would cost more 
to execute than the limit set, $4,000. With this limitation, excellence of design will be given first 
consideration, and plan second. 

Drawings which do not meet the requirements of the program will not be considered. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of The Brickbuilder, and the right is reserved 
to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. The full name and address of the designer will be 
given in connection with each design published. Those who wish their drawings returned, except 
the prize drawings, may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten 
cents in stamps. 

For the design placed first there will be given a prize of $500. For the design placed third a prize of $150. 

For the design placed second a prize of $250. For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

This Competition is open to everyone. 

The prize and mention drawings will be published in The Brickbuilder. 



D 



Q 

o 

D 



Q 

o 







o 

D 





o 

D 



I 



Competition Program — Small Brick House — Page 110 




THE 






«S> 



BRICKBVILDER 




ARCH1IECVRAL 

MONTHIY 




'»>»»»t NO. 4 



r 



PVBLISHED BY ROGERS & MANSON 
EIGHTYFIVE WATER STREET BOSTON MASS. 



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TRADE MARK 




Btg.V-S.Pt.Ott 



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Our trade mark " Tapestry " is branded 
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product of our skill and 45 years experi- 
ence. It protects you against substitution. 

•• Tapestry " Brick has been used by lead- 
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fraternal buildings, and high grade 
apartments. 

T3ISKE 6* COMPANY INC 
■ACE BRICKS/ ESTABLISH 
JURE BRICKSl-ED IN 1064 



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ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 

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Agents for 

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St. hues Building, Broadvaj, Cor. 26th St., Iw Tort 

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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XIX 



APRIL 1910 



Number 4 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street ... Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at tbe Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Hail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



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PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



GARBER & WOODWARD; ABRAM GARFIELD; JANSSEN & ABBOTT; 

ALBERT KAHN, AND ERNEST WILBY, ASSOCIATED; 

A. F. ROSENHEIM; HOWARD VAN D. SHAW. 



LETTERPRESS 

INTERIOR VIEW, "TEMPIO DELLA TOSSE," NEAR TIVOLI. 

COUNTRY AND OTHER TYPES OF CLUB HOUSES 

THE NORSE ROOM, FORT PITT HOTEL, PITTSBURG, 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 

COMPETITION PROGRAM — A SMALL BRICK HOUSE 



I Ai.R 

I'rontispiece 



Roget Durand 89 

103 

1"-, 

110 







VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE " TEMPIO DELLA TOSSE," NEAR TIVOLI. 

GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI, DEL. 
The interior of the " Tempio della Tosse " fonns a single impressive vaulted chamber, with a row of niches springing from the Boor, above these a row ..i windows and in 

the center of the vault a circular opening somewhat resembling that of the Pantheon in Rome. There are traces of Christian paintings which make it seem prob- 
able that at some time the building must have been used as a church. The construction small fragments of tufa, alternating with 

courses of bricks, which places its date probably in the fourth century a.d. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



- 



VOL. XIX. NO. 4. 



APRIL, 1910. 



Country and Other Types of Club Houses. 



BY ROGER DURAND. 




SAEGK.ILL GOLF CLUB, .'ONKERS, 
Edw. Pearce Casey, Architect. 



A STUDY of the country club house as found in this 
country reveals the fact that there are compara- 
tively few which seem to present the best ideas, consid- 
ered architecturally. Very many of the best known are 
merely old houses 
remodeled and 
added to as cir- 
cumstances have 
required. Certain 
features in the 
plan seem to have 
been accepted as 
fundamental and 
the larger estab- 
lishments dif- | 
fer little in this 
respect, especially 
those which pro- 
vide accommoda- 
tions for both men 
and women and at 
times their children. The 
styleof architecture ranges 
from the classic to the rus- 
tic, although the bungalow 
type seems to have been 
first called upon to minis- 
ter to the needs of the golf 
club. More and more the 
country club house is be- 
coming popular as a place 
of rendezvous during the 
winter months. Tobog- 
ganing, snow-shoeing, 
skeeing, skating, ice game, 
and even golf serve to lure 
members into a closer com- 
munion with nature. Din- 
ner parties and dances add 
to the sum total of enjoy- 
able winter features. A plan which amply accommo- 
dates the activities of summer will serve satisfactorily 
the needs of winter provided a good heating system has 
been installed. 



n. v. 




Ouite naturally the highest ground — if it is not too far 
from the roadway — is selected to build upon, and if a 
golf course is to be provided the first tee should be near 
the house and the last hole near the entrance to the locker 

rooms. 

Since nearly all 
outdoor sports re- 
quire that players 
be provided with 
locker rooms and 
showers, these ac- 
commodations are 
almost always 
found in the base- 
ment, as will be 
seen by reference 
to the accompany- 
ing plans. Most 
kitchens are pro- 
vided for in the 
basement, a 1 - 
though a few are located 
in wings; this seems unde- 
sirable, however, for 
usually all of the main floor 
is needed for general club 
purposes, and it is espe- 
ciallydesirable that at least 
one long side of the house 
have a broad veranda run- 
ning its whole length to 
be used for the grouping 
of tables, dancing or a 
promenade. The growing 
tendency to provide roof 
gardens for country club 
houses makes it inadvis- 
able to locate the kitchen 
above the first floor. 

It would be a different 
matter to lay down a formula which would be safe to 
follow in planning a country club house. Everything 
depends upon the character of the membership and the 
purposes in general of the club. In the selection of 



9° 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




HAMILTON COUNTY COUNTRY 
Green & Wicks, Architects 



CLUB. 



examples to illustrate this article it has been the aim to 
get variety. The plans should meet in an easy way the 
needs of to-day, and in a measure at least anticipate the 
needs of to-morrow, for one form of recreation follows 
closely on the 
heels of an- 
other, and the 
end is not yet. 

A building of 
the type under 
discussion is 
rarely ever of 
expensive con- 
struction, and 
yet it needs to 
be absolutely 
weatherproof, 
especially if it 
is made use of 
during the win- 
ter months, and 
it is highly de- 
sirable that it 
shall be in a 
large measure 
fireproof. The 
club house at 
Yonkers by 
Mr. Casey seems 
to meet in a 
most satisfac- 
tory way the 
structural re- 
quirements, and 
it will be ob- 
served that the 
cost per cubic 
foot does not exceed that of other types of construction. 
The work which has been selected to illustrate this article 
and the accompanying descriptions will best serve to show 




•OaouMD • Flooh • Pla.m 



modern practice in building country and a few other types 
of club houses. 

Country Club, Cleveland. Abram Garfield, Archi- 
tect. Plates 56, 57, 58. The building is located about 

seven miles 
from the center 
of the city on 
the shore of 
Lake Erie. The 
main surfaces of 
the exterior are 
light gray plas- 
ter on brick, 
with openings 
and corners 
turned by brick 
quoins. The 
cornices, col- 
umns and other 
minor details 
are executed in 
wood painted a 
cream color. 
The exterior of 
each long facade 
is provided with 
a covered pi- 
azza, while the 
center of the 
building on 
the side of the 
approach is 
marked by a 
porte-cochere 
of piers and 
columns. 

The entrance 

to the main hall from the south side is rather informal, 
while the hall itself is treated with a simple fluted order, 
and furnished in keeping. This hall forms the circulation 





TrrrnnrmnTTin I . 



. □ . 



an . ■ 

1 I 1 

■ ' — ET " — I . m 



An/ •</■> / /'/.iv 










I I 1 I 

THE ATHLETIC COUNTRY CLUB, ATLANTA, t;A. 



1 '■' ' ■ ' ' ■' "■' -™* 




Harry Leslie Walker, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



9 1 



between the ball room on the right, and the living room 
on the left, which in turn opens into the main dining hall. 
These three principal rooms all open towards the lake on 
the north and the approach on the south. The ball room 
is decorated with a lattice motive on the flat surface, in 
conjunction with an enriched fluted order, the general 
impression of the color being white and lavender. The 
living room and dining room count as one long room, 



planned for the exclusive use of the men members, is the 
grille room, treated in gray green oak, with a fireplace of 
red brick and stone. To the south of this room is a large 
semi-circular covered terrace furnished with tables and 
used in connection with the grille room during the warm 
season. Under the grille room are the baths and locker 
room for men, well lighted, as the ground on this side of 
the building falls away rapidly to the water. The lock- 




OTOWEGA CLUB, BUFFALO, N. V. 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 



SZCOIVD FLOOB PLJLN- 





tt r. 



being separated by a simple order, with the woodwork 
of both rooms in cream-white and the walls decorated in 
harmony with the trimming. An attractive feature of 
the ladies' coat room consists in a frieze, just above the 
coat hooks, of female figures about one foot high, painted 
in oil, and illustrating the costumes and toilets of differ- 
ent historical periods. The staircase opposite the en- 
trance of the main hall leads to a second floor gallery, 
the square well opening into the hall below. 

On the first floor of the southwest wing, which is 



ers used are of the open wire type and are generous in 
size and conveniently arranged. 

Directly above the grille room is the men's lounging 
room, especially pleasing in its meager decoration; the 
walls conforming to the roof line, and the surfaces 
treated structurally, suggesting timber work, pegged to- 
gether, with plaster between. In addition to the baths 
and locker rooms for men, the basement provides for 
waiters' quarters, wine room, storage rooms, professional 
shop, etc. 



9 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




EUCLID CLUB, ElfCI.II> HEIGHTS, CLEVELAND. 

Meade & Garfield, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



93 




THE LOSANTIVILI.E COUNTRY CLUB, CINCINNATI. 



Tietig & Lee, An hitei i ■ 



The complete 
cost of the build- 
ing was $233,- 
000. The cube, 
taken from the 
top of the base- 
ment floor in- 
cluding the roof 
space and one- 
third of the 
porches, is 990,- 
000 cubic feet, 
making the cost 
approximately 
24 cents per 
cubic foot. 

Club House, 
Wyoming, Ohio. 

G A R B E R & 

Woodward, 
a r c h i t ects. 
Plate 45. The 
building is lo- 
cated in the 
heart of the vil- 
lage on an area 
capable of ac- 
commodatin g 
tennis courts 
and other neces- 
sary athletic 
grounds. It is 
designed to 
meet the gen- 
eral needs of the 
people of a 
smalltown. In 
connection with 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



1 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



the club rooms 
the building as- 
sociation and 
village council 
have quarters 
set aside for 
their use. And 
in addition to 
this, arrange- 
ments have 
been made on 
the ground floor 
for space de- 
voted to library 
purposes. The 
exterior is 
treated in bull' 
brick with a 
rough surface 
which gives it 
conside r a b 1 e 
texture. The 
cost of the 
building per cu- 
bic foot was 13 
cents. 

S A E 8 K I 1 l 

Golf (' i i rf, 

YONKERS, X. Y. 
E I) \\ \ R i> 
Pearci Casey, 

A R C H I T El i ■ 

Pa.. i 89. The 
building stands 
but a short dis- 
tance back from 
North Broad- 
way, Yonkcrs, 



94 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



on the edge of a hill overlooking a wide and extensive 
valley in which the golf links are located. The main 
entrance is on the Broadway side, directly upon an open 
veranda, while on the opposite side is a covered veranda 



lockers in addition to toilet and bath facilities. The 
upper story accommodates a large number of bedrooms 
and the servants' quarters. A worthy feature in connec- 
tion with the planning is the service facilities from the 




MOHAWK GOLF CLUB, SCHENECTADY, N. Y. 
William Welles Bos worth, Architect. 



r^k/\J 




FIRST FLOOR. 



which affords an excellent view of the whole valley. 
Underneath the covered veranda are located the men's 



kitchen, which has been conve- 
niently arranged in respect to the 
dining room, the living room, and 
the veranda. The exterior walls 
are built of 8 inch hollow terra 
cotta blocks laid flat. The plaster- 
ing upon the exterior as well as 
upon the interior is placed directly 
upon the terra cotta blocks. The 
cost of the building per cubic foot 
was approximately 18 cents. 

Hamilton County Country 
Club, Olean, N. Y. Green & 
Wicks, Architects. Page 90. The 
building is situated on the side of 
a hill overlooking a vast stretch of 
undulating country, in which is lo- 
cated the town of Olean. The ex- 
terior finish consists of shingles 
stained green. The columns, bases, caps, etc., of the 
verandas are pine, painted white. Upon the interior the 
trimmings throughout are of cypress in a natural finish. 
The sitting room and entertainment hall are very effect- 
ive in their pilaster treatment with both the base and 
the frieze of the order treated plainly. The ceiling of 
the entertainment hall consists of a beamed design, the 
panels of which turn down to meet the frieze, thereby 
forming a large cove at the angle between the side wall 
and ceiling. The cost of the original building was 
approximately 14 cents per cubic foot, while the enter- 
tainment hall, added later, cost 9 cents per cubic foot. 

Otowega Club, Buffalo, N. Y. Green & Wicks, 
Architects. Page 91. The building is located in one 
of the outlying park districts of the city, commanding 
an excellent view of the surrounding country. The ex- 
terior treatment is in brick, wood, and plaster. The 
color scheme is in perfect harmony with the general 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



95 



Hi 




GOLF CLUB, HACK.ENSACK, N. J. 



Rossiter & Wright, Architects. 



surroundings, the brick be- 
ing dark red, the half tim- 
ber work of chestnut in a 
natural finish, and the plas- 
ter of a gray tone. The in- 
terior is of cypress finish 
throughout. The lounging 
room, which has a very 
imposing fireplace at one 
end, is featured by a row of 
French windows leading to 
the enclosed veranda. The 
cost of the building per 
square foot was $2.07. 

Euclid Club, Euclid 
Heights, Cleveland. 
Meade & Garfield, Archi- 
tects. Pace 92. This 
building is treated in brick 
laid up in Flemish bond 
with wide joints of colored 
mortar. The half timber 
work is of cypress, while 
the plaster effect is of ?oft 
gray brown. Upon the in- 
terior the grille room is fin- 
ished in oak with the floor 
of tile. The other rooms 
on the first floor are finished 
in cypress with floors of 
oak. Throughout the sec- 
ond floor pine has been used 
for all the woodwork, and 
all bedrooms are finished in 

white. In addition to the ten bedrooms and a large linen 
room the second floor accommodates a men's locker room 
with over two hundred lockers, in addition to a women's 




Plam " OEComd Floor 




PL-AAI •' TIR.3T rLOOB 



This floor also 
shower bath, 
was 18 cents. 



locker room with one hun- 
dred lockers. In connec- 
tion with the locker rooms 
suitable arrangements have 
been made for bath and 
toilet facilities. There is 
provided also an extra room 
to accommodate any future 
need for lockers. 

The Losantiyille Coun- 
try Club, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Tietig & Lee, Architects. 
Pack 93. The exterior is 
built with shingles stained 
a weathered gray for all 
wall surfaces, and a moss 
green for the roof. All 
trimmings are in white. 
The living room and dining 
room are wainscoted to a 
height of 6 feet and have a 
beamed effect for the ceil- 
'nsjs. The living room. 
dining room, and ladies' 
lounging room, are finished 
in chestnut of selected 
jjrain. The fireplace of the 
living room is built of gray 
stone. The building is plas- 
tered throughout. Ample 
accommodations have been 
made ou the second floor 
for bedrooms, which are 
equipped with large closets, 
accommodates two bath rooms and one 
The cost of the building per cubic foot 



9 6 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



Mohawk Golf Club, Schenectady, N. Y. William 
Wei les Bosworth, Architect. Page 94. The building 
stands upon a slight eminence affording a good view of 
the golf links. It is of frame construction with stucco 
of light buff color for the surface treatment. The wood 
trim is finished in browns, yellows, and black, and the 




n t l 41 i_ 1 1 

l « j r . "4- _i '"P^- '■ '1. .'. 'luimui^MiuuimUiminniJ Winm 



COUNTRY CLUB, INDIANAPOLIS, INI). 

Foltz & Parker, Architects. 



shingled roof stained a dark brown. Upon the interior 
the floors of the first story are of maple, while those of 
the second story are of yellow pine. The cost of the 
building was §50,000, and approximately 18 cents per 
cubic foot. 

Golf Club, Hackensack, N.J. Rossiter & Wright, 
Architects. Page 95. The back- 
ground of very deep foliage pre- 
sents a suitable setting to this 
building with its walls finished in 
white stucco. The floors of the 
veranda are of tile. Upon the in- 
terior the walls are covered with 
canvas. Oak is used for the 
woodwork in the hall, which has a 
beamed ceiling and brick mantle. 
The private dining room is treated 
after the colonial period, and the 
cafe has a beamed ceiling and wain- 
scot of cypress. The floors are of 
oak. The total cost of the build- 
ing was $14,000, and approximately 
16 cents per cubic foot. 

Country Club, Indianapolis, 
Ind. Foltz & Parker, Archi- 
tects. Page 96. The building is 




LOUNGING ROOM. 



located on the bluffs overlooking 
White River, and commands a 
wide view of the river valley. An 
attractive feature is the long car- 
riage drive from the gate to the 
club house, winding through thick 
groves of fine old sycamore, beech, 
and walnut trees. The building 
furnishes a very good example of 
brick and half timber construc- 
tion. From the veranda, through 
the lobby, the lounging room is 
reached. This room is decorated in 
soft tones of green and brown. The 
ceiling treatment consists of heavy 
open beams, with groups of soft- 
shaded lights suspended at inter- 
vals. The windows are arranged 
in pairs, and at one end of the room 



THE B RICK BUI LD E R. 



97 




0^^:% 

*-.«?-' 

N'"? 



COUNTRY CLUB, PEORIA, ILL. 
Herbert Edmund Hewitt, Architect. 

two sets of them flank a picturesque fire- 
place of rough stone. Encircling the room, 
broken here and there by windows, fire- 
place, and doorways, runs a border of hunt- 
ing scenes in color, below which the walls 
are divided into panels about a foot wide in 
woodwork. The main cafe opens on a porch 
30 feet square, which in summer is used for 
dining purposes. The dining rooms, and 
all other rooms in the house, have open- 
beam ceilings like that of the lounging 
room, and their wall decorations effect a 
natural harmony throughout. The wood- 
work is of southern pine and chestnut, 
stained in soft greens and browns. 

On the second floor are the sleeping and 
bath rooms for the use of members. The 
kitchen, cold-storage, service rooms, locker 
and shower rooms, are located in the base- 
ment, with a large Rathskeller under the 
dining porch; while the servants' quarters 
and those of the instructor are in separate 
buildings. The grounds comprise over fifty 
acres, and give ample space for a golf course 
and tennis courts, as well as for a stable, and 
sheds spacious enough for the storage of vehicles and 
motors. 

This building was erected at a cost of $29,000, exclu- 
sive of furnishings. Figuring from the bottom of the 
footings to a height of 6 feet above the attic floor, it 
cubes 273,110 cubic feet, making the cost per cubic foot 
11 cents. 

Country Club, Peoria, III. Herbert Edmund 
Hewitt, Architect. Page 97. The building is situated 







on the edge of a bluff overlooking the Illinois River, and 
the plan was largely determined by the site. The in- 
terior is finished in selected yellow pine, stained dark and 
waxed. The living room is open to the roof, with a 
gallery extending on all sides. This gallery has two 
exits into the main corridor of the second Moor as well as 
opening onto a large veranda. The living room, dining 
room, and veranda dining room, can be thrown together 
for dancing. The second floor provides for the steward's 



9 8 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



quarters, four bedrooms, a dormitory, women's locker 
room, toilets, etc. The basement contains the men's 




WOMAN S CLUB, EAST ORANGE, N. J. 

Ernest Greene, Architect. 




• • 



^^ ■ 




FlanoF First- Fl' 








_l L 



-Flai oFSccomp-Floob. 




locker room, showers, etc., and Rathskeller under the 
polygonal veranda. 

This building cost about $15,000. 



Woman's Club Building, East Orange, N. J. Ernest 
Greens, Architect. Page 98. As indicated on the 
plan, the building has two main 
divisions which are clearly ex- 
pressed by the exterior treatment. 
The principal entrance lies be- 
tween these two sections, thereby 
affording an easy access to both. 
The exterior is of dull red brick. 
The large assembly hall is in light 
tones with the woodwork painted 
to harmonize. An unusual fea- 
ture is the foyer carried around 
on each side with columns only 
between it and the large hall. 
This foyer is used for a promen- 
ade and at the same time provides 
for a number of exits. The stage 
is built with movable sides and 
top, which can be swung out of 
the way when it is required for 
purposes other than entertain- 
ments. The basement provides 
suitable apartments for the jan- 
itor, and kitchen and serving 
rooms for the use of caterers. 
The building completed cost ap- 
proximately $44,000. 

Club House, York Harbor, 
Me. James Puroon, Architect. 
Page 99. This club house has a 
commanding outlook, built as it 
is on a rocky bluff close by the 
sea. The exterior is treated in 
plaster-stucco, together with pine 
trimmings stained a soft brown 
with roof finished in moss green 
shingles. Casement windows 
with small panes of leaded glass 
have been used throughout. The 
interior is treated in pine boards, 
rough-sawn, giving the effect of a 
silvery gray tone, while the fur- 
nishings are of dark green which 
harmonize perfectly. At one end 
of the main living room there is a 
large fireplace, of light stone, 
some 6 feet in height and 7 feet 
wide. The roof of this room is 
supported by arched trusses of 
pine with the same color effect 
as the rest of the woodwork. The 
writing room is several steps be- 
low the floor of the living room 
and contains a brick fireplace 
upon one side and a long window 
seat on the other. The broad 
piazza, which extends the whole 
length of the building and opens 
off the living room, faces the 
ocean The living room extends throughout the two 
stories. The second floor is planned to accommodate 
several card rooms in addition to the servants' quarters. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VOL. 19. NO. 4. 



PLATE 45. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 4. PLATE 46. 




liF FirlS! ITI IFI 





COUNTRY CLUB, DETROIT, MICH. 
Albert Kahn, Architect; Ernest Wilby, Associated. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 4. PLATE 47. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 4. PLATE 48. 





SECOND CHURCH OF CHRIST, 

SCIENTIST, 

LOS ANGELES, CAL 

A. F. Rosenheim, Architect. 







AVEXTORIVM FLOOR PLAN 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 4. PLATE 49. 



SECOND CHURCH 
OF CHRIST, 
SCIENTIST 
LOS ANGELES, 
CALIFORNIA. 




«3» 

KEY PEAW1NG 



"T^'CNT ELFVATIOM 



A F. Rosenheim, 
Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 4. PLATE 50. 




LOOK II -1C TOW4J?P TT?OI IT 



3CAtr^]= I TOOT 

SECOND CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST, LOS ANGELES. CAL. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 4. PLATE 51. 




NORSE ROOM, FORT PITT HOTEL, PITTSBURG. 
Janssen & Abbott, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 4. PLATE 52. 




NORSE ROOM, FORT PITT HOTEL, PITTSBURG. 
Janssen & Abbott. Architects. 



THE BRICKBU1LDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 4. PLATE 53 




THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 4. PLATE 54. 




]i : ^t.--ji-- j.- 



JOFFIC 



rlROT fLOOR PLAN 



Howard Van D. Shaw, 
Architect. 



a 



EE 




HOMEWOOD COUNTRY CLUB, FLOSSMOOR, ILL 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 4. PLATE 55. 




INTERIORS, HOMEWOOD COUNTRY CLUB, FLOSSMOOR, ILL. 
Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 



THE BRIC KBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 4. PLATE 56. 




L J 

F1R0T PLOOR PLAN 



THE BR ICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 4. PLATE 57. 




oP.COAID VLOOH. PLAN 



1 1 > i 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 4. \ 



PLATE 58. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



99 




CLUB HOUSE, 

YORK HARBOR, MAINE. 

James Purdon, Architect. 

In the basement suitable 
accommodations have been 
made for the kitchen with 
all its accessories, and the 
space necessary for heat- 
ing. The cost of the entire 
building was approxi- 
mately $18,500, and the 
cost per cubic foot was 
36 cents. In cubing the 
building the distance was 
taken from the basement 
floor to one-half the height 
of the roof surface. 

Country Club, St. 
Louis. Mauran, Russell 
& Garden, Architects. 
Page 100. The building 
stands with its long eleva- 
tion to the south on a pla- 
teau which forms a terrace 
100 feet wide, about 12 feet 
above the polo field which 
it thus commands. This 
" lay of the land " natu- 
rally suggested the sweep 
of the drive to the rear 
under the two-storied col- 
onnaded porte-cochere. 
The chief feature of the 
high studded main hall is 
the musicians' gallery ex- 
tending across the face of 
the chimney breast, above 
the ingle nook, and which 
is reached from the stair 
landing over the vestibule. 
Another successful feature 




of the plan is the semi- 
detached building which 
provides one large dress- 
ing room apart from the 
rest of the building. Be- 
yond the parlor, and near- 
est to the gates of the club, 
is the ladies' room, with its 
separate entrance, where 
the women may go direct 
to their own quarters and 
baths by means of a private 
stair. At the other end of 
the house the men have a 
similar arrangement. On 
the second floor are found 
the separate sleeping facili- 
ties for the men and women, 
while suitable quarters have 
been arranged for the polo 
men over the billiard room. 
The three center bedrooms 
off the main hall and the 
two adjoining on the east 
may be used as family quar- 
ters. In addition to the bed- 
rooms this floor provides 
for toilets, shower baths, 
lockers, etc. The steward's 
quarters and motor stand 
lie to the north of the club 
house, while the stables 
with the flanking carriage 
sheds forming a forecourt, 
extend to the west. The 
T shaped plan of the stable 
proper has box stalls on 
both sides of its center 
aisles, with accommoda- 
tions for about sixty polo 



MAIN LIVING ROOM. 



104 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Norse Room, Fort Pitt Hotel, Pittsburg. 



JANSSKN & ABBOTT, ARCHITECTS. 



constructed with en- 
room, memorable in 



TO TAKE an old boiler room, low, grimy, and un- 
bearably hot, in the basement of a building and 
convert it into a pleasant and agreeably cool grille room, 
is in itself not an easy problem. But to create under 
such difficult conditions a room full of the warmth and 
charm of daylight, where the sunlight never shines, and 
to give it an atmosphere cheerful and inviting, is a task 
beset with still greater difficulties. And yet this is pre- 
cisely what has been done in the Norse Room of the 
Fort Pitt Hotel. 

The way in which the designer has overcome these 
difficulties and indeed has made them minister to his 
scheme for producing such a room, is an admirable 
illustration of how an art is in a certain sense created 
by its limitations. Certainly in this case we are in- 
troduced to an achievement of remarkable beauty and 
originality. The artist has made full use of very un- 
usual technical resources and has 
during and beautiful materials a 
the art of clay. 

It seemed desir- 
able, in order to 
produce interest- 
ing lines in the 
room, that the 
ceiling should be 
vaulted, and this 
feature has been 
well handled. A 
limited height be- 
ing necessary on 
account of struc- 
tural require- 
ments, the flat 
Norman arch was 
used with ribs 
and centers richly 
ornamented with 
Norse interlacing 
designs, such as 
are seen in the old 
Norwegian carv- 
ings and runic 
inscriptions. 

The ceiling proper consists of plain 3 inch tiles, 
through which are scattered tiles of the same size 
with modeled motifs, giving an agreeable variety to the 
surface. 

As a motif for the panels — or mural paintings in 
faience — which fill the bays on the side walls, Long- 
fellow's " Skeleton in Armor " was selected. These 
scenes, nine in number, are modeled in low relief and 
interpreted in a quaint, crude effect, quite in keeping 
with the spirit of the tale, and reflect the atmosphere 
of the old Norwegian Sagas — the wild life of the cor- 
sairs, the wassail bouts of viking chiefs, the grim sea 




battles, the flight of the cormorants across stretches of 
storm tossed waters, faint streakings of northern lights 
and calms on northern fjords, over which sail the spirit 
boats of the viking warriors to Walhalla. 

Individual treatment is shown in every detail, and in 
the color scheme it would seem that every known secret 
has been exhausted, for here the delicate tints and tones, 
heretofore known only to the painter's palette, have been 
produced. Nothing to equal it in this respect has ever 
been done before in clay and glaze. To those familiar 
with the fact that all colors look much alike before 
firing, and that often the extreme heat of the kilns 
proves disastrous to them, the difficulties will seem 
almost insurmountable. That they have been com- 
pletely overcome is undeniable. 

The ceiling in general is yellow, a subdued tone mot- 
tled in a way that suggests old tarnished gold on leather. 
The designs working through this field of color are in 
pinks, purples, reds, greens, grays, buffs, white, and 

black. The gen- 
eral colors of the 
walls are blues, 
greens, and buffs, 
into which are 
worked many soft 
colors and tones. 
The outer portion 
of the floor con- 
tinues the soft 
gray greenish blue 
of the sea color- 
ings on the walls, 
but the center re- 
flects again the 
warm buff tone 
of the ceiling. 

Every inch of 
this room is in 
tile, even the heat 
and ventilation 
grilles being per- 
forated designs 
which conform 
with the general 
scheme. The room is about 50 feet square and has 
something over 10,000 square feet of surface in tile. 

Considering the high plane of excellence and beauty 
which has been reached in this room, it is not difficult to 
believe that a new era for decorative art in clay and 
glaze is at hand in America. 

The work was designed by Mr. John Dee Wareham 
of the Rookwood Pottery Company, whose work as a 
decorative artist is not limited to clays and glazes, as 
evidenced by his having designed all the furnishings for 
the rooms, which are in delightful harmony with the 
ensemble. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



io 5 




Panels depicting 

Longfellow's "Skeleton in Armor." 



THE NORSK ROOM, FORI' PITT HOTEL, 
PITTSBURG, PA. 



Janssen & Abbott, Architects. 



io6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



Second Church of Christ, Scientist, Los Angeles. 
Pi vies 47, 48, 19, 50. This structure occupies a ground 
area of about 100 by 150 feet and is located on West 
Adams street. The size of the lot affords ample oppor- 
tunity for landscape effects. The approach to the portico 
consists of a series of terraces. The materials used on 
the exterior of the church are light gray granite for the 
underpinning, while the walls are of matt or dull glazed 
white brick, trimmed with terra cotta 
of the same color and texture. The 
dome and lantern surmounting it are 
covered with heavy copper, and the 
pediment roofs with an olive green 
dull glazed shingle tile. 

The entrance vestibule, which is 38 
feet in height and terminates in a 
groined arched ceiling, communicates 
directly with the foyer, 32 by 65 feet 
in size, with tile floor, marble wain- 
scoting, beamed and paneled ceiling, 
and large twin marble fireplaces at 
either end. To the right and left of 
the foyer are located the main stair- 
ways leading to the auditorium, while 
twin tunnel stairways lead directly 
ahead and land in the center of the 
auditorium. This main auditorium 
has a seating capacity of 1,200, with- 
out galleries or obstructions of any 
kind, and is in the form of a Maltese 
cross. Its dimensions are 93 by 106 
feet, surmounted by a dome 70 feet in 
diameter, the crown of which is % 
feet above the floor. The high 
paneled wainscoting, the doors and 
pew seating, and all woodwork is of 
selected mahogany stained a soft 
brownish tone, while the floor is com- 
pletely covered with interlocking rubber tile of harmo- 
niously contrasting colors. In addition to the main stair- 
ways there are two commodious rear stairways which are 
reached from the side of Sunday-school entrances. In 
the rear of the foyer is the Sunday school, with a seating 
capacity of over 800 and with special arrangements for 
children's classes. Cloak and toilet rooms, also literature 
and ladies' retiring rooms, are contiguous to the foyer. 
In the rear of the auditorium are provided the readers' 
rooms with adjoining private toilets; the secretary's and 
directors' rooms with all 
necessary conveniences, 
and an ample loft to house 
the great organ. A com- 
plete modern and thor- 
oughly equipped heating 
and ventilating plant is 
installed, also a vacuum 
dust-cleaning apparatus. 
The cost of the church 
complete was a trifle in 
excess of $300,000. 




THE ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE OF AMERICA. 

THE league is now located in its new quarters at 
1103 Union Trust Building, Detroit, Mich. The 
new Executive Board is made up as follows: President, 
Frank C. Baldwin; vice-president, Emil Lorch; corre- 
sponding secretary, M. R. Burrowes; recording secre- 
tary, Edward A. Schilling; treasurer, Adolph Eisen ; 
< >scar Gottesleben and Dalton R. 
Wells. The chairmen of the various 
committees are : Architectural Annual 

— L. C. Newhall, Boston ; Education 

— Newton A. Wells, Urbana, 111.; 
Publicity and Promotion — Jessie N. 
Watson, St. Louis; Traveling Scholar- 
ship — Albert G. Skeel, Cleveland; 
University Fellowship — Emil Lorch, 
Ann Arbor. 

The league announces a University 
Scholarship Competition, the program 
of which will be out on May 14th. 
Three scholarships are offered by 
Harvard University to the members 
of the associate societies and to the 
individual members of the league. 
Additional information may be ob- 
tained from Emil Lorch. Chairman of 
the Committee on University Fellow- 
ship, Ann Arbor, Michigan; or H. S. 
McAllister, Permanent Secretary, 
1517 II. street, N. W. Washington, 
D. C. 



DETAIL FOR I. A SAI.I K HOTEL, 

CHICAGO. 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, 

Makers. 

Holabird & Roche, Architects. 



«J*SS&%* 






DKTAIL FOR THEATRE. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

Stearns & Castor, Architects. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON ME- 
MORIAL HALL. 

ONE of our most urgent needs is 
a suitable meeting place for 
national and international societies in 
Washington," writes Dr. William H. Welch of Johns 
Hopkins University. " This was painfully demonstrated 
by the hardships of the International Congress on 
Tuberculosis. Under existing conditions I do not see 
how we are justified in inviting large societies and con- 
gresses, especially those of an international character, to 
meet in this country; for the natural place for them is 
Washington." He thus voices the opinion of leaders in 
national, scientific, patriotic, medical, art and literary 
organizations, who are starting a movement to erect, by 

means of popular subscrip- 
tions, a proposed $2, 500, 000 
auditorium at the national 
capital to be known as the 
George Washington Me- 
morial Hall. Mrs. Henry 
F. Dimock, 25 E. 60th 
street, New York City, is 
the secretary of the George 
Washington Memorial As- 
sociation, and Prof. H. 
Fairfield Osborn, Dr. Ira 




1% 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



107 



Reinsert, Edwin A. Alderman, Senator Elihu Root, 
Dr. S. Weir Mitchell and Dr. John A. Wyeth have 
volunteered, with Dr. Welch, to serve on an advisory 
council in assisting Mrs. Dimock to raise funds for the 
hall. 




EXPENSIVE FOUNDATIONS. 

BECAUSE of the extreme depth required for the 
footings of 
the new $8,000, - 
000 Municipal 
Building facing 
Brooklyn 
Bridge Plaza in 
Manhattan, the 
foundations will 
cost, including 

inevitable W. H. McElfatrick, Architect 

extras, about 

$1,600,000. The contract was signed for a cost of an 
even million and a half. The crossing of two subways, 
the Interborough tube, and the tunnel looping connect- 
ing the East River bridges, will necessitate the building 
of a foundation to a depth of 130 feet below the street 
surface. This will doubtless be the deepest point that 
man will have gone into the earth to provide the footing 
for a building. 

The foundation under the Singer Tower has a base 
area of 60 by 60 feet and goes through hard pan to 
solid rock. It cost $750,000 to prepare the caisson foun- 
dations of the Trinity and United States Realty Build- 
ings, each covering an area almost as large as a city 
block, beside Trinity churchyard. But these foundations 
were carried only to good hard pan, which is usually 
accepted as suitable for the foundations of the average 
modern skyscraper in New York. Excavating hard pan 
under air pressure in that city, 70 feet below the street 
surface and 40 feet below water level, costs as much as 
$50 a cubic yard. 

" PAY-AS-YOU-ENTER " THEATRE. 

A MAMMOTH new hotel with many novel features 
will be built on the Broadway block between 
40th and 41st streets, N. Y., by Robert P. Murphy, 
proprietor of the Albany Hotel. The plans contem- 
plate a twenty story building with fifteen hundred 
rooms. On the 41st street side, at the rear, is to be a 
vaudeville theatre of a sort of pay-as-you-enter type. 



tions, in the aggregate, are on a par with March, 1909. 
A decrease of operations in Greater New York of some 
$5,000,000 is made good by the combined efforts of Chi- 
cago, Philadelphia, Minneapolis, Portland, Ore., and Roch- 
ester. Building operations in New York City are of such 
magnitude, comparatively, that a serious fluctuation there 
frequently sways to such an extent as to show a gain or 
loss in the aggregate, when the rest of the country is 

holding its own or even 
increasing building opera- 
tion. Eighteen of the 
forty-three cities present 
a loss of from 2 to 47 per 
cent, and twenty-five show 
a gain of from 2 to 252 
per cent as compared with 

DETAIL FOR THEATRE. j^^ ^ ^^ show _ 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



"AMERICAN RIVIERA." 

THE recent opening of a new hotel, costing half a 
million dollars, at Pensacola, is part of a movement 
to make an "American Riviera" of the southern Atlan- 
tic and Gulf coasts. This will enable western Florida to 
share in the tourist patronage, and a few years will 
probably witness the erection of a chain of fine hotels 
extending from that state to Texas. 



BUILDING OPERATION FOR MARCH. 

OFFICIAL reports from forty-three leading cities 
throughout the country, as compiled by The Ameri- 
can Contractor, New York, indicate that building opera- 



ing a gain of over 50 per 
cent are: Birmingham, 
180; Detroit, 75; Grand Rapids, 56; Hartford, 145; Min- 
neapolis, 89; Portland, Ore., 66; Rochester, 80; Scran- 
ton, 252; Toledo, 103. 



IT WAS chiefly through the influence of the late John 
Stewart Kennedy that Professor Hamlin, of Columbia 




STORE BUILDING, IiOVI.STON STREET, BOSTON. 
Front of light cream matt glazed terra cotta furnished by the Atlantic- 
Terra Cotta Company. 
Kendall & Taylor, Architects. 



io8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



University, spent three months in Constantinople last 
summer studying the site of Robert College and planning 
for the arrangement of the grounds and the erection of 
new buildings. Professor Hamlin's plans reached New 
York just after Mr. Ken- 
nedy's death. His be- 
quest of $1,500,000 to the 
college will enable the 
program of expansion and 
development to be set on 
its way at once. 



closed its sessions in Washington on December 7th, 
adopted a financial plan to build a $1,000,000 revenue- 
producing structure which is to be its permanent home 
in that city. One hundred persons have subscribed 

$1,000 each to the capital 
stock of a building cor- 
poration, which will issue 
bonds for the erection of 
the finest office building 
in Washington. 



'T*HE trustees of Le- 
JL high University have 
decided to lend financial 
aid to fraternities desir- 
ing to build chapter houses 
on the campus. No single 
loan will be in excess of 
forty per cent of the cost 
of the building. The 
buildings must be so de- 
signed as to accommodate 
at least one student for 
every $1,000 of cost. The 
principal is to be repaid 
in sums distributed over, 
a term of years. 




CEEEEEEEKSg" 



LJ. co. 



reeqiJB|E 
El Iff I 



BURNHAM & 

have filed plans 
in New York for the 
hotel which Charles E. 
Rector proposes to build 
at the southeast corner of 

Broadway and 44th street, replacing his restaurant and 
cafe. The building will be of thirteen stories, totaling 
200 feet in height, and will cost $1,400,000. 



It 

IJUI 

IP 




THE Tenement House 
Department of New 
York City officially gives 
the number of darkrooms 
(used for living purposes 
and containing absolutely 
no windows) now existing 
in the entire city as 101,- 
117. Not long since there 
were 350,000. Rooms 
with windows opening 
upon too small an air 
shaft, or upon a covered 
shaft, or windows of too 
small size opening to an 
adjoining room are not 
included in this report. 



IN GENERAL 



UPPER STORIES, MERCHANTS EXCHANGE BUILDING, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

Terra cotta furnished by New York Architectural Terra Colt a 

Company. 

Maynicke & Pranke, Architects. 



Carter, Black & Ayers 
have existing contracts for 
2,500,000 brick, of which 
1,000,000 are Yelour brick 
in buff and brown, while 
the rest are French gray terra cotta to be used in con- 
structing the hotel at 34th street and Park avenue, New 
York City, Warren & Wetmore, architects. 



T 



HE trustees of the Atheneum Building, recently 
erected in 



Announcement has been received 



Hartford by J. 
Pierpont Morgan 
as a memorial to 
his father, an- 
nounce that Mr. 
Morgan has ar- 
ranged for the 
purchase of land 
adjoining the me- 
morial and will 
present it to the 
city as a site for a 
music hall build- 
ing. The land 
offered comprises 
nearly half a block 
in the center of 
the city. 




THE Southern 
Commercial 
Congress, which 



BROWNSVILLE ('.RANCH LIBRARY, BROOKLYN, N. V. 
Built of Piske & Company's " Tapestry" bricks of soft tone, varying from gray toa light 

am color. 
Lord & Hewlett. Architects. 



of the partnership 
formed for the 
practice of archi- 
tecture by Ernest 
F. Guilbert and 
James O. Betelle. 
Their offices are 
located at 25 West 
32d street, New 
York City, and 917 
Broad street, 
Newark, N. J. 

A plot of land 
on the Delaware 
River at Glouces- 
ter, N. J., has been 
definitely chosen 
by Secretary 
Nagel as the site 
for the new immi- 
gration station for 
the Port of Phila- 
delphia. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



109 




A fifteen-story hotel is being projected to occupy the 
former site of the Baltimore and Ohio Building at Cal- 
vert and Baltimore streets, in Baltimore. It will prob- 
ably be named the 
" Emerson " after 
one owner of the 
land. Joseph Evans 
Sperry is the archi- 
tect. 

Baltimore's 
Union Station, for 
twenty-five years a 
landmark of North 
Charles street, is 
being torn down 
and is to be re- 
placed by a struc- 
ture which will cost, 
including ap- 
proaches, about 

$750,000. SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILWAY ST 

Roofed with Spanish tiles made by 

The largest room 
in the world under one roof and uninterrupted by pillars 
is said to be in St. Petersburg. The roof is a single arch 
of iron. It is used for military displays, and a whole 
battalion can readily manoeuvre in it. 

A gift of $150,000 from the Pittsburgh Alumni Asso- 
ciation of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has been 
announced for the erection of an administration build- 
ing and library 

i\?.%» k^Mi at the Tr °y 

institution. 



What is said 
to be the first 
terra cotta 
house in New 
York was put 
up last year by 
Prof. James E. 
Lough of New 
York Univer- 
sity, on the 
edge of the 
university 
grounds. 



ATION, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS 
the Ludowici-Celadon Company. 




DETAIL FOR HOTEL SENECA, 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Co., Makers. 

Esenwein & Johnson, Architects. 



The tax 
books of New York City, opened January 10th, show the 
total assessed real estate valuations for the five boroughs 
to be $6,600,187,322. 

Designs for the northeasterly corner wing of the Met- 
ropolitan Museum of Art have been approved by the 
New York Municipal Art Commission. 

Harvard is planning for the erection of a group of five 
buildings to be devoted to the study of chemistry. 

B. Cooper Corbett, architect, of Los Angeles, Cal., has 
moved his offices to 1128 W. P. Story Building. 



D. C. Barbot, Charleston, S. C, has opened an office 
for the practice of architecture at 26 Broad street. Man- 
ufacturers' catalogues and samples desired. 

The brothers 
Mason have given 
$250,000 to Yale 
University for the 
erection of an ex- 
perimental labora- 
tory of mechanical 
engineering. 

A. Lincoln Fech- 
heimer, architect, 
has opened offices 
in the Lyric Theatre 
Building, Cincin- 
nati. Manufactur- 
ers' catalogues and 
samples desired. 

The terra cotta 
used upon the ex- 
terior of the Second 

Church of Christ, Scientist, Los Angeles, was supplied 

by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Donn Barber, architect, is now located in his new 
quarters at 25 East 26th street, Madison Square, North, 
New York City. 

Edward B. Lee, architect, formerly of the firm of Bill- 
quist & Lee, has 
established an 
office at 318 Berger 
Building, Pitts- 
burg. 

Herbert H . 
Brown, architect, 
has recently 
opened an office at 
Jamestown, N. D. 
Manufacturers' 
catalogues and 
samples solicited. 

A new form of 
structure is that 
which shelters an 
aeroplane. In the 
land of Wright 
and Curtiss it is 
plainly called an 
"aeroplane shed." 
But one word is always better than two ; and since we 
have adopted the French word garage for the home of 
the motor car, it is not unreasonable to call an aeroplane 
shelter, as they do in Europe, a hangar. To be sure, it 
is only French for "shed," but it is more impressive 
than our four-lettered word. 

The firm of Taylor & Mosley, architects, formerly at 
number one Nassau street, are now located in their new 
quarters at 40 Wall street, New York City. 




DETAIL FOR YALE BOAT HOUSE, 

NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

Siuitti Amboy Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

Peabody ik Stearns, Architects. 



I IO 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Des Moines, Iowa, is expecting to obtain an enormous 
new hotel structure from a New York syndicate, which 
is building hotels in .Spokane, Seattle, and San Francisco, 
and which has recently erected a large hotel in Portland, 
Maine. 

STENOGRAPHER — Architectural specifications a specialty 
— experienced in all classes of work. Prices reasonable. Work 
first class. Room 56, 15 State St., Boston. Tel. Main 2701-1. 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE. 

FOUR YEAR COURSE. (Degree B.S. in Arch.) Architectural engi- 
neering may be taken in lieu of advanced design, etc. 

GRADUATE YEAR. (Degree M.S. in Arch.) Allowing specializa- 
tion in design or in architectural engineering, etc. 

SPECIAL COURSE OF TWO YEARS. (Certificate.) For qualified 
draftsmen ; affording option in architectural engineering. 

ADVANCED STANDING granted to college graduates and others for 
required work completed elsewhere. 

SUMMER SCHOOL in architecture, offering complete group of tech- 
nical subjects, affords advanced standing in regular and special 
courses. Special circular. 

FULL INFORMATION may be secured through application to the 
Dean of The College Department, Dr. GEORGE E. FISHER, 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— i register as- 
sistants FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OK THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK- 
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218 La SALLE St., CHICAGO. Long Distance Tel., Franklin 1328. 



A HOUSE OF BRICK— THE TITLE OF A 72 
PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS 40 DESIGNS 
FOR A BRICK HOUSE TO COST ABOUT $10,000. 
THESE DESIGNS WERE SUBMITTED IN COM- 
PETITION. THREE INTERESTING ARTICLES 
ON BRICKWORK, COMPARATIVE COSTS, ETC. 
PRICE, FIFTY CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, 
BOSTON. 



LINOLEUM 

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and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
German Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The Franklin Union Building in Boston, R. Clipston Sturgis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
the North Dakota, the largest Battleship in the United States 
Navy ; the extensions of the Suffolk County Court House in 
Boston, George A. Clough, Architect; and the Registry of 
Deeds, Salem, Mass., C. H. Blackall, Architect. 

We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

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646-658 WASHINGTON STREET, Opp. BoyUton Street 

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COMPETITION FOR A SMALL BRICK HOUSE. 



TO COST NOT MORE THAN $4,000. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. SECOND PRIZE, $250. THIRD PRIZE, $150. FOURTH PRIZE, $100. MENTIONS. 

THE COMPETITION CLOSES JUNE 1, 1910. 



PROGRAM. 

The problem is a small brick house suitable for a family of moderate means. 

1 he location may be assumed in any town, small city, or suburb of a large city. 

The cost of the house —exclusive of the land — shall not exceed $4,000 ; method of heating, plumbing, other fixtures, and finish to be governed by the 
limit of cost. 

A detailed statement of cost must accompany each design, this statement to be type-written on one side only of a sheet of paper measuring 1 1 inches by S^ 
inches. 

Designs which in the opinion of the jury call for a house which would cost more than the amount named will not be considered. 

I he object of this Competition is to obtain designs for Small Hrick Houses. This is a problem which will have a very great deal of interest for very many 
people. Not all those who wish to live in mansions < an do so — the great majority must house themselves from limited means. If we seek to improve the archi- 
tecture of our country-side we shall find a fruitful field in the development of tne small house along rational lines, depending for the element of beauty upon the 
designer's ability to treat the problem with intelligence and skill. It is hoped that the results of this Competition will help to point the way to a better class of 
moderate cost houses to the end that here in America we shall become possessed of a domestic architecture which in its simple beauty will compare favorably with 
the best that Europe has to otter. 

To summarize and emphasize the requirements, — this Competition calls for a Small Brick House, the cost of which is not to exceed $ 4, - 

CONSTRUCTION : There are no restrictions as to general type of construction except that the exterior walls are to be built of brick. 

DRAWING REQUIRED (there is to be but one): 

* tn <>ne sheet a pen and ink perspective, without wash or color, drawn at a scale of 4 feet to the inch. Plans of the first and second floors at 1 
S feet to the inch. A sketch showing detail of front entrance. In connection with the plan of the first rloor show as much of the arrangement of the lot in the 
immediate vicinity oi the bouse as space will permit. The plans are to be blocked in solid. A graphic scale must accompany the plans. The brickwork must be 
clearly shown on the perspective and detail. Make or style of brick is not to be mentioned on the drawing. 

The size of the sheet is to be exactly 24 inches by 18 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on the sheet 1 inch from edges, giving a space inside 
tin- (.order lines 22 inches by 16 inches. The sheet is to be of white paper and is not to be mounted. 

The drawing is to he signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom dr plume on the exterior and con- 
taining the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawing is to be delivered fiat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevet.t creasing or crushing), at the office of Thk Bru KBUILDBR, 85 Water Street, 
Mass.. on or before June 1, 1910. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition are at owner's risk front time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care will be exercised in their han- 
dling and keeping. 

The designs will be judged by three or five members of the architectural profession. 

In making the award the jury will not consider those designs which obviously would cost more to execute than the limit set, $4,000. With this limitation, 
excellence of design will be given first consideration, and plan second. 

I drawings which do not meet the requirements of the program will not be considered. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of Thb Brickbuildbb, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. The full 
name and address of the designer will be given in connection with each design published. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, 
may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

For the design placed first there will be given a prize of $500. For the design placed third a prize of $150. 

For the design placed second a prize of $250. For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

This Competition is open to everyone. The prize and mention drawings will be published in The Brickhi ii.ohk. 




THE 




BRICKBVILDER 




ARCHITMVRAL 

MONTHIY 




« » 



PVBLISHED BY ROGERS & MANSON 
EIGHTYFIVE WATER STREET BOSTON MASS. 



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Sweet's Index, page* 116-117 



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Fro*. QRICKS WAWlit0 

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M. E. GREGORY, PROPRIETOR 
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3 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XIX 



MAY 1 910 



Number 5 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1910, by ROGERS * MANSON 



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Agencies — Clay Products 
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,, Terra Cotta 

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ADVERTISING 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 
II 
II 

II and III 
III 



Brick Enameled 
Brick Waterproofing 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 
Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

ALBRO & LINDEBERG; G. HENRI DESMOND; JOHN A. FOX; FREEMAN, FUNK & WILCOX: 

CHARLES R. GRECO; HERTS & TALLANT; JANSSEN & ABBOTT; HOWARD VAN D. 

SHAW; THOMAS, CHURCHMAN & MOLITOR; F. D. VAN VOLKENBURG; 

WERNER & WINDOLPH. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGB 

RUINS ON THE APPIAN WAV Frontispiece 

HINTS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS Hugh Tallant 112 

FIRE DEPARTMENT BUILDINGS 117 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY uo 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. XIX. NO. 5. 



MAY, 1910. 



Hints on Architectural Acoustics/ 



BY HUGH TALLANT. 

INTRODUCTION. 



AMONG the multitudinous qualifications required of 
the modern architect there is no one more vital to 
the ultimate success of his work than a practical knowl- 
edge of acoustics. Almost every public building', whether 
it be a school, a church, a theatre, or a house of parlia- 
ment, contains at least one important auditorium ; and if 
in that auditorium the speakers cannot be distinctly 
understood, the building as a whole falls short of success, 
no matter what its beauty, convenience, or other archi- 
tectural excellence. Yet, for some unaccountable reason, 
the science of determining in advance the acoustic quali- 
ties of an edifice — what for lack of a better name we 
are forced to call architectural acoustics — this essential 
branch of an architect's training has hitherto been neg- 
lected. There is not, to the writer's knowledge, an edu- 
cational institution in the entire world which provides a 
single practical course on this important subject, and, 
with the lone exception of Professor Sabine's articles on 
resonance and sound absorption,* there does not exist a 
text-book or treatise from which the architect may glean 
the slightest practical suggestion. 

No one who has not vainly ransacked the standard 
works for some vestige of concrete information can 
realize the utter dearth of definite scientific resource. 
Not only are all quantitative data conspicuously lacking, 
but even the futile generalities advanced under guise of 
theoretic recommendation are often in need of amend- 
ment. The pioneer in the field of architectural acoustics 
finds himself everywhere thrown upon his own re- 
sources. He must combat the ingrained belief that all 
acoustic success is now, and ever will be, wholly due 
to chance. He must himself ascertain every concrete 
fact required as a basis for his investigations, and if he 
dare commit his conclusions to writing, he soon finds 
that what began in a sincere attempt to cast light upon 
an obscure subject is in danger of developing into a mere 
assertion of personal opinion. It is assuredly not from 
choice that in the following pages the writer has been 

* Architectural Acoustics, by Prof. Wallace C. Sabine, published 
in the American Architect and Building News, April to June, 1900, 
and in the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, Vol. XLIL, page 51. All the precise data contained in 
the following pages were drawn from this one source by the kind 
permission of Professor Sabine, to whose courtesy the writer owes 
also the scientific confirmation of many essential points of theory. 

Copyright, 1910, 



obliged to rely upon an all-too-frequent reference to his 
own experience. 

Public belief and scientific apathy to the contrary, 
there seems no obvious reason why the laws of sound 
may not be turned to practical account, as are the laws 
of pressure and reaction. Our whole theory of the 
mechanics of materials is based upon assumed elastic- 
properties of matter which are of doubtful uniformity 
and of complication without end. Yet this theory, which 
requires a safety factor of not less than four, enables us 
to erect structures whose monstrous height would have 
seemed a marvel to our forefathers. On the other hand, 
the laws of sound are uniform in action, simple, and of a 
character which facilitates their graphical expression. It 
is, to say the least, surprising that some one of a thousand 
practical scientists has not long since put the theory of 
architectural acoustics upon a working basis. Another 
generation will doubtless see treatises on this subject as 
voluminous as the present text-books on construction, 
and specialists as expert as the heating, sanitary and 
civil engineers of to-day. No such extensive propaganda 
is contemplated in the present instance. The object is 
merely to describe a simple means whereby with rule 
and compass the architect may approximate in advance 
the acoustic qualities of an auditorium, and avoid the 
most serious defects. 

In order that an audience may hear with ease and 
pleasure three conditions must be fulfilled. The sound 
must be loud, it must be distinct, and it must be of rich 
and uniform quality. These requirements are closely 
interrelated, and it is impossible to consider either of 
them independently of the others. They must be col- 
lectively approached from the standpoints of theory, 
practice and illustration. 

Part I of the following treatise will contain such 
theoretic principles as bear essentially upon the archi- 
tectural problem, together with the data necessary for 
computation; Part II will explain how the acoustics of 
the ordinary type of auditorium may be determined in 
advance of construction; Part III will illustrate the 
actual procedure in the case of four successful auditori- 
ums varying from a seating capacity of 150 to one of 2,200. 
The reader will find nothing marvelous or strange in the 
suggestions outlined. They attempt no fundamental 

by Hugh Tallant. 



I 12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



or detailed presentation of so broad a subject. They 
involve no complicated mathematics, no tiresome calcu- 
lations, nothing beyond the simple application of half a 
dozen principles of physics familiar to every high school 
boy. Yet they comprise a method, which, in actual test, 
has given unvarying success in a series of auditoriums 
constructed during the last fifteen years, and which, it is 
hoped, may now prove of public interest and service. 

PART I. 

Theoretic Princiim.es. 

The sensation of hearing is caused by vibrations 
which set in motion the mechanism of the ear. .Such 
vibrations occur in all elastic substances and can be 
transferred from one substance to another. As a rule, 
however, they must be transferred to the air before they 
can affect the ear.* 

Sound is sometimes defined as the sensation of hearing, 
sometimes as vibration capable of causing the sensation. 
Without wasting time over metaphysical quibbles, we 
shall merely say that sound is audible vibration, and that 
a single sound is so much of a vibration (a square inch, 
perhaps) as affects a single ear. Closer discrimination 
is unnecessary : for if we can control the vibrations, we 
can control the sensations which they produce, and in 
this way arrive at any desired result. For instance, 
suppose that an audible vibration is repeated at fixed 
intervals of time. If the intervals are long enough, the 
vibrations will be perceived as separate sounds, but if 
the intervals be gradually shortened, a point will pres- 
ently be reached where the sounds will seem to merge 
into a continuous tone, whose pitch will rise as the inter- 
vals grow shorter. This is a simple case where by con- 
trolling the rapidity of the vibrations we can control the 
varying sensations of pitch. 

Sound may result from the action of any force capable 
of producing vibration. When, for example, an isolated 
explosion crowds back the air on all sides, there is formed 
a spherical sound-wave of compressed air around the 
point of explosion, just as a circular ripple is formed 
around the point where a stone strikes the still surface 
of a pond. Such a sound-wave expands continually in all 
directions at a uniform speed of about 1,200 feet a second. 

In Fig. 1 the point of explosion is indicated by S, and 
the spherical sound-wave by the circle X Y Z. The dis- 
tance S X will amount to 1,200 feet at the end of the 
first second after the explosion, 2,400 feet at the end of 
the second second, and so on until the wave strikes some 
obstruction. 

While a speed of 1,200 feet a second would be marvel- 
ous for a flying machine, it is infinitesimal as compared 
with that of other natural forces, such as light and elec- 
tricity. It is actually less than half the muzzle-velocity 
developed by modern cannon, and is so slow as to be- 
come a serious factor in determining acoustic conditions. 
Xow the shortest perceptible space of time is about ,'- 
of a second. This corresponds to only 80 feet of sound 
travel, so that the speaker's voice occupies a very distinct 
space of time in reaching the rear of an auditorium 100 
feet in depth. 

* The phenomena of the audiphone and of the action of water 
against the ear-drum have no importance in the present connection. 



As sound recedes from its original source its intensity 
diminishes as the square of the distance from its origin 
increases. At 100 feet from the starting-point it is only 
one-quarter as loud as at 50 feet, and at 150 feet only 
one-ninth as loud. On the other hand, if we could bend 
the wave out of shape so that several parts of it would 
converge upon the same point, we might in this way re- 
inforce the sound sufficiently to offset the natural dimin- 
ution. If we could make four parts converge at 100 
feet, or nine parts at 150 feet, from the starting-point, 
we might form a combination that would be as loud as 
the natural sound at 50 feet. This is exactly what hap- 
pens in the case of the ordinary speaking tube. Here 
the interior surface of the tube forces the entire sound- 
wave to concentrate in the same direction, and conse- 
quently there is no decrease in the intensity of the sound 
except through friction against the inside of the tube. 

Now if we could extend the same process to an audi- 
torium, and arrange the walls and ceiling so as to con- 
centrate the sound wherever needed, we should be in a 
fair way to solve the problem of loudness. All that we 
should need to know for this purpose would be exactly 
how sound is deflected from the walls of a room, and 
how much is incidentally lost in the impact. 

Fortunately there is no lack of theoretic information 
on this point. The text-books are agreed that a sound 
is deflected from a wall just as a billiard ball is deflected 
from the cushion. We all know what happens in the 
case of the ball. Independent of English (which has an 
unimportant analogy in the case of sound), the ball re- 
bounds from the cushion at exactly the angle at which it 
struck, but with diminished momentum. If the original 
impetus was sufficient, the ball may take a second or third 
cushion, but with repeated deflection its momentum will 
eventually be destroyed, and it will come to rest. The 
exact diminution in momentum depends mainly upon 
the material of the cushion, but the quality of the ball 
and the angle of impact also have an influence. An ex- 
actly analogous process takes place in the case of a sound. 
Upon striking a wall it is deflected back into the air at 
the same angle at which it struck, but with diminished 
intensity. If it was originally powerful enough it may 
continue on to a second or third wall, but eventually its 
momentum will be entirely absorbed, and it will die out. 
The diminution in loudness occurring with each deflec- 
tion depends mainly upon the material of the wall, but 
the pitch of the sound and the angle of impact also have 
an influence. The precise absorbing-capacity of differ- 
ent materials for the pitch of middle C is enumerated by 
Professor Sabine in the treatise already mentioned, to- 
gether with a discussion of the effect of changes in pitch. 
For ordinary purposes it is sufficiently accurate to disre- 
gard altogether the influence of pitch and angle of im- 
pact, and to consider only the material of the wall. The 
following approximate classification will be found con- 
venient: 

Wall, floor and ceiling surfaces — such as wainscoting, 
wood or marble flooring, plastering, glass and masonry 
— absorb no sound. 

Heavy curtains, rugs, and carpets without batting ab- 
sorb one-quarter of the sound. 

Carpeting upon heavy batting absorbs one-half of the 
sound. 



. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



"3 



Cushions, ordinary upholstery, and heavy felting 
hung free from the wall absorb three-quarters of the 
sound. 

The audience and very heavily upholstered furniture 
absorb all the sound. 

Iu practice the above table gives results which can be 
relied upon within about five per cent, except in the case 
of carpeting, which varies some ten per cent either way 
with conditions of quality, wear, and amount of batting. 
At the pitch of middle C, masonry or plaster walls and 
ceilings actually absorb only some two or three per cent 
for each impact, and wood sheathing only about six per 
cent, while the audience absorbs ninety-four per cent. 
A sound may, therefore, be deflected two or three times 
from walls and ceiling without losing so much as one- 
tenth of its volume, whereas as soon as it reaches the 
audience it is almost entirely absorbed. 

Knowing the amount of sound lost in each impact and 
the exact angle of deflection, it becomes possible to trace 



desired. This procedure furnishes an absolute solu- 
tion of the problem of loudness. It necessitates a certain 
amount of patience and care, but involves no insurmount- 
able difficulties and no more complicated mathematical 
calculations than the measurement of the distances of 
sound travel and the angles of incidence and deflection. 
At the same time it is to a certain extent limited by 
conditions of distinctness which have not yet been con- 
sidered. They are best explained by a simple diagram. 

In Fig. 2, S is again the speaker, X Y Z the sound- 
wave, P and Q two small parts of the wave, and V W 
the wall of the auditorium. Now suppose that the sound 
P strikes the wall at R and is deflected back with slightly 
diminished intensity in the direction R A. We know 
that the angle P R W is equal to the angle A R V and 
that these two angles are in a plane perpendicular to the 
wall V W. 

Now many other parts of the sound-wave are also mov- 
ing in this same plane. If Q happens to be one of these 




the path of any sound from the time it leaves the speak- 
er's lips until it reaches the audience, and to calculate 
how much of its intensity is lost in transit. In point of 
fact not over one-quarter of the speaker's voice ever 
travels straight to the audience, the remaining three- 
quarters being directed first to the walls, floor or 
ceiling. By proper curvature and inclination of the de- 
flecting surfaces we can arrange to distribute these three- 
quarters of the sound in increasing amounts toward the 
rear of the auditorium, and in this way artificially coun- 
teract the tendency of the sound to become fainter with 
increased distance from the speaker. As the amount 
lost by each impact is practically negligible, we can, if 
we wish, allow the sound to strike several times before 
it is finally deflected to the hearer. There are, therefore, 
several satisfactory arrangements of the deflecting sur- 
faces according to the number of deflections allowed, 
and it is almost always possible to find an arrange- 
ment which corresponds to the architectural treatment 



parts, then eventually the crooked path of the sound P 
will cross the straight path of the sound O at a point 
which is indicated by A. A person listening at A will, 
therefore, hear both sounds, first the sound O, which has 
come by the short straight path S (J A, and subsequently 
the sound P, which has come by the longer crooked path 
S P R A. It has already been mentioned that the short- 
est perceptible space of time is about fa of a second. If 
the sound P reaches the listener less than fa of a second 
after the sound Q, he will merely perceive a single sound 
somewhat louder than either P or Q. On the other hand, 
if Preaches the listener more than fa of a second after O, 
he will hear two distinct sounds. Finally, if P reaches the 
listener at exactly fa of a second after Q, he will merely 
be aware of indistinctness or confusion in the sound. 

It is not difficult to determine which one of these three 
conditions actually exists in a given case: for we know 
that fa of a second of time corresponds to 80 feet of 
sound travel. All that is necessary is to determine by 



II 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



measurement whether one of the two sound paths is 
80 feet longer than the other. In practice it is not safe 
to allow a difference of over 70 feet. Whenever the dis- 
crepancy exceeds this amount it is desirable to change 
the inclination of the deflecting surfaces so as to throw 
the sound farther away from the speaker. If such a 
change is impossible the only recourse is to cover the 
deflecting surfaces with sound-absorbing material, but 
this procedure is unfortunate, as it wastes perfectly good 
sound which might otherwise be utilized where extra 
loudness is needed. 

It does not make any serious difference whether the 
sound is reinforced from a side wall, from the floor or 
from the ceiling. On the other hand, the case of the 
wall opposite the speaker, that is of the wall at the back 
of the audience, is quite different. A sound deflected 
from this wall is almost sure to produce unfavorable 
results. The reason is easily seen. In Fig. 3, S R A is 
such a sound deflected from the wall behind the listener 
at A. This sound returning directly, or almost directly, 
toward the speaker, meets subsequent sounds of the 
speaker's voice moving in the opposite direction S T, in 
what might be called a head-on collision. The result is 
a confusion called sound-interference, the exact effects of 
which depend upon the volume and pitch of the conflict- 
ing sounds, and upon other conditions practically impos- 
sible to determine. The easiest solution of the difficulty 
is to avoid it altogether by destroying the deflected 
sound. This can usually be done either by covering the 
rear wall with sound-absorbing material, or by curving or 
inclining it so that all sound will be deflected to some 
other absorbing surface before it can reach the audience. 
It is worth noting, in this connection, that sound casts a 
shadow exactly like light, and that there is no need of 
applying sound-absorbing material to the rear wall at 
points where it is in sound shadow. 

The case of the wall behind the speaker is very simi- 
lar, but as there is no part of the audience between this 
wall and the speaker there is no need of sound-absorb- 
ing material. On the contrary, so considerable a part of 
the sound will always be deflected to the audience in 
spite of interference, that this wall may be included with 
the side walls for purposes of sound reinforcement. 

It is evident that between cases of extreme sound- 
interference and others of almost perfect combination 
there must be numerous intermediate conditions of par- 
tial interference. In point of fact the whole interior of 
any auditorium is full of sound eddies varying constantly 
with the pitch and volume of the component tones. The 
writer knows no practical way of determining these con- 
ditions in advance, but his experience has been that if 
the serious difficulties arising from the rear wall are 
avoided the others may be neglected without noticeable 
inconvenience. 

The foregoing analysis indicates that the conditions of 
distinctness are two. First, no two sounds must reach the 
same point by paths one of which is over 70 feet longer 
than the other. Second, no sound must be deflected 
from the rear wall into the audience. Within the limits 
of these conditions sound may be deflected to any part 
of the auditorium in such a way as to reinforce the direct 
sound and thereby produce the requisite loudness. 
.The third essential of acoustic success is no less 



tangible than the other two, but it is of a somewhat more 
complex nature. To trace in detail the connection be- 
tween architectural construction and quality of tone 
would involve the mathematics of musical pitch and har- 
mony, and a description of the more important musical 
instruments, together with the theoretic principles in- 
volved in the construction of each. Such a discussion 
would not be altogether foreign to the question of archi- 
tectural acoustics, but it would lead us very far afield, 
besides duplicating much that is contained in all the 
standard text-books. For present purposes, therefore, 
we will merely state that the influence of architectural 
surroundings upon quality of tone is mainly dependent 
upon two factors, resonance and reverberation. Reso- 
nance is prolongation of tone produced by continuous 
vibration of elastic materials. Reverberation is prolonga- 
tion produced by repeated deflection of sound from walls, 
floor and ceiling. These two phenomena, although at 
times resulting in similar acoustic effects, are fundamen- 
tally different in character, and require different archi- 
tectural treatments. They will, therefore, be considered 
separately and in some detail. 

Resonance occurs wherever vibration is transferred 
from one material to another, either by direct contact or 
through the air. When the two materials are in contact 
the second material will respond to all vibrations of the 
first, and the result is usually a very great increase in 
the volume of sound produced. A vibrating piano-string 
would of itself emit a very feeble tone because it is so 
slender that it can affect only a small volume of air. 
Supported on a sounding board by means of a fret it 
forces the board to vibrate at the same rate as itself or, 
in other words, to give out a tone of the same pitch, and 
as the surface of the board is large and can affect a con- 
siderable volume of air, the resulting tone is full and 
strong. Extend the process by placing the piano on a 
wooden floor and the same vibration will be communi- 
cated to the floor with the effect of a still further increase 
in loudness. 

When the two materials are not in contact and the 
vibration is transferred from one to the other through 
the air, the second material will respond only to vibra- 
tions with which it happens to be in sympathy. In this 
case there is no real increase in loudness, the vibration 
being produced at the expense of sound which would 
otherwise be deflected. The greater the vibration the less 
the deflected sound. A wainscot near but not in contact 
with a piano will respond only to tones of a certain pitch. 
The floor of an orchestra-pit will respond only to a part 
of the notes emitted by the violins and other instruments 
which do not rest upon the floor. Under these circum- 
stances a series of notes of varying pitch are apt to lack 
uniformity of both loudness and resonance. The notes 
to which the woodwork responds will be more prolonged 
and less loud. Those to which the woodwork does not 
respond will be less prolonged and more loud. It is 
evidently essential for the sake of both quality and uni- 
formity of tone that floors and wainscoting should be so 
constructed as to vibrate in sympathy with tones of 
every pitch ; and the same is true to a greater or less 
extent of all other vibrating materials in an auditorium. 
Some apparently successful attempts in this direction 
will be fully described in Part II. Plaster and masonry 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



"5 



walls and ceilings do not respond to interior sound suf- 
ficiently to produce a marked effect, but plaster on wire 
lath will sometimes resound to exterior sJioek in an ex- 
tremely unexpected and disconcerting manner. This 
difficulty will be considered in connection with sound- 
proofing. 

Several considerations must be taken into account in 
estimating the resonance in a given case. The mere 
introduction of large amounts of vibratory material does 
not of necessity involve a corresponding increase in 
resonance: for if the material be not so placed as to be 
largely exposed to direct impact of sound, very little vibra- 
tion maybe developed. In point of fact, ordinary wains- 
coting is naturally rather badly placed in this respect 
because the lower portions are shielded by the audience. 
A wainscot on the rear wall is apt to be entirely in sound 
shadow, and two or three deflections from adjacent ceil- 
ings must usually be contrived in order to direct any con- 
siderable volume of sound upon it. This is particularly 
true on the balconies; and, as will be explained in Part 
II, it is occasionally necessary to take some chances of 
indistinctness in order to obtain sufficient vibration. 

As resonance is produced at the expense of deflected 
sound, it might appear desirable to exercise care in the 
use of wainscoting so as to avoid too great a diminution 
in the volume of deflected sound. In point of fact, how- 
ever, there is no danger of any great loss in loudness on 
this account. The reason is that sound deflected from 
the upper part of a wainscot never reaches the audience, 
and consequently its loss is not perceived. It sweeps 
over their heads to the back of the auditorium and if not 
there destroyed returns in a plague of interference. On 
the contrary, the vibration left behind in the wainscot 
continues to be heard by the audience, and augments 
the volume of sound actually heard. For similar rea- 
sons, but to a less extent, an increase in total volume 
of sound is produced by constructing the floor of an 
orchestra-pit so as to act as a sounding board. The 
vibratory materials in an auditorium should be care- 
fully distributed with reference to their proximity to the 
audience. A great deal of wainscoting concentrated at 
one point will not greatly enhance the resonance else- 
where. Much judgment and ingenuity are often neces- 
sary in order to make the decorative scheme meet the 
acoustic requirements, but so essential is a maximum of 
resonance in all parts of an auditorium that too much 
attention cannot be paid to the design, location and 
exposure of all vibratory surfaces. 

On the other hand, reverberation, while frequently 
agreeable, is always an element of danger. At its best 
it produces an effect somewhat similar to true reso- 
nance; at its worst it degenerates into sound-confusion 
and echo. In a small room the result is pleasing when 
the reverberation is not excessive. In such a case, with 
deflections numbering some eighty or more a second, the 
average loss of sound per impact depends wholly upon 
the relative amounts of sound-absorbing materials. It 
makes no perceptible difference where the speaker or 
musician is placed or how the furniture is arranged: the 
reverberation will continue the same so long as the walls 
and contents of the room remain unchanged. Knowing 
the average distance of sound travel and the exact ab- 
sorbing capacity of each of the materials to be used, it 



becomes a purely mathematical task to determine an 
average absorbing capacity which will give any desired 
prolongation of sound. The problem has been fully inves- 
tigated by Professor Sabine, who has found by practical 
experiment that a reverberation lasting 1.1 seconds gives 
the most pleasing effect in an ordinary sized music-room. 
There is no occasion for duplicating here the theory and 
method of calculation, which are fully developed in the 
treatise already so frequently cited. 

The larger the room the longer will be the average dis- 
tance of sound travel, and the longer the reverberation 
for any given capacity of sound absorption. By the time 
we reach a room whose dimensions average 40 or 50 feet, 
the calculation begins to be complicated by factors other 
than mere size and absorbing capacity. The shape of the 
room and the location of the principal absorbing materials 
begin to have an appreciable effect, and the position of 
the speaker assumes an importance. Suppose a hall 
so arranged that no sound is deflected more than three 
times before reaching the audience, a condition by no 
means impossible. In such a case, if the walls absorb 
two per cent per impact, and the audience ninety-four 
per cent, there will remain after striking the audience 
less than six per cent of the original sound — an average 
loss of more than fifty per cent per impact. But now 
suppose that a dome is added and that the walls are 
curved so that each sound averages seven deflections be- 
fore reaching the audience. There will still remain over 
five per cent of the sound, or approximately as much as 
in the first case, but the average loss per impact is only 
about thirty per cent. Evidently in the second case the 
reverberation will last much longer than in the first case, 
although the exact amounts of absorbing material in the 
room are unchanged. Again, suppose that the dome is 
so small as to occupy only a portion of the ceiling. In 
this case all sounds except those rising into the dome 
will be practically destroyed in four impacts, or perhaps 
/,, of a second, but the sound in the dome may not wan- 
der back to earth until after an entire second of repeated 
deflections, producing a distinct and annoying echo. 

Where the architect is called upon to remedy existing 
defects, the cause of the difficulty may usually be diag- 
nosed and the remedy ascertained by such considerations 
as have just been enumerated: for in this case the results 
are all in actual evidence, and only known conditions 
must be met. Where, on the contrary, the architect 
is called upon to design a new auditorium, he must 
foresee every possible contingency, and the chances of 
missing some small but vital factor become almost over- 
whelming. With a seating capacity of upwards of a 
thousand, involving the separate consideration of nearly 
every auditor, the successful use of reverberation be- 
comes too laborious for practical employment, and the 
only escape from the dilemma is to rely altogether upon 
resonance for quality of tone. If the suggestions con- 
cerning loudness and distinctness have already been 
carried out, the greater part of every sound-wave will 
have been already utilized to practical advantage, and it 
merely remains to destroy the remnants by proper appli- 
cation of sound-absorbing material. 

Of course perfection is not in humanity, and it is not 
possible to eradicate every vestige of undesirable deflec- 
tion, but so far can this procedure be carried as to give 



n6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



the resulting tone a disagreeably lifeless quality. To 
offset this deficiency it is desirable to develop true reso- 
nance to the utmost by means of vibratory material, such 
as wainscoting and woodwork in general. Resonance is 
never too accentuated where all possible reverberation has 
been eliminated, and the amount of properly designed 
wainscoting, fixture work and other vibratory materials 
which may be introduced by the architect, is limited only 
by the decorative treatment of the auditorium and the 
length of the owner's purse. The acoustic effect re- 
sembles the humming accompaniment to a college glee, 
and is never so loud as to endanger the distinctness of 
the speaker's utterance. An auditorium designed for a 
maximum of resonance and a minimum of reverberation 
will combine the quality of tone necessary for music and 
the distinctness necessary for speaking: it will be 
equally well adapted to the production of both opera and 
drama — often an indispensable requirement. 

The reader will have noted that in the preceding dis- 
cussion there has been no mention of one very important 
vibrating material, namely, the air itself. As everyone 
knows, a column of air under certain conditions, as in an 
organ pipe, may produce a musical tone of tremendous 
volume. Such vibrating air columns exist to a slight 
extent in all auditoriums. They are conditioned by the 
relation between the distance of a given musical instru- 
ment from the wall and the pitch of the tone emitted. 
Obviously the pitch is a variable quantity, whereas the 
distance of the instrument from the wall is usually fixed; 
at all events it cannot be altered to suit every change of 
pitch. Possibly these vibrating air columns should be 
considered in placing the different instruments in an 
orchestra-pit. 

So far, we have considered the action of sound in the 
air alone. Its action in solids is exactly analogous. It 
spreads in a spherical wave until it reaches the surface of 
the solid, and then is partly absorbed into the adjacent 
material and partly deflected back again. In practice, 
the result is apt to be somewhat unexpected because the 
materials of a building exist in thin layers, such as walls 



and floors, which prevent the sound from spreading 
laterally, and therefore transfer it to great distances with 
surprisingly small loss in intensity. A tie-rod imbedded 
in concrete acts in exactly the same manner as a speak- 
ing tube. The sound-wave is prevented from spreading 
laterally, owing to the difference in the consistency of 
steel and concrete, and consequently travels from end to 
end of the rod with almost no diminution. If one end 
of the rod chances to be attached to a vibratory surface, 
such as plaster on wire lath, a jar at the other end of the 
rod may be so transferred to the plastering as to result 
in a loud and prolonged sound. The same is of course 
true of steel girders and columns and of any other elastic 
material in similar shapes. A shock originating on the 
outside of a building may in this way be transferred in 
formidable proportions to the interior. The proper 
means of preventing the passage of sound is evidently 
to interpose successive layers of materials of different 
consistencies, taking care that no elastic material con- 
nects the different layers. A series of air spaces, sepa- 
rated by independent walls or partitions, approximates a 
theoretic sound-proofing, but care is necessary to prevent 
sound-communication from wall to wall through the 
floor girders or furring strips. Such an arrangement is 
open also to the objection that the air spaces themselves 
are liable to vibrate to tones with which they happen to be 
in sympathy. The writer has found by experience that 
a clear space of about 6 inches under the flooring of an 
orchestra-pit gives a maximum volume to tones of aver- 
age pitch. Experiments conducted by Professor Sabine 
have shown that an air space 8 inches wide gives a 
maximum tone for the pitch of middle C. Probably this 
width corresponding to maximum tone has some mathe- 
matical relation to the length of the sound-wave, and 
would vary with the pitch. In the absence of complete 
data on this point, it would appear desirable to keep the 
air spaces either as shallow as possible or over 16 inches 
deep, avoiding spaces about 6 inches deep as likely to 
prove sonorous. The exact construction in one particu- 
larly difficult case will be fully described in Part II. 



FIRE 
STATION 

AND 

TOWN HALL, 

WYOMING, 

OHIO. 




GARBER & 

WOODWARD, 

ARCHITECTS. 

CINCINNATI, 

OHIO. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



117 



Fire Department Buildings. 

BY HALSEV WAINWRIGHT PARKER. 

THE architecture of a municipal or civic building, easily and naturally placed in good relations to each 
especially if it is in a city of considerable popula- other. 




Fir-^t Fucde. Plan 

t/cAUtllfcln-tFT 



tion, tends towards formality rather than picturesqueness 
in design, and naturally becomes somewhat monumental 
in its character. Economy of space, ease of circulation, 
simplicity of arrangement, are all essential and produce 
symmetry of plan, uniformity of treatment, and direct- 
ness of expression — all of which are factors in monumen- 
tal design. 
The develop- 
ment o f t he 
details of 
buildings of 
this character 
entirely de- 
pendsupon the 
number of dif- 
ferent de- 
mands made 
upon the build- 
ings and the 
comparative 
complexity of 
its require- 
ments. The 
fewer require- 
ments to be 
satisfied the 
less the possi- 
bilities of pic- 
turesqueness. 
In fact pictur- 
esqueness is the accident of consecutive growth, and 
becomes affectation if deliberately invented. And in 
addition to this, civic buildings, unless entirely isolated 
from all except ample natural surroundings, need to have 
sufficiently dignified character to be distinctive and to 
prevent their being overpowered by their adjacent neigh- 
bors. For all these reasons it can reasonably be assumed 
that civic buildings should have simple and monumental 
character rather than elaborated and aggressively unique 
design. 

Of the many types which belong to this class, the one 
having the most definitely organized and in many re- 
spects the simplest plan is that of the Fire Department 
Station. Its factors are few, and are, room for the ap- 
paratus with ample and direct access to the street, 
if horses are used — stables adjacent to the engine house ; 
dormitories for the men directly over the apparatus 
room ; a recreation or lounging room for the men, and a 
hose tower. Additional factors are secondary. The re- 
sult is a cubical, a building which does not turn corners 
in its plan, and usually does not exceed two or at the 
utmost three stories in height. This is exactly the type 
of building which is extremely interesting to an archi- 
tect, as its purpose is readily expressed and it has not 
excessive height for the width of its facade. Also it has 
or can have an adequate amount of wall surface, without 
excess of openings and voids, and with the openings 



FIRE DEPARTMENT HUILDING AND TOWN HALL, 
Garber & Woodward, Architects. 



«/fcCOND FUcbRj PLAN' 

WYOMING, OHIO. 



With the exception of the main doorways there is 
nothing to absolutely fix the size, shape or position of 
openings, excepting the fact that adequate light should 
be provided, and this can be easily obtained. There are 
few if any complications caused by the adjustment over 
or around each other of rooms of very different areas and 

heights. The 
main en- 
trances are 
capable of 
being made 
excellent in 
proportion and 
treatment, and 
in many cases 
an opportunity 
occurs which 
is rarely of- 
fered in other 
b u i Id ings — 
that of a tower 
which is not 
only of use but 
is necessary, 
and is not an 
addition for 
the sake of fan- 
tasy only, and 
a tower which 
requires few if 
any openings in its walls. These are ideal requirements, 
seldom presented in architectural design, and yet despite 
this fact, there has been no type of civic building so neg- 
lected, so wretchedly designed, and so feebly expressed 
as the Fire Department Building. It is not difficult to 
determine the apparent reason for this neglect. The 
problem was essentially one of utility. The location of 
the buildings was not of especial importance, the chief 
essential being that they should be in convenient places 
for efficient service. No care was given to anything 
more than the utilitarian problem, and in most cases 
little care to that. 

That the Fire Department Building should serve its 
district, house its force, and be built with economy, 
was, and often is, deemed sufficient. But it has been 
proved time and time again that buildings to which 
little thought has been given have thoroughly expressed 
that unfortunate fact. The class of architects, fortu- 
nately becoming gradually less, to whom any piece of 
work was merely an opportunity to erect an uncon- 
sidered structure, were for years employed on these 
buildings, if in fact any architect was employed. The 
conditions are changing — there is appearing a certain 
pride taken in the quality of even the minor buildings 
erected by a municipality. City officials are beginning 
to exercise discriminative choice, recognizing the fact 
that good work redounds to their credit, and as a result 



n8 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




f IR. J T TLOOR. PLA.N 



.SECOND FLOOR. PLAN 



FIRE DEPARTMENT BUM. DIM;, EAST ORANGE, N. J. 

Walker & Haezard, Architects. 




•FIRST ~FL OOR -PlATf- 

FIRE DEPARTMENT BUILDING AND TOWN HAI.L, 

LOCKLAND, OHIO. 

Gather & Woodward, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



119 







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FJR3 r- Floor Flz 




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0MCtJ>3 ROOM 



Jecokd Pi ooe Pla?* ■ 




ENGINE ll"l SR, NEW YORK I I I V ■ 
Percy Griffin, Architect. 




ENGINE HOUSE, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
Adams &- Warren, Architects. 




X 



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120 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VOL. 19. NO. 5. 



PLATE 59. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 5. PLATE 60. 





3ECU.VO / 1 IIUV /'I A.\ 







■FIRST FLOOR PLAT* 



FIRE DEPARTMENT BUILDING, BROOKLINE, MASS 
Freeman, Funk & Wilcox, Architects. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 5. PLATE 61. 



FIRE DEPARTMENT BUILDING, BOSTON, MASS. 
John A. Fox. Architect. 





FJRE DEPARTMENT BUILDING, CAMBRIDGE. MASS. 
C. R. Greco, Architect. 



.. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 5. PLATE 62. 




ENGINE HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY 

Herts & Tallant, Architects. 



THE BRICK BUI LDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 5. PLATE 63. 




no ". HIRD FLOOR PLANS 



rci Tcntfl, 



.1 ■ ■ 




5 o 5 

hrrrri — =^3: 



s .p 10 is. ss jc jr 



PIRST FLOOR. P 



APARTMENT HOUSE, PITTSBURG, PA. 

JANSSEN & ABBOTT, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO 5. PLATE 64 




riR^r rLOOR. PLAn 



JOt£ or ret 



HOUSE AT L1BERTYVILLE. ILL. 
Howard Van .D. Shaw, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 5. p LATE 65 . 



f\<- 



Aft* 






HOUSE AT LIBERTYVJLLE, ILL. 

HOWARD VAN U. SHAW, ARCHITECT. 



THE 15 KI C K BUILD E K. 

VOL. 19. NO. 5. PLATE 66 








HOUSE AT LAKE FOREST, ILL. 

Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU1LDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 5. PLATE 67. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 5 PLATE 




HOUSE, WOODLAWN AVENUE, CHICAGO 
Howard Van U. Shaw, architect. 



A/«v5 r rLODR PLAN 



THE BRICK BUILDE R. 

VOL. 19. NO. 5. PLATE 69. 




WBMHBBH 



■■^HHBH 




first floor 



■mi 

HOUSE, KENMORE AVENUE, 

CHICAGO. 

Howard Van D. Shaw, 
architect. 




3LC0/ND FLOOR 



THE BRIC KBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 5. PLATE 70. 




■J"ECOHV ■ Fi_OOR_j. 



THE BR ICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 5. PLATE 71. 




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THE RRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



I2 5 




i 



in parts of the country where Fire Department Buildings other masses. As a result there is to he found in most 

modern buildings a disregard for their environment, a 
scale much too large for their mass, and detail that 

is crude, however well in- 
tentioned. Any designer 
who has gone through the 
process of designing first in 
two dimensions, and later 
in three dimensions, finds 
by experience a marked dif- 
ference in the method of 
determining scale in the 
two processes. In design- 
ing in two dimensions the 
smallest detail sets the scale 
of the pattern ; no matter 
how large the repeat, or 
how definite the spot, the 
work must be brought to 
the scale of the smallest 
details. In designing in 
three dimensions a marked 
change is manifest. The 
> scale is set by the smallest 
geometric solid, unless that 
solid is so small that it becomes 
a part of a design in two dimen- 
sions rather than part of a de- 
sign in three dimensions. That 
is to say, in the assembling of 
solids there are two methods 
of attack — either one solid be- 
comes so preponderant in mass 
that all other solids become as- 
sociated details of it — or there 
are a number of solids similar 
in their respective masses, even 
if different in form, in which 
case the smallest solid sets the 
scale and the larger solid must 
be detailed down to it. In the 
first case there is a dominant 
— in the second a harmony of 
solids. It is always much easier 
to design with a dominant than 
it is to group solids of similar 
bulk. The study of descriptive 
geometry in the architectural 
schools has as one of its pur- 
poses an appreciation of such 
problems. When the dominant 
mass is adopted, large and 
heavy details do not add to its 
power, but detract from it. 
When the associated solids are 
chosen, heavy and coarse detail is m too large a scale for 
the detailing of the smallest solid. Despite these well 
known facts the addition of incongruous solids appears 
constantly in otherwise creditable designs ; for instance, 
small projecting rooms with circular ends, peculiar masses 
at the topfl and corners of towers, and on parapets; and 
heavy handed detail is everywhere apparent. 

American architecture has often been praised for its 



are necessary, they are receiving a certain amount of 
attention, as the illustrations accompanying this article 
testify. But the field is still 
neglected, and there seems 
even to be disregard for 
conditions in some of the 
designs which are here pre- 
sented. 

The present phase of 
architectural education is 
based upon a very sane and 
plausible premise, i.e., that 
all good architecture has 
and should express the con- 
ditions of its period and 
place, and that therefore 
modern architecture in 
order to have lasting merit 
should do the same. This is 
undeniable. But the result- 
ing corollary is perfectly 
false and undesirable, i.e., 
that modern architecture, 
being modern, should re- 
semble nothing which has ante- 
dated it. As a matter of fact, 
structure to-day has the same 
elements as in the past, those 
of vertical supports, and hori- 
zontal or arched spanning of 
voids. Stone and brick and 
wood are assembled as they 
have always been assembled, 
and iron alone has broadened 
its possibilities. Few new 
structural forms have occurred 
except in the minor details, 
which have been unduly exag- 
gerated ; and it is extremely 
doubtful if many will appear at 
any time. But from this erratic 
reasoning in relation to new 
conditions, most of which do 
not exist, there has arisen a 
series of the most uncouth 
forms, especially in parapet 
terminations, and in corbeling 
and brackets, which are appar- 
ent in the modern buildings. 
A desire to express in a new 
manner induces exaggeration 
in every factor, and it is plain 
that exaggeration is the key- 
note of the work of many of 
the younger men in American architecture. If power is 
desired, mass and scale are exaggerated — with a monu- 
mental forgetfulness that all power has restraint as a 
prominent factor. If detail is desired it is exaggerated 
with a fine unconsciousness that detail should accent, not 
oppress. If mass is desired its bulk is exaggerated with 
a naive ignorance that mass is relative to its environment 
and has no power of expression without comparison with 



TIRXT FLOOR PLAN' 



3ECOM D FLOOR PLAN 

D. 



DEPARTMENT BUILDING, WASHIN 

Appklon I'. Clark, Jr., Architect. 



126 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



virility. It may be suspected at times that when this 
compliment comes from France or Italy, or even from 
England, it is a transparent subterfuge caused by a lack 
of other virtues which could be extolled. As a matter of 
fact, virility is an aggressive virtue and by no means 
equal to restrained power. There is quite sufficient vi- 
rility in Greek work and in Renaissance, and in Gothic; 
but that adjective is never the first which is applied to 
the masterpieces of the past. Much of American work 
has the virility which appears in the Palais de Justice 
at Brussels. There is actually a much more exact word 
for it, that of crudeness. The expectation of a decade 
ago, which seemed justifiable 
when it was considered that so 
many young men who had re- 
ceived architectural training 
were entering the profession, 
that American architecture 
would rapidly improve, has not 
been adequately realized. Per- 
haps it is too soon to criticize 
the lack of performance. Cer- 
tainly, as a whole, the build- 
ings of the country are better 
than they were, and planning 
especially has improved, but in 
much of the work there is ex- 
istent at present a peculiar 
phase — that of making details 
much too large for the masses 
they are supposed to ornament. 
They overpower masses, dis- 
turb shadows, break up sur- 
faces, destroy edges. The 
requirements of a building force 
upon the architect a relation of 
the plan to the size of a man. 
The one portion of the design 
in which the architect has an 
opportunity for imagination, 
for individuality, he treats as 
if the building were for Brob- 
dignagians, and unloads upon 

it a collection of ordinary and often uncouth forms grown 
to an abnormal size ; such as quoins which would 
strengthen huge facades, and projections, but which 
would disturb any wall, on thirty foot fronts. Keystones 
bulge and spread where no keystones are needed. Vous- 
soirs are accented at the expense of the arch line, destroy- 
ing it. Corbels and brackets which would hold up five 
stories occur under a copper gutter moulding. Minor 
structural factors oppress and overcome the main struc- 
tural masses, and there is very little study of mouldings. 
What is the cause for this manifest lack in American 
architecture ? There are several causes and they seem 
to have joined forces to produce crude work. 

First, there is the fact that the schools do not teach 
detail adequately — that drawings are made to a small 
scale and that masses alone are indicated on the drawings 
— and incidentally that great stress is laid on shadows — 
which are after all, though important, a secondary con- 
sideration to solids and voids. As a natural result of 
this teaching, the architect, untrained in detail — except 




ENGINE HOUSE, CI 

Harry Hake. 



that he has drawn the capitals and entablatures of the 
orders — enlarges the detail upon a drawing of ' of 
an inch to the foot exactly as if it were an enlarged 
photograph, and leaves it in that condition. He does 
not know how to adapt it to full size and can only learn 
by careful observation and experience. The argument 
is that if detail is well placed and looks well on the scale 
drawing it must look well if pentagraphically enlarged. 
Why not apply the same argument to sculpture and 
mural painting ? Ask any sculptor if he has difficulty in 
getting the spirit of his small sketch into the figure of 
heroic size, and if he merely enlarges the small sketch 

by the aid of calipers. 

Yet this is exactly what the 
American architect appears to 
be doing, and as a result there 
is no work in the world so 
crudely, barbarously detailed 
as American work. The final 
reason for crude detail is the 
mistaken idea that big things 
are impressive, indicate 
strength and power, and show 
breadth of conception. But 
this is the case only when they 
are carefully and justly related 
to each other. A big nose is 
not considered desirable — 
huge ears invite invidious com- 
parisons. The whole design 
must have well considered re- 
lation of all its parts. Excess 
in any direction tends towards 
monstrosity. 

One of the most interesting 
features in the Fire Depart- 
ment Station is that of the hose 
tower, which is for the purpose 
of allowing the hose to dry be- 
fore being coiled. It is identi- 
cal in character with the bell 
tower of an Italian church — 
requiring only slits for light in 
its entire height, but demanding ample air at the top. 
It is in fact a plain square shaft with all its possibility 
for ornamental light and shade, etc., at the top. It is 
perfectly natural that it should resemble the Italian 
square towers, for it has similar requirements. It does 
not seem necessary to have such eccentricity develop at 
the top of this tower as is at times apparent in some 
designs. 

It has been mentioned that Fire Department Buildings 
are of two or at most of three stories in height, and have 
considerable wall area. They are not, therefore, with 
cased steel piers, and there is no reason for grouping the 
windows of two stories into one as an expression of struc- 
ture, and such a treatment dwarfs rather than enhances 
the building. The large entrance door openings are the 
most important factors in the facade, and the treatment 
around and above these openings affords admirable op- 
portunity for interesting detail. These openings permit 
the use of arches, and in fact arched treatment of open- 
ings either throughout or at chosen points in no way 



NCINNATI, OHIO 
Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



127 



interfere with adequate light, as is so often the case in 
utilitarian buildings. The designs accompanying this 
article are from the best of the buildings erected re- 
cently. Advantage has been taken of the possibilities of 
the problem and the results are in some cases of excep- 
tional merit. They indicate that it would be wise for 
municipalities to realize that Fire Department Buildings 
present possibilities which occur in but few civic build- 
ings of small size, and that they can be made attractive 
and express an appreciation of civic care which should 
be apparent in all city work. 

It is gratifying to note that Civic Improvement So- 
cieties, Improvement Leagues, etc., are increasing in 
every community, and that men qualified to advise are 
joining in the desire to better the type of buildings which 
are erected ; but in most cases these societies are made 
up of private individuals, who have little to say in the 
actual allotment of work, and whose influence is one 
more of general education than of actual executive 
power. Without doubt their influence carries weight, 
but the officials of a city need to have object lessons at 
hand before they can learn to discriminate between good 
and mediocre work. It is not unusual to find the best 
public spirit amongst trained politicians, but the knowl- 
edge of admirable architecture is hardly to be expected 
in that quarter. This is in no sense derogatory to their 
good-will or intention, it is merely the acknowledgment 
of an existing condition, that is, that good taste in archi- 
tecture is a sense acquired by study and not an accidental 
accomplishment. Therefore there is no more valuable 
means of education towards the erection of good build- 
ings in the future than the careful study of similar build- 
ings in the present, and the building of object lessons 
which may be compared by the public with the less 
studied buildings of the past. The Fire Department 
Building is in a sense a unique opportunity, being de- 
void of serious difficulties, and of a size and character 
which permit excellent results, and it will fully repay 
the study which may be devoted to it. That study has 
been thoroughly performed as far as the plan and utili- 
tarian requirements are concerned, but the exteriors still 
leave something to be desired, and it is hoped that the 
problem will appeal to architects in the future more than 
it apparently has done in the past. 

The following comprises a brief description of some of 
the buildings illustrated. 

Hook and Ladder House, West 63d Street, New 
York City. Werner & Windolph, Architects. Plate 
60. This building was designed to meet the conditions 
imposed by the increasing cost of land and construction, 
and with the further desire to concentrate a large amount 
of fire apparatus in a given locality. The plan conse- 
quently provides for the storage of from six to eight en- 
gines in the basement. These engines are raised to the 
first story by the means of a two deck electric elevator, 
the upper deck being at the first floor level. The ap- 
paratus on the first floor deck having left the build- 
ing, the engines in the basement can be lifted to the 
first floor level in fifty-five seconds. The third floor 
of the building is used as a recreation room and 
gymnasium. 

Engine House No. 5, Chelsea, Mass. G. Henri Des- 
mond, Architect. Plate 59. On the second floor is a 



workshop for the men, where they may indulge them- 
selves in handicraft hobbies. A large bell is hung in the 
upper part of the hose tower. The cost of the building 
was about $37,000. 

Central Fire Station, Chelsea, Mass. G. Henri 
Desmond, Architect. Page 122. The cost of the build- 
ing was approximately $45,000. 

Hose House, Beverly, Mass. Kilham & Hopkins, 
Architects. Page 121. Plan for a one company house 
with provision made on the first floor for a spare piece 
of apparatus. The main doors are 12 feet wide. The 
building cost about $6,500. 

Fire Department Building, Village of Wyoming, 
Ohio. Garrer & Woodward, Architects. Page 117. 
The building provides for a volunteer fire department 
and the club room shown on the second floor is where 
the members hold monthly meetings and smokers, usu- 
ally after a fire drill. The small wings are for the 
sprinkling carts, wagons, etc., which are owned by the 
Village. The second floor provides a chamber where 
the Village Council meets. 

Engine House, East Orange, N. J. Walker & Haz- 
zard, Architects. Page 118. The building cost $8,000 
complete. The only unusual feature about the plan is 
that the stairs are placed in a projecting wing, leaving 
the floor space entirely clear. 

Engine House, Norwood, Mass. Allen & Collens, 
Architects. Page 123. The problem in this case was 
to properly express the openings for the engine and hose 
wagon on the facade, together with an ample staircase 
to the second story, opening off the side street. This 
naturally did away with any attempt at the expression 
of an axis and the architects frankly threw the doorways 
off center, and so arranged the main piers as to include 
the staircase at the side. The second floor has a large 
meeting room for the volunteer corps. The total cost 
was $14,300. 

Combination Engine and Truck House, Washington, 
D. C. Appleton P. Clark, Jr., Architect. Page 125. 
The exterior of the building is pebble-dash on brick. 
The roof is of red Spanish tile. The first floor of the in- 
terior is finished with painted brick walls. The cost of 
the building was about $25,000. 

Fire Station, North Beverly, Mass. Cooper & 
Bailey, Architects. Page 123. The cost of the build- 
ing was about $20,000. The basement provides accom- 
modations for the drying racks, store rooms, company 
room, kitchen and toilet rooms. 

Fire and Police Station, Norwood, Ohio. Rapp, 
Zettel & Rapp, Architects. Page 124. The building 
is of light gray brick with terra cotta trimmings. The 
total cost was $18,000. 

Central Fire Station, Kalamazoo, Mich. F. I). 
Van Volkenhurg, Architect. Plate 59. The stable, 
with walls of glazed brick, is entirely shut off from the 
remainder of the building with glass doors and tran- 
soms. The heating apparatus is placed under the front 
of the building away from the stable. The stall parti- 
tions are of 2 inch plank with rounded edges, 2 inches 
apart for ventilation. The cement floors in stalls are 
recessed 4 inches and sloped to cesspool, peat being 
used for bedding. The total cost of the building was 
$22,640. 



128 



THE. BRICK BUILDER. 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



MR. PERKINS AND THE CHICAGO BOARD OF 
EDUCATION. 

THE city of Chicago has lost the services of one of 
the few men in this country who has brought to 
bear upon the problems of school construction a mind 
professionally trained, and who by hard and intelligent 
work has made himself an expert on the subject. 
Dwight H. Perkins, a well-trained and experienced archi- 
tect, has been removed from office through the influence 
of one who might fairly be classed as an amateur with 
political experience. 

How long our people will take to learn the evils and 
dangers of governing through amateurs it is impossible 
to say. In this respect we are years behind every 
European country; but we are beginning to awake to an 
understanding of this matter, and every action such as 
this of the Board of Education of Chicago is one more nail 
in the coffin of government by amateurs. One may have 
at least this satisfaction in accepting such a situation. 

Mr. Perkins held a position of great responsibility and 
of great difficulty, having the charge of the school build- 
ings, their erection, care and maintenance. To put it 
briefly and in a popular way, this laid him open to the 
criticism of all who have children, of all who teach, of 
all who take care of the buildings, of all who build, and 
of all who make repairs. This is a fruitful field; nearly 
every one in a city comes in one or another of these 
classes and has cause at times to believe — sometimes 
with reason and sometimes not — that a particular part 
of the complex duties of the man in charge is not being 
well done. 

Any man who fills such a position must expect un- 
thinking criticism and be prepared patiently to convert 
his critic by helping him to understand — he must expect 
thoughtful criticism, based on wrong premises or lack of 
knowledge, and be prepared to meet this in the spirit in 
which it is meant — he must expect well-founded criti- 
cism, and be prepared to acknowledge himself wrong 
promptly and effectively — he must expect malicious 
criticism, and be prepared to be silent under it. If how- 
ever he is conscious that he is giving professional serv- 
ice, the best that is. in him, and knows that the work 
under his charge is growing, improving, going forward 
steadily, as the tide rises, he has a right to expect the 
support of those who are in the responsible positions, to 
expect that these will at least have sufficient intelligence 
to understand the difficulties, help to overcome them, to 
appreciate the good service and encourage it. Many 
of those who are most active in the criticism of public 
servants stand outside the arena and take no share in 
the fight. Others stand outside and do not take suffi- 
cient interest in the game even to criticize. The critics 
criticize these for staying outside, and then turn and 
rend first one side and then the other in the contest 
whose strife they are enjoying. It is little wonder that 
capable business men, men of affairs, professional men, 
are shy of that conspicuous field where they may hardly 
expect the support of those who ought to be fighting 
with them, and where they must submit to having their 



best efforts belittled, their errors magnified, and their 
motives and morals questioned. 

In the present case it is perhaps impossible for one at 
a distance to know all the details, to know just what 
charges were made, the competency of those who made 
the charges or the accuracy of the charges made; even 
one on the spot can rarely get to the bottom of such 
matters and find out definitely whether or not some per- 
sonal animus is behind it all. Of this however one can be 
sure, for it is a matter of record — under the administra- 
tion of Mr. Perkins the intelligent study of school prob- 
lems has advanced rapidly. Chicago's modern schools 
are in many respects models of their type for our large 
cities. There has been year by year, under Mr. Perkins, 
a steady improvement in planning and construction, and 
this is a great thing to say for a period of years that has 
been filled with unrest, uncertainty, new educational 
problems, new demands, hygienic and esthetic — all of 
which have modified school requirements and school 
plans. When to these various new requirements the 
personal element is introduced, a reasonable theory may 
quickly become a fad, and its supporters enthusiasts or 
fanatics. It is in the air, and each one of us knows the 
enthusiast, for open air, for industrial work, for voca- 
tional high schools, for popular use of assembly halls, 
for pictures, sculpture and color, for nurses and doctors, 
for feeding the anemic, for teaching the mothers. 
Divide these into all their variants and consider what 
the task is of the man who plans, builds, maintains, 
repairs or equips the schools for these manifold interests. 

Mr. Perkins was doing this work and doing it well, and 
he was removed by a board composed of amateurs, of 
whom probably no one was competent to pass a judg- 
ment on Mr. Perkins' work. This board had ample 
opportunity to inform itself in regard to Mr. Perkins' 
competency. There is a small group of men who have 
had experience similar to that of Mr. Perkins, and ex- 
tending over longer periods. Mr. Snyder in New York, 
Mr. Ittner of St. Louis, and Mr. Sturgis of Boston are 
known more or less throughout the country for their 
knowledge of school planning and construction. Any 
one of these men could have advised the board so that 
they might have acted with intelligence. In March 
Mr. Sturgis wrote the president of the Board of Edu- 
cation, and said in part : 

"Those of us who have been studying critically and 
intelligently the construction and equipment of school 
buildings during the last ten or twelve years believe that 
there are four cities where the best, most constructive, 
and most thoughtful work is being done. This work has 
helped to establish standards elsewhere, and the steady 
growth of intelligent school building is largely due to 
the work of New York, St. Louis, Chicago, and Boston. 
To the work done in Chicago Mr. Mundie contributed 
very valuable thought, and his work has been intelli- 
gently carried on by Mr. Perkins, and I believe that a 
careful inquiry into the work done by Mr. Perkins, by 
those who are really competent to judge, would show 
that the city of Chicago has been receiving exception- 
ally good service from him." 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



129 



Mr. Sturgis added 
that as a public serv- 
ant his services were 
at their disposition. 

The president of 
the Board acknowl- 
edged the letter 
courteously, and 
proceeded to press 
his charges and 
secure the dismissal 
of Mr. Perkins. 

The Western 
Architect stated 
that " the reading 
public of Chicago 
have found that 
their school board is 
headed by a presi- 
dent who has no ar- 
tistic perception, no 

knowledge of the connection between archi- 
tectural art and the moral or physical de- 
velopment of the pupil" — and they might 
have added, nor even common intelligence 
The Western Architect's summary of the 
mental equipment of the president of the 
board may be accurate, but that the reading 
public of Chicago have found it to be so is 
quite another matter. When the reading 
public of this great, but inconceivably care- 
less country, does find out these things, they 
will stop. Until they find out, they will con- 
tinue. The more flagrant the instances are, 
the more quickly they will find out. For this 
at least one may be grateful to men of the 
stamp of this president of the Board of Edu- 
cation; for such a man will open the eyes of 
the public. In the meanwhile it is Chicago, 
not Mr. Perkins, that suffers. 




HOUSE AT COLUMHUS, OHIO. 

Roofed with Ludowici-Celadon Company T-14 tile. 

Frank L. Packard, Architect. 



AT THE second annual meeting of the 
Pennsylvania State Association of Arch- 
itects, held in Pittsburg recently, the follow- 
ing named officers were re-elected for the 
ensuing year: David Knickerbacker Boyd, 
president; Edward Stotz, vice-president; 
William L. Baily, secretary and treasurer. 

The work accomplished 
by the association during 
the first year of its existence 
is highly gratifying, and it 
promises to become a vital 
factor in the interests of 
the profession throughout 
the state. Architects in the 
smaller states and towns 
are manifesting an interest 
and making application for 
membership. 

The most important 
business of the session was 
the report concerning the 




proposed revision 
of the building laws 
of the city of Pitts- 
burg. Through its 
president, Mr. Ed- 
ward Stotz, the 
Pittsburg Chapter 
of the A. LA. en- 
listed the coopera- 
tion of twelve of 
the most important 
organizations of the 
city of Pittsburg, 
who addressed a 
memorial to the 
mayor and councils, 
with the result that 
a commission was 
appointed to revise 
the building code. 
This effort will be 
followed by others, which will urge upon the 
smaller cities the necessity of a revision of 
their building laws. 



DETAIL BY ROBERT C. 
BERLIN, ARCHITECT. 

Northwestern Terra Cotta 
Company, Makers. 




DETAIL B^ FERRY & CLAS, AK( 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, M 



IN GENERAL. 
Russell E. Hart, formerly of New York 
City, and C. C. Motz, formerly of the firm of 
Howard, Motz & Co., Nashville, Tenn., have 
formed a copartnership for the practice of 
architecture, with offices at 227 Sixth avenue, 
North, Nashville. Manufacturers' samples 
and catalogues desired. 

Ernest F. Guilbert and James O. Betelle 
have formed a copartnership for the practice 
of architecture under the firm name of Guil- 
bert & Betelle, with offices at 25 West 32d 
street, New York, and 917 Broad street, 
Newark, N. J. 

Gustave A. Niehus has opened an office for 
the practice of architecture at 25 Callahan 
Block, Dayton, Ohio. Manufacturers' cata- 
logues desired. 

Frank W. Cooksey and Fred B. Maxwell 
have associated for the practice of architec- 
ture under the firm name of 
Cooksey & Maxwell, with 
offices in the Forsyth 
Theater Building, Atlanta, 
Ga, 

Arnold W. Brunner has 
removed his offices to 320 
Fifth avenue, New York. 

The partnership of Dar- 
rach & Beekman, archi- 
tects, 10 East 33d street, 
hitects New York, has been dis- 

akers-. solved. Jas. M. A. Darrach 



13° 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




and William F. Beek- 
man will continue the 
practice of architec- 
ture at the same ad- 
dress in their individ- 
ual names. 

JohnH. & Wilson C. 
Ely announce the re- 
moval of their offices 
to The Firemen's 
Building, Broad and 
Market streets, New- 
ark, N.J. 

Brick manufactured 
by the Pearl Clay 
Products Company 
of Bradford, Pa., 
were used in the fol- 
lowing named build- 
ings recently erected 
in New York City : St. Gabriel's School, John V. Van 
Pelt, architect; Apartment House, Schwartz & Gross, 
architects; Harpery Hall, 
Henry W. Wilkinson, archi- 
tect ; Club House, J. Riley 
Gordon, architect; Public 
School, C. B. J. Snyder, archi- 
tect; Apartment House, Neville 
& Uagge, architects. 

James E. Grunert, architect, 
has opened an office at 2010 
Richmond road, New Dorp, 
X. V. Manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples desired. 



DETAIL Bl G. A.IELLO, ARCHITECT 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta 

Company, Makers. 



can be used in 
every kind of 
structure — office 
buildings, resi- 
dences, factories, 
warehouses, etc. 
The cost is low, 
owing to the sim- 
plicity of the 
method. 

The Atlantic 
Terra Cotta Com- 
pany will furnish 
the architectural 
terra cotta for the 
following men- 
tioned new build- 
ings: Heidelberg 
Building, New 
York City, Henry 
Ives Cobb, archi- 
tect ; Yanderbilt 
Atterbury Smith, 





DETAIL BV KEES ,\ COLBURN, 
ARCHITECTS. 

American Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

Tenements, New York City, Henry 
architect ; — in these tenements a con- 
siderable amount of poly- 
chrome terra cotta will be used ; 
Municipal Building, New York 
City, McKim, Mead & White, 
architects ; Churchill's Res- 
taurant, 49th street and Broad- 
way, New York City, Robert 
Baer, architect; Nazimova 
Theater, New York City, Al- 
bert Svvasey, architect; — this 
building will be of white mat 
glazed terra cotta from the 
water table up. 



The "Peerless Arch" for 
fireproof floors, made of terra 
cotta blocks and reinforced with 
metal and cement, has been placed upon the market by 
Henry Maurer & Son, New York City. The demand for 
a combination fireproof floor for long spans between walls 
or between beams and girders is successfully met with 
this arch. This combination of materials forms a light 

and very 
strong floor 
arch. The 
thorough pro- 
tection of 
both cement- 
concrete and 
metal with 
terra cotta 
provides a 
finished ceil- 
ing in which 
the cement 
joints do not 

DETAIL BY MAURAN J RUSSELL, show through 

architects. t ne plaster- 

Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers. ing. The arch 



DETAIL BY WHEELER, GALLEHER & STERN, 

ARCHITECTS. 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 




A panel executed in colored 
terra cotta has been placed in 
the pediment of the Parkhurst 

Church, Madison Square, New York, McKim, Mead & 

White, archi- 
tects. The 

panel was de- 

signed by 

Harry Siddons 

Mowbray, and 

executed by 

A d o 1 p h A. 

W e i n m a n . 

The work was 

furnished by 

the Atlantic 

Terra Cotta 

Company. 

The Second 
Church of 
Christ, Scien- 
tist, Los Ange- detail by frye ,\ chesterman, 
les, Cal., A. F. architects. 
Rosenheim, Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Co., Makers. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



131 



architect, illustrated 
in The Brick- 
builder for April, 
was built in large 
part of Hydraulic- 
Press Brick. 

F. B. Wheaton, 
who is the advisory 
architect for the 
United States War 
Department, was 
architect of the 
Drill Hall at Fort 
Des Moines, Iowa, 
illustrated in The 
Brickbuilder for 
March of this year, 
and not J. Knox 
Taylor, as stated. 




THE " WITCH DOCTOR, " SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, UNIVERSITY OF PIT 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 
Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects. 



The United States 
in 1908 turned out $108,062,207 worth of brick and tile 
manufactures. Every state and terri- 
tory in the Union contributed to the 
totals, but Ohio led all others with 
products valued at $15,915,703 for the 
year. 

The terra cotta for the Fire Station 
at Brookline, Freeman, Funk & Wil- 
cox, architects, illustrated in this issue, 
was furnished by the Atlantic Terra 
Cotta Company. 



has been handed 
down by word of 
mouth from jour- 
neyman to appren- 
tice for generations. 
{b) To record meth- 
ods of handling 
labor, materials and 
plant on brickwork 
that will reduce 
costs and at the 
same time enable 
the first-class work- 
man to receive 
higher pay. (<) To 
enable an appren- 
tice to work intelli- 
gently from his first 
day, and to become 
a proficient work- 
man in the shortest 
possible time. 
New York, The Myron C. Clark Publishing Company. 



NEW BOOKS. 

Modern Lettering — Artistic and 
Practical — for architects, artists, deco- 
rators, etc. The construction of pen and 
ink designs for commercial uses, me- 
morials, resolutions, etc. By William 

Heyny 




DETAIL BY FERRY & CLAS, 
ARCHITECTS. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 




DETAIL BY C. C. * A. L. THAYER, 

ARCHITECTS. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, 

Makers. 



Price $2. 
New York, William 
T. Comstock. 

The Essentials 
of Lettering — A 
manual for students 
and designers — by 
Thomas E. French 
and Robert Meikle- 
john. Columbus, 
Ohio, Varsity Sup- 
ply Company. 

Bricklaying Sys- 
tem, by Frank B. 
Gilbreth. The pur- 
poses of this book, 
as enumerated by 
the author, are as 
follows: (a) To put 
in writing that 
knowledge which 



Tables for Calculating Sizes of 
Steam Pipes for Low Pressure Heat- 
ing, by Isaac Chaimovitsch, M. E. 
Price $2. Chicago, Domestic En- 
gineering. 

The Slide Rule — An elementary 
treatise by J. J. Clark. It has been 
the author's aim to produce a work 
that will enable anyone having a 
knowledge of the ordinary principles 
of arithmetic to use the .Slide Rule 
readily and with precision, to under- 
stand thoroughly the principles gov- 
erning its construction and operation 
and the reasons for all settings, and to 
familiarize the reader so thoroughly 
with the use of the instrument that he 

cannot forget how to use it 

and need not remember any 

of the settings. Scranton, 

Pa., Technical Supply 

Company. 



A History of Architec- 
ture, by Russell Sturgis, Vol. 
II., Romanesque and Orien- 
tal. The subject of Vol, II. 
differs from that of Vol. I. in 
that the buildings considered 
are generally in existence. 
The difficulty in the new in- 
quiry is in the partial substi- 
tution for the original work 
of art, of a highly sophisti- 
cated modification of it, put 
into place by later workmen 
who were partly out of sym- 
pathy with the original de- 
signers. 




DETAIL BY ROUSE & GOLD- 
STONE, ARCHITECTS. 

South Ambov Terra Cotta 
Company, Makers. 



x 3 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FIREPLACE EXECUTED IN COLORED FAIENCE BY THE 
HARTFORD FAIENCE COMPANY. 

LAWRENCE VEILLER in his book on Housing Re- 
form, which has been published recently by Chari- 
ties Publication Committee, 105 East 22d street, New 
York, says, "No housing evils are necessary. Preven- 
tion's the thing; the small cities the place; now the time. 




DETAIL BY A. P. CLARK, JR., ARCHITECT. 
Ketcham Terra Cotta Works, Makers. 

The great opportunities to save the people from over- 
crowding lie in the smaller cities. Thirty years ago con- 
gestion was a live question in New York because it was 
manageable. While in some of the larger cities it now 
seems hopeless, it is not so in any city of 100,000." 

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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XIX 



JUNE 1910 



Number 6 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street ... Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1910, by ROGERS & MANSON 



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Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

FRANK MILES DAY & BROTHER; DELANO & ALDRICH ; FROST & GRANGER; 
GEORGE BISPHAM PAGE; WILLIAM G. RANTOUL; WINSLOW & BIGELOW. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

RUINS OF THE EMPEROR DOMITIAN'S VILLA Frontispiece.- 

COPARTNERSHIP AGREEMENTS BETWEEN ARCHITECTS Judge Charles N . Goodnow 133 

SUTTON PLACE, ENGLAND Xrlhur G. Bein 139 

DETAIL OF PATIO, INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

ILLUSTRATION 143 

A HOUSE WITH WALLS OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILES irlhut Dillon 111 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 150 



THE BR1CKBUILDER 



VOL. XJX. NO. 6. 



JUNE, 1910. 



Co-Partnership Agreements Between Architects. 



BY JUDGE CHARLES N. (JOODNOW. 



IN DEALING with this important question, it will 
only be possible to outline in the briefest manner the 
principal features of partnership law. This branch of 
our jurisprudence is as complex and full of trouble for 
the careless and uninstructed individual as any other 
branch, and often leads to grave situations and losses to 
those who in most other matters are regarded as excel- 
lent business men. 

We often hear it said, "Yourself for a lawyer, a fool for 
a client," and this is especially true of men who have to 
look after the interest of others, and no matter how pro- 
ficient they may be in guarding their clients' interests, 
when it comes to their own they are usually neglectful, 
careless and unbusinesslike. This seems to be especially 
true of architects. In most other business enterprises 
when a combination of men is formed into a co-partner- 
ship, articles of agreement are usually a first considera- 
tion, and they, as a rule, are more or less elaborate as the 
nature of the business demands. The interest of each 
partner is safeguarded as to his present and future in- 
come, his financial interests are fixed, his rights and 
duties are defined so that the business is protected and 
the combination is put on a working basis and becomes a 
business machine, with each partner a cog performing 
his allotted part so that the combination as a whole works 
without friction. 

It is not necessary that great detail or minuteness be 
gone into, but sufficient should be put in writing that 
the interests of all should be clearly defined and not left 
for the courts to determine at the end of an expensive 
lawsuit. After an inquiry of some thirty architectural 
firms in the State of Illinois, I find that less than a dozen 
have written agreements which could in any way be re- 
garded as a partnership contract, and only nine of the 
remainder will admit that their agreement is verbal, and 
several, while appearing as a firm, are in fact acting as 
individuals and only share office rent. Many of them 
have the crudest form of contract. One firm of high 
standing and ability, having been together many years, 
conducting a large business, has its agreement on the 
fly- leaf of a book, signed by both members, which only 
says: " The proceeds shall be equally divided." 

Another firm, and one of the largest and best in Chi- 
cago, informs me, with apparent honest belief in their 
statement, upon reply to my inquiry, as follows: "We 

Note. — Judge Goodnow was formerly Attorney for the Board of 
Examiners of Architects of the State of Illinois. 



beg to advise that there is no law or rule or even legis- 
lation governing partnership contracts of architects that 
we know of." And yet this firm is noted for its ability 
to protect its clients from all the snares and pitfalls sur- 
rounding the building laws and complications that may 
arise from building contracts. 

A verbal contract is as good as a written one when the 
parties are all agreed as to its terms; but when a dispute 
arises it is often hard to produce the evidence to prove 
either side of it. When written it proves itself, and un- 
less ambiguous on its face, requires no parol testimony 
to construe it. 

Partnerships are formed for business purposes — they 
may be dissolved for many reasons: death, insanity, dis- 
honesty, sickness, refusal to act, old age, incompetency, 
better business opportunity, expiration of agreement, and 
many other reasons. When this occasion arises, the 
articles of agreement should furnish the means of 
accomplishing the desired results without trouble, fric- 
tion or loss to anyone. 

So far as the architectural profession is concerned they 
arc not specially interested in all the general principles 
of partnership law, nor in the fine distinctions that have 
been drawn. Yet they are interested enough in the 
question to have some outline of the main features that 
might in some manner affect any partnership contract 
now existing, or which may hereafter be made, and 
while I shall deal at some length upon partnership law, 
I shall try to limit myself to that law which may interest 
the profession generally and be of value to the individual, 
and which, if followed, will protect him from serious in- 
convenience and loss, and enable him to forestall trouble 
for himself and his family in case of death of either him- 
self or one of his partners. 

Nature of Partnerships. A partnership is a busi- 
ness relation existing between two or more persons, 
legally capable of contracting, arising out of a contract 
by which they agree to unite their property, credit, serv- 
ices, skill or influence in some business, so that they 
have a community of interest in such business, and usu- 
ally divide the profits and losses between themselves in 
a fixed proportion. 

The contract of partnership may be express, and as 
such, either written or oral. An oral contract in many 
of the states is by statute, made unenforceable with ref- 
erence to its duration where the contract of partnership 
is to last for more than one year from the date of the 



J 34 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



making. It comes within what is called the Statute of 
Frauds. The contract of partnership may be implied 
from the conduct of the parties. It may include a single 
transaction as well as an extended series of transactions. 
As between the parties, the question of partnership is 
one of intention, being in the first instance a question of 
fact ; but when the facts are conceded or established, a 
question of law. 

If the parties enter into a relationship which the law 
holds to be a partnership they are partners, although 
they may not have known the legal effect of their acts, 
or though they may have called the contract one of 
employment. 

Partnership Name. A partnership may, in the ab- 
sence of some statutory provision, transact business 
under an arbitrary or a fictitious name, so long as the 
name will not deceive the general public as to the iden- 
tity of the individual members or hold out the partner- 
ship as a corporation. 

Test ok Partnership. The real test of the existence 
of a partnership is a community of interests in the part- 
nership business. Sharing of profits and losses is so 
usual an attribute of a partnership that it is implied from 
the relationship and there need not be an express agree- 
ment to share losses. An agreement to share losses is 
implied from a contract to share net profits. However, 
as the question is one of intention of the parties, it is 
not safe to make even this an arbitrary test. If, how- 
ever, there is no community of interest or common con- 
trol in the business transaction, mere sharing of profits 
and losses by special contract does not constitute a part- 
nership. 

Limited Partnership. In all states of the Union, 
partners as between themselves may form a special or 
limited partnership, fixing the ratio of profits or losses and 
limiting their liability as to partnership debts as between 
themselves, but as to the general public, except in those 
states where laws exist regulating limited partnerships, 
all partners are held liable for the partnership debts, and 
in those states a strict compliance of the law in all re- 
spects must be had in order to avail of the limitation of 
liability allowed. 

Power ok Action. The general scope of a partner- 
ship is generally a question of the intention of the part- 
ners as expressed in their partnership contract. So far 
as the law is concerned there is no restriction on the ex- 
ercise of such powers as it chooses at any time to exercise, 
except such limitations as are expressed in the contract 
or such prohibitions by statute, or on illegal, immoral 
or fraudulent conduct as apply equally to individuals. 

Liability of Partners Within Scope ok Business. 
Partners' liability to third persons on partnership con- 
tracts arises from the actual existence of the partnership, 
by express acquiescence, by ratification and by estoppel. 
If a partnership exists as a matter of fact, the partners 
are liable on contracts made within the scope of the part- 
nership business by any one of the partners, if the other 
contracting party knows of no limitations on his authority 
to contract, even though the other contracting party did 
not know who such partners were when he entered into 
such contract. If the contract is within the actual scope 
of the partnership business the members are liable 
thereon without any reference to principles of estoppel. 



Non-trading Partnership. Partnerships are again 
divided into non-trading and trading partnerships, and as 
architects are in the non-trading class we will only deal 
with that class. A partner in a non-trading firm has 
very limited powers to bind the partnership. He may 
contract for supplies or articles necessary to conduct the 
business, but he cannot otherwise contract debts. In 
partnerships not commercial in their nature one partner 
cannot bind the others by executing a promissory note 
unless authority is expressly given or recognized by all 
the partners or implied from general business habits. 
The courts of the various states have from time to time 
passed upon these questions so that the general princi- 
ple is well fixed and determined. They have held that 
the following classes of persons have no authority to bind 
their partners on notes or contracts, etc., without their 
express authority : Attorneys, mining partnerships, phy- 
sicians, publishers, planters, contracting and building, 
digging tunnels, farming, real estate, paving and curbing 
streets, keeping a tavern ; we thus see that architects are 
in a similar class to the above. 

Estoppel. Although no partnership in fact exists, or 
although its powers have been exceeded, third persons 
who have been misled as to the existence or powers of 
the partnership, and have acted in reliance on such belief, 
may enforce partnership liability against those persons 
who have so misled them and held themselves out as 
members of the partnership in question, or have held 
out the person with whom such third person dealt as a 
member thereof, and a partnership may be liable for the 
transactions of one whom they allow to act as a partner, 
if the transaction is within the apparent scope of the 
partnership authority. 

The reason for this general rule is that third persons 
are not bound to know of the existence, scope or power 
of a partnership, and under principles of estoppel may 
rely upon representations made to them, believed by 
them and acted on by them, so as to preclude those mak- 
ing such representations from afterwards denying them. 
However, estoppel can exist only where there is some 
wrongful act or omission of the person against whom 
estoppel is sought to be enforced. 

In order to estop one from denying his liability as a 
partner, the person in whose favor the estoppel is alleged 
must have acted in reliance upon the facts which are 
claimed to create the estoppel. 

Dissolution ok Partnership. A partnership when 
once formed may be dissolved by the agreement of the 
partners, or by the act of either, even if before the time 
for which the contract was to last, although his right to 
exercise that power without just cause may leave him 
liable in damages for such dissolution. If a partnership 
is formed to last for a fixed time, but the right to 
dissolve the partnership by giving written notice is 
reserved, it may be dissolved at any time by such written 
notice. 

Dissolution by operation of law may be caused by 
efflux of the time fixed by the agreement, or by death of 
a partner. There is, however, A qualified existence or 
continuation of the partnership for the purpose of settle- 
ment. By contract it may be agreed that death will not 
cause a dissolution. In legal effect a provision of that 
kind upon death creates a. new partnership between the 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



! 35 



survivors and legal representatives of the deceased by 
reason of the original contract. 

A conveyance of all the firm's property, sale of the 
entire business, ceasing to do business, and the recession 
by one partner because the other wrongfully refuses to 
pay his share of the capital, or to perform his work in 
the business, causes a dissolution by operation of law. 
Also a sale of one partner's interest is held in effect a 
dissolution. Also the taking in a new partner is a new 
contract and abrogates the old. 

A decree of court may also effect a dissolution. Such 
a decree may be based on fraud, or exclusion from in- 
spection of books, or insanity, or on the insolvency of a 
partner. Insanity or insolvency, however, are not of 
themselves a dissolution, but are merely the grounds for 
a decree of dissolution by the courts. 

Partnership at Will. A partnership formed for no 
specified time is a partnership at will, and may be dis- 
solved at any time by any of the parties. Each partner 
may withdraw when he pleases, without liability to his 
associates for damages, if he acts without any fraudulent 
purpose. The fact that the contract specifies no time is 
not always conclusive that it is at will, for if the inten- 
tion appears to continue the partnership until certain 
objects are accomplished, it will not be a partnership at 
will but one to continue until its purpose is completed, 
or the impracticability thereof is demonstrated. Thus a 
partnership formed to erect a building is not at will but 
for the completion of the enterprise. 

Notice to Dissolve. A usual and proper method of 
exercising the right to dissolve is by notice to that effect 
to the other partner, and there is no dissolution until 
notice is communicated. If the articles of partnership 
provide the method, then that must be followed. If 
not, other notice must be given; this does not always 
mean that actual notice must be given, as the law, in 
some instances, implies notice from circumstances. 

Perhaps a clearer understanding as to the causes for 
dissolution will be had if I should divide them into two 
classes. 

No. 1: Events which per se amount to a dissolution. 
(a) Dissolution by operation of law, as death, lunacy, 
war, bankruptcy or declared insolvency, sale on execu- 
tion of the share or interest of a partner; (b) dissolution 
as a necessary consequence of the act of one or all of the 
partners, as a sale of the entire interest of one partner, 
abandonment by all. 

No. 2: Events or acts which are grounds of dissolu- 
tion are: (a) those for which an injured or innocent part- 
ner may elect to consider the firm dissolved, as for 
example, the absconding of a partner or abandonment 
by him ; (b) those for which a dissolution may be decreed 
by a court of equity on the application of a partner, as 
fraud and misconduct; impracticability of continuing 
from impossibility of succeeding, and from impossibility 
of getting along together peaceably. 

Continuation of Partnership After Death. Partners 
can agree that the death of any of their number shall 
not terminate the partnership or require a winding up, 
which is always necessary when one partner dies. This 
is frequently done when the name of one or more of the 
partners is desired in the business for the business it may 
bring, or to provide an income or business for his heirs 



after death. But such agreement must be expressed in 
clear and unambiguous terms. 

Notice ok Dissolution to Third Persons. Uponadis- 
solution by operation of law or decree of court, no notice 
to third persons is necessary. It being of a public and 
not of a private nature, the law presumes that all persons 
take notice; but as to all other methods of dissolution, 
notice is necessary, and as to this there are two kinds of 
notices required whether there be a complete dissolution 
of the concern, or the retirement of a single partner, or 
the addition of a new member, it does not affect the out- 
side world unless notice is given. Actual notice must be 
given to all former customers of the firm and notice by 
publication to the other persons. 

One class of persons has become acquainted with the 
firm and by presumption of law with its membership, by 
reason of business transactions, and these are entitled to 
the same certainty of notice of dissolution as they had of 
its existence, which is actual knowledge. The rest of the 
world, that part which has not given credit to the firm or 
transacted business with it, has become acquainted with 
it from the fact of its existence, from reputation, hear- 
say or their own observation, and this is to be counter- 
acted by a publicity of the same sort, and at least 
measurably, as widely spread, viz., proper publication, 
generally by advertisement in the proper newspaper. 

Who May Become Partners. There is one other gen- 
eral proposition to be understood in all partnership con- 
tracts, and that is, who are proper parties to make a 
partnership contract. Two or more individuals may 
contract as partners when none of them are infants or 
insane; two or more corporations cannot make a part- 
nership agreement; nor can a corporation and an indi- 
vidual become parties to any kind of enterprise. It 
has universally been held to be against public policy and 
such contracts are held to be void, and neither side can 
recover from the other; the law leaves them where it 
finds them without remedy and grants no relief. 

Having treated this question but briefly from the organ- 
ization to the dissolution of a partnership, there are several 
other necessary elements that require understanding. 

While it is true that the architectural profession is in 
the non-trading class, and the necessity for contracting 
partnership debts is limited owing to the fact that brains 
and ability are the largest asset and no stock in trade is 
required to conduct the business except an office, draft- 
ing room, library, necessary help and supplies, and as 
the business grows older the accumulated plans and 
specifications, still these items often run into large 
amounts and to this extent each partner is individually 
liable and interested, and I desire to outline the legal 
status of the partners; First: Upon a dissolution by 
death or mutual consent or by any act whereby the part- 
nership ceases to exist; or, Second: The withdrawal of 
one or entry of a new partner and the continuation of 
the association of some of the members. 

The death of a partner per se dissolves the firm at once 
for all purposes, unless provided against by contract, and 
is as effective as though dissolved by mutual consent, 
lapse of time, or by any other reason that brings the 
contract to a close. 

Upon dissolution in any manner than by death or 
bankruptcy, the authority of each partner at once 



i36 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



changes, and while heretofore they acted as agents of 
one another, the general scope of that agency is now 
limited. Except as to persons not properly notified of 
dissolution, the only power remaining is that which is 
necessary to wind up the partnership, to collect moneys 
due, and to pay off debts and to divide. If dissolution 
is caused by death the whole title devolves upon the sur- 
viving partner, and for this reason he stands upon a dif- 
ferent ground. But assuming a dissolution by mutual 
consent or by efflux of time, or in any other way, the 
power to carry on the business is wholly gone and has 
become a mere right to wind up, with one exception only 
of unfulfilled transactions and contracts which they are 
under obligation to carry out. As partners cannot 
release themselves from an incompleted contract by 
dissolving, or have no right to dissolve as to such con- 
tract, and as death does not discharge the obligation, each 
partner has the power after dissolution to carry out such 
contract, and the other parties are bound by his acts and 
his fidelity in so doing. 

If the firm has entered into an executory contract 
which is only partially fulfilled at the death of one part- 
ner, his death does not absolve either party from per- 
formance, and the existence of the partnership with its 
active functions continues in the surviving partner for 
the purpose and with the duty of fully performing the 
contract. The surviving partner has the exclusive right 
of possession, management and control of the entire 
property for the purpose of winding up, although gen- 
erally he is not entitled to compensation for his services. 
If there are two survivors, this right and duty devolves 
equally on both. 

As the possession of the surviving partner is only for 
the purpose of winding up, he has as little right as any 
other partner after dissolution to make new contracts or 
change the form of old ones. Nor can he incur any 
liability except for expenses proper to the legitimate 
winding up of the business as distinguished from con- 
tinuing it. There is only one other exception to this 
rule, and that is when contracts have to be completed, 
when it is the duty as well as the right of the surviving 
partner to complete unfinished contracts from which death 
does not absolve the firm, and for this purpose he may 
even borrow money or incur other legitimate debts. If 
the surviving partner is guilty of misconduct or bad 
faith in winding up the business, or if he is misapplying 
the funds, or in any way diverting the assets, he can be 
controlled by application to a court of equity and an in- 
junction obtained either with or without a receiver. 

Upon the dissolution of a firm by the withdrawal of 
one member or the coming in of a new member when 
the business is continued, the most essential thing to be 
done is to give full and ample notice in order to limit the 
liability. To the outgoing member it is necessary in 
order that he be not charged by subsequent incurred 
debts, and to the incoming member that he may not be 
involved as to previous debts, and to the remaining 
members that the public be notified that all subsequent 
payments may be made to the proper parties. 

My general observation of architects' partnership 
agreements calls for a severe criticism, largely from 
their l&jk of many of the ordinary precautions necessary 
to protect the individual interests of their members. As 



long as the members agree and no contest arises, and as 
long as the members live, there is little occasion for much 
detail. It is only when discontent and discord arise, or 
when death works a dissolution, or one or more members 
desire to withdraw or dissolve the agreement, that the 
necessity arises to have the method clearly outlined and 
the interests of each well defined. If prudence and good 
business policy have not arranged this in advance by a 
proper agreement, the result may mean a lawsuit to 
dissolve the partnership, a bill for an accounting, and all 
the annoyances and expense incident to litigation. 

It would be a difficult matter to outline here a form of 
partnership agreement that would meet the conditions in 
every case, but enough may be given as applying to 
every contract of partnership, to which may be added 
any special features desired. There are, I find, several 
special features in many of the contracts brought to my 
attention which, with many of my own suggestions, I 
wish to outline briefly: 

Time Partnership Begins. The date of the beginning 
of a partnership is a matter of importance because the 
agency of each to act for all and the right to share 
profits begins then. 

Duration. It is also important to fix the duration of 
the partnership for the reason that unless fixed it is a 
partnership at will and can be dissolved at the pleasure 
of any partner without liability to his co-partners, how- 
ever ruinous the consequences to them. 

Continuation of Agreement After Death. As death 
or bankruptcy of one partner will terminate the partner- 
ship, if it is intended to continue the business in any 
way for the benefit of the estate after death of one of the 
members, this fact should be clearly expressed. At 
times the immediate dissolution and winding up of the 
firm's business may be disastrous both to the surviving 
partners and to the estate. 

Business. The objects for which the partnership is 
formed should be clearly defined because its nature and 
requirements are the measure of the power of each part- 
ner to bind the firm. It is usual to insert a clause 
requiring all the partners to devote their entire time and 
attention to the business, and the observation of good 
faith to each other and fidelity to the common interest, 
and not to engage in any other business so long as the 
partnership exists. 

Finance. If the architect is conducting his own busi- 
ness there is only one arrangement he may require, and 
that is when he gives to some employee a working in- 
terest. This is to be regarded as a partnership only in 
the most limited sense. It usually calls upon him to 
finance the business and stand responsible for all ex- 
penses, while he either guarantees a fixed amount per week 
and a percentage on the net earnings, or a fixed amount 
per week and a percentage on all work brought in by the 
employee. This arrangement often gives a living wage 
to a good man and at the same time offers him an induce- 
ment to hustle for work. This arrangement is frequently 
made by some of the larger firms with their leading 
draftsman or superintendent, and often proves beneficial 
to both. These men, however, do not have their names 
in the firm. It is quite often in large offices that they 
work the financial end on the co-operative plan, each 
man having a fixed or drawing account, and at the end 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



137 



of the year from the net profits each man receives a per- 
centage according to his salary. This, of course, 
makes a booster for the business out of every employee, 
for his own profits depend on the amount of business 
brought into the firm. 

If the firm is composed of two or more, expenses and 
profits are usually shared equally. If one or more of 
them are older men in the practice and have a larger in- 
terest, after the expenses are paid the profits are divided 
in such proportions as may be agreed upon, each one 
usually drawing a fixed amount for family expenses, and 
the younger members of the firm, or the less experienced 
ones, receiving from the net profits a certain percentage, 
or a percentage on the work brought to the firm by 
them. 

In all well regulated firms, all moneys received are 
deposited in bank and checked out as required, all checks 
signed by one member and countersigned by another, 
thus avoiding the overdrawing of an account by any one 
member, which is often a source of much trouble. How- 
ever, in the case of overdrafts, if any, it ought to be 
provided that interest should be charged upon sums in 
excess of the regular stipulated amounts; unless this is 
expressly done, overdrafts will not usually draw interest. 

Duties. When a partnership is formed between men 
skilled in different lines, that part of the work is usually 
a part of their agreed duties, and quite frequently we find 
that one is assigned to the handling of the office force, 
drawing of the specifications, receiving the bidders and 
making all agreement with contractors. Another looks 
after the outside work and payment of the bills and 
settlement with contractors. Another may attend to the 
making of sketches or planning the structural iron work 
and the necessary testing of the accuracy of the work — 
in fact each one being assigned to the work according 
to his particular ability. If, on the other hand, each is 
well skilled, the work is usually apportioned as it is 
received. 

Assets. The ownership and disposition of the assets 
are at times an important feature, and outside of the li- 
brary or books which accumulate from time to time, and 
the fixtures which have only a small money value, the 
drawings and specifications of an architect's office often 
become very valuable. When architects before becom- 
ing partners have on hand a large number of valuable 
plans, etc., it is often provided that these plans, etc., 
shall continue to be the personal property of the indi- 
vidual, but the partnership shall have their use and to all 
subsequent plans drawn during the partnership. This is 
often satisfactorily arranged by making, in the first in- 
stance, copies for each partner, which then become the 
property of the individual members, thus giving each 
in case of dissolution complete working plans and speci- 
fications of all the buildings in which the firm was 
interested. 

At this point allow me to discuss the one subject which 
for years I have been insisting upon, and which if fol- 
lowed by all architects would increase the business and 
make their plans more valuable; and that is, in your 
contract with the owner, reserve the ownership of all 
plans and specifications — only lease them or give him the 
right to erect one building from them — and when your 
work is done call in all plans and specifications, and if 



he wishes their use to erect another building from them, 
be in a position to re-lease or re-sell the right to erect 
another building. Do not for one commission sell the 
perpetual right to your skill and ability. 

Bookkeeping. A complete set of books should be kept 
in which all receipts and disbursements should be accu- 
rately entered. With many firms monthly balance sheets 
are issued and all net profits shown thereon are subject 
to be declared as monthly dividends. With some firms 
these dividends are only declared semi-annually; with 
others only annually. In either event the monthly bal- 
ance sheet is available to tell the exact financial standing 
of the firm. 

Disbursements. In some contracts we find no limita- 
tion placed upon the spending power of the individual 
members for partnership purposes, while in others no 
member can spend on behalf of the firm more than a cer- 
tain fixed amount (say $5) without the consent of the 
other members. This has its merits, for a free spender 
could greatly reduce the net profits by foolish purchases, 
and it is a good system of economy to plan a safety valve 
near at hand to check a disposition to extravagance. 

Signing of Bonds and Notes. So much trouble has 
arisen out of the habit of signing bonds and accommo- 
dation paper for others that the best partnership con- 
tracts usually contain a provision that no member of the 
firm shall sign any bond, indorse any paper or become 
security on a note or bill, or guarantee the performance 
of any contract, except for some other member of the 
firm, or upon the consent of all the other members of 
the firm, and in some cases there are no exceptions even 
in favor of the members of the firm. 

Study. One of the most unique, and to my mind lib- 
eral, agreements drawn with a view to the ultimate bene- 
fits to the business exists between the members of a 
leading firm who have a large and lucrative practice. 
This agreement, among other things, provides the fol- 
lowing: 

"In case it should be the wish of either partner to take a 
prolonged tour to Europe or elsewhere for the purpose of pro- 
fessional study, he shall be at liberty to take such a tour or 
tours for a period of time in the aggregate not exceeding one 
year without loss of salary or interest in the profits of the busi- 
ness ; said tours, however, to be at the personal expense of the 
partner taking the same, and not to be taken at the same time 
by both partners. 

' ' And it is also mutually agreed that for the purposes of ad- 
vice and consultation during such prolonged absence of either 
partner, the absent partner may designate some person as his 
attorney and representative, such representative to be kept 
informed as to the progress of said business and to be allowed 
access thereto at all reasonable times." 

This arrangement was made with a view that in the 
end the business would receive the benefit of such study 
and research. 

Obtaining Business. The same firm above referred to 
has another clause in its agreement that shows foresight 
and business acumen, as follows: 

"It is also mutually agreed that the annual dues of said 
' A ' in the Club (one of the largest 

and most influential clubs in the city) shall be considered as a 
business expense and shall be paid by the firm, and when the 
said ' B ' shall deem it for the interest of the firm that he 
join said club, or any similar city club, then the annual dues 
of said ' B ' (but not the initiation fees) in said club shall be 
paid as a firm expense. 



138 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



"It is also mutually agreed that the annual dues of either 
partner in any architectural society, such as the American 
Institute of Architects, the Chicago Chapter of the same, the 
Chicago Architects Business Association, etc., shall be paid by 
the firm as a business expense, and the expenses of either 
partners in attending the conventions of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects, whether said partner be a member of said 
Institute or not, shall be paid by the firm." 

The intention of the foregoing provisions is that in 
all cases in which membership in a society or club is 
largely for the interest of the business, then the ex- 
penses or annual dues, but in no case the initiation fees, 
shall be borne by the firm. This same idea is often 
applied to expenses incurred in entertaining clients or 
prospective builders, provided the sum expended does 
not exceed a stipulated amount and a statement is pre- 
sented within twenty-four to forty-eight hours after the 
expenditure. 

Disagreements. An agreement to submit disputes to 
arbitration is a common provision where two or four part- 
ners are in a firm when a tie may exist— otherwise the 
majority rules. 

Notice to Partners of Dissolution. The time limit 
and method of dissolving a partnership agreement varies, 
often ranging from thirty days to one year, upon notice 
in writing being served upon the other members. 

Division ok Assets on Dissolution. The methods of 
division of profits and assets and payment of debts are a 
matter of agreement. One firm provides that all original 
plans and specifications owned by the firm shall become 
the property of the remaining member or members of the 
firm, the outgoing member having the right at his own 
expense to have all plans and specifications copied for his 
use. The other assets may be valued and the remaining 
members pay to the outgoing member his proportionate 
share of that value, and in case of dispute submit to arbi- 
tration. All accrued profits to be paid upon the regular 
dividend period and the value of all uncompleted con- 
tracts to be determined as of the date of dissolution and 
the outgoing member to be paid his share on the date of 
the next succeeding dividend period, or when said con- 
tracts are completed and paid for. All these payments to 
be made, however, after all debts of the partnership have 
been fully paid and settled. 

Dissolution by Death. A prominent firm in New 
York City has a contract which provides that the death 
of one of the partners works a sale to the surviving part- 
ners, and the provisions therein are interesting enough 
to give them in full : 

" Each partner agrees and covenants to and with the other 
partner that in case of the death of either partner, the survi- 
ving partner shall be entitled to, and shall and will, continue 
the business, use the firm name therefor, and own and possess 
for himself the good-will of such business, and also all the 
other property of the firm, and each one for himself hereby 
agrees, and does hereby bind himself, as consideration for the 
deceased partner's equal one-half share therein, to fulfil the 
terms, covenants and agreements, and make the payments, 
next hereinafter provided, as follows : 

"1. The books of the concern shall be balanced on the next 
Mini-annual settling day following the decease of the partner, 
and in such balance shall be included commissions earned on 
unfinished work in progress at or prior to the death of the 
partner, estimated according to the stages fixed by the 
schedule of rates of the firm, though not payable at the day of 
the death ; and the legal representative of the deceased part- 
ner shall be thereupon entitled to draw such proportion of a 
partner's share under these articles of the net profits appear- 



ing by said balance as the fraction of six months fixed by his 
death shall bear to the whole six months, as the same shall be 
collected. 

"2. Such surviving and continuing partner shall pay to the 
legal representatives of the deceased partner the sum of . . . 
dollars thereof within thirty days after the appointment and 
qualification of such legal representatives, and . . . dollars 
at the end of six months from the death of the partner. 

" 3. He shall also pay to the legal representative of the de- 
ceased partner, twenty (20) percent of all gross commissions to 
be earned and chargeable and collected on work commenced 
or undertaken, or in progress at or before the date of the 
death of the partner, as such commissions shall be earned and 
collected, and to this end the said legal representatives shall 
be entitled to receive from him, within thirty days after their 
appointment, a statement or list of all such work commenced 
or undertaken, or in progress, and such twenty per cent of 
commissions shall be paid to said legal representatives quar- 
terly as the same shall be collected." 

A prominent Chicago firm has a somewhat different 
arrangement, as follows: 

" In case of the death of one of said co-partners, the survi- 
ving partners shall pay to the representative of the deceased 
partner the share of said deceased partner in the profits of 
said co-partnership, when such profits are collected, arising 
from work done prior to such death. 

"In addition thereto said surviving partners shall within sixty 
days after such death pay to the representative of the deceased 
partner a sum equal to one-sixth of the net profits of said 
co-partnership for the year immediately preceding such death, 
and said surviving partners shall receive in return a transfer of 
all the interest of said deceased partner in the furniture, fix- 
tures, plans and specifications and other goods and chattels 
belonging to said co-partnership, and the good-will of the busi- 
ness of said co-partnership. 

" There shall be included in such transfer the interest of the 
deceased partner in the plans and specifications referred to in 
the third article of this agreement." 

Employment and Discharge. In some of the large 
firms where many men are employed, we find it provided 
in their contract that no clerk, draftsman, superintendent, 
apprentice or other employee shall be discharged, taken 
or engaged in or about the business, or at the expense of 
the firm, by either of the partners without the consent of 
a majority of the co-partners. In some others, we find 
that the power to employ and discharge employees is del- 
egated to one partner. 

Promts. It is frequently provided that all premiums 
and apprentice fees paid or to be paid by any person re- 
ceived into the business shall be considered as part of 
the profits. Also that all prizes on contests go to the 
firm as profits. Also that when one of the partners ac- 
cept an official position that all the partners shall assist 
in the work to be performed under that position, and 
that the salary and the profits shall be part of the profits 
of the partnership. 

Discharge of Debts. Another very essential agree- 
ment is that neither of the partners shall, without the 
consent of (a majority) (the other partner), compromise 
or release or discharge any debt or debts due or owing to 
the firm without receiving the full amount thereof, or do 
any act whereby any debt or security shall be in any 
wise diminished or discharged. 

There are many different forms of partnership con- 
tracts, each varying as the interest of the parties de- 
mands, but sufficient has already been outlined to make a 
complete working agreement for the general run of ar- 
chitectural firms if followed, not to the letter but in its 
general provisions. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

Sutton Place, England 



[ 39 



BY ARTHUR G. KEIN. 



Photographs by Thomas U '. Sears. 



SUTTON PLACE, one of the finest old brick and 
terra cotta manor houses of England, stands to-day 
in excellent and perfectly habitable condition. It was 
built about 1520, by Henry VIII. 's privy councilor, 
Sir Richard Weston, and has remained in the same 
family ever since. As the Westons were stanch Roman 
Catholics their fortunes declined in a court where Protes- 
tantism was always increasing; they therefore had no 
money to spend on keeping their ancient home in repair. 




Its splendid preservation is due to the elemental dura- 
bility of the brick and terra cotta with which it is built. 

For more than the use of these materials, then novel in 
England, is the old place conspicuous. Unlike the many 
stone dwellings that preceded it, it shows not a trace 
of the feudal. Nothing was planned for defense — Sir 
Richard Weston seemed to foresee the long, long peace 
that was to settle on England, and to dare build himself 
a home that is surprisingly modern — where the visitor 
would no longer be repelled by frowning gateways, grim 
portcullis, and heavy stone walls pierced with hostile 
slits. 

Having decided to inaugurate in England a new style 
of house made of a new style of material, Sir Richard 
naturally took advantage of the talents of the skilful 
Italian craftsmen whom his royal master, a lavish patron 
of architecture, had invited to England. Moreover, 
Weston himself, soldier and ambassador as well as 
statesman, had been to France and had seen the build- 
ing of the beautiful chateaux along the Loire. His own 
house, therefore, is full of Renaissance feeling; Italian 
lightness and fantastic grace embellishing a dwelling 
that is still Tudor in its mass. 

But to ascribe all its symmetry, its resolute striving 
for design, to the outburst of the new art of the South, 
would be to overlook the fact that the very nature of the 
materials used determined to a great extent its form. 
The disposition of motifs, the simplicity and harmony 
of fenestration, must have inevitably occurred in a build- 
ing where the ornament and structural features were 
moulded and burnt in batches instead of being freely 



cut in individual units to suit the fancy of individual 
workers. Hence are the marked differences between the 
pleasing innovation of regularity and repetition at Sutton, 
and the diversity of scale in the stone mansions of its day. 

Within forty years after the erection of this famous 
house, terra cotta had ceased to be used. That in this 
short time its use was so perfected is amazing. The 
burning of the blocks is so regular and the alignment of 
the joints and mouldings so true that from a short dis- 
tance one could suppose, were it not for the rich color, 
the work was executed in stone. The vertical height 
of the blocks between joints is most uniform, although 
varying in different features; that is to say, in the 
moulded casings of the large windows the courses are 
12 l /i inches, while in the plain surface blocks of the much 
attenuated turrets flanking either side of the main en- 
trance they are only 10j^ inches. These terra cotta 
courses are considerably smaller, and as has been said, 
far more regular than the stone courses generally seen in 
contemporaneous stone work. Furthermore, the grandly 
monotonous bands of decorative diaper pattern crowning 
the building would have been possible only in terra cotta, 
for, courageous though the early builders were, it would 
have been an enormous undertaking in stone ; at any 
rate, for a private mansion. 

On first seeing the building one fails to appreciate 
these niceties of scale and arrangement of bands and 
ornament. The American thinks himself so familiar 
with terra cotta that he is apt to pass it over at a glance 
in England. He has, naturally enough, always looked 




upon it as a siibstitute for the more expensive stone ; he 
frequently misses the fact that there, four hundred years 
ago, it was deliberately chosen in preference to the 
cheaper method of stone construction. The builders of 
Sutton saw its possibilities for expressing the new art 
that had come to England. For this reason the place is 
worth a close examination by the American architect, as 
it will give him many a hint on designing in a way that 



140 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



will interpret the resources and durability of a material 
he will have some day to use. It is frankly not a substi- 
tute for stone, but an ideal solution of how to express 
terra cotta. 

Sutton lies on the banks of the Wey, four miles from 
Guildford, Surrey. Approaching it from the main high- 
way it rises from a tlat 
severe expanse of lawn, an 
aspect the opposite from 
the charming and appeal- 
ing garden side, where the 
facades with numerous ga- 
bles big and little, and a 
skyline broken by huge 
stacks of chimneys, all con- 
trive to make a silhouette 
most picturesque above a 
high garden wall. 

In general the plan was 
like all other plans of the 
early part of the sixteenth 
century, only more sym- 
metrical, being built around 
a quadrangle fronted by a 
lofty tower with an arched 
gateway flanked by hexagonal turrets. Opposite this 
entrance the great hall connected the two wings, with 
the principal apartments at its upper end, the kitchen, 
buttery and cellars at its lower — the invariable arrange- 
ment that prevailed a century before. The original 
entrance to the quadrangle, with its tower and turrets, 
has been completely removed, leaving the building an 
inverted L' in shape. It is these ungabled ends of the 
I*, seen on approaching, that form the least interesting 
view of Sutton. 

The brickwork predominates throughout, rich in color, 
texture, and the patterned 
surface supposed to have 
been introduced by Hol- 
bein from the continent. 
In color, it is a sort of 
beautiful salmon red fa- 
ding to buff, with darker 
accents, recalling Compton 
Wynyates, most famous of 
English brick and stone 
mansions. In texture it 
resembles our burnt bricks 
of to-day. They are warped 
and discolored, irregular in 
shape and surface. The 
size averages about 2 inches 
by 8 y± inches, the dark head- 
ers 2 inches by 4 ' fj inches. 
The joints are rather large, measuring between % inch 
and y± inch, and the mortar a coarse composition of sand 
and lime. This mortar is brittle to the touch and can be 
easily picked out with a pocketknife, yet it has weathered 
well for centuries and continues to do so — one of the inex- 
plicable features of foreign masonry. The brickwork is 
laid up with alternate courses of headers and stretchers, 
except where such arrangement is interfered with by the 
headers of the diamond patterning. 




This diaper is formed with dark headers, eleven courses 
high, giving a distance of 28 inches from point to point. 
They are not dark enough, however, to divide the sur- 
face into a stiff geometrical series, like so much of our 
modern brickwork, but are of a subdued bluish tone so 
light in some places that it fades into the general sparkle 

of the whole mass. Mosses 
and lichens add their color 
to the picture, but it is 
above all this sparkle 
caught by the rough tex- 
ture in the sunlight that is 
one of Sutton's greatest 
charms. 

The fine old chimneys 
cannot be appreciated from 
the front, as they were not 
placed in the quadrangle 
walls; but the garden re- 
veals them in all their 
splendor. Immediately to 
the right of the garden 
entrance rises a triple flue 
stack, each flue encased in 
an octagonal shaft and sep- 
arated from its neighbor by an air space, though the caps 
and bases are connected. It is a masterpiece of the brick- 
builders' art, for its various intersections and intricate 
cutting tell of difficult work known only to those who 
have tried to reproduce them. 

Although the brickwork ranks amongst the first in 
England, it is after all the terra cotta that most attracts 
one's attention. If the terra cotta is a departure in the 
way of material, it is a complete revolution in the way of 
ornament. There are no large undecorated surfaces, but 
the entire area of the unmoulded blocks is covered with a 

flat delicate relief of curi- 



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ous ornament. 

So inconspicuous is this 
relief that from a distance 
it takes on the appearance 
of nothing more than a 
rough texture. A block 
showing an R. W. alter- 
nates with one showing a 
tun, or wine cask, an at- 
tempt at a pun on the fam- 
ily name. This tun occurs 
in many places on the 
building, for instance all 
along the horizontal string 
courses, but instead of be- 
ing surrounded by wine 
leaves and other long-used 
devices, we find it in the midst of an entirely new type 
of ornament. This proves that the terra cotta was made 
expressly for Sutton Place and not purchased from any 
ready-made stock, English or continental. 

The whole of. the ornament is a curious intermingling 
of old and new styles. Some panels show the Tudor 
Gothic quartrefoil. For this four separate castings were 
made; a single quarter of them placed continuously, crea- 
ting a form of machicolations that is used in another band. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



141 





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SUTTON PLACE, NEAR GUILFORD, ENGLAND. 



142 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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Decidedly the most striking part of the ornament is the 
amorini that disport themselves over the doorways and 
in the great panel between the turrets. These amorini 
born in England are heavier and clumsier than those seen 
in Italy. In the absence of any documentary evidence 
this would lead one to believe that these are the work of 
Englishmen inspired or perhaps superintended by the 
Italians then known to have been in England. The same 
imperfect expression of the 
artist's idea characterizes 
the ornament throughout 
and gives a quaint and prim- 
itive charm. 

Where the material is 
moulded, the section 
throughout is pure Gothic, 
as in the window casings 
and various band courses. 
But in the big cavettos of 
these an interesting leaf 
ornament has been worked 
— naturally an unheard-of 
feature in stone. This same 
flowing ornament is found 
in the vertical mullions of 
the windows and in the tre- 
foil heads crowning them. Where the terra cotta and 
brickwork come together, no attempt is made to line up 
the joints — they are left haphazard. How the two are 
bonded together is a matter of conjecture, but in no case 
can there be seen an intersection, crack, or separation of 
the materials. 

Naturally the question arises, how are these much at- 
tenuated terra cotta mullions of the bay windows kept in 
position without iron, but it must be remembered that 
this old terra cotta is composed solid and not hollow. 
The lightness aimed at in 
modern work was not 
thought of four hundred 
years ago. Alterations alone 
reveal the mysteries of con- 
struction in those old places 
and here, when one of the 
bays overlooking the cen- 
tral court was being re- 
paired, it was discovered 
that in back of the corner 
mullions vertical 2 inch iron 
pipes joined together to 
form a sort of framework to 
which the mullions were 
fastened, thus strengthen- 
ing the bay. These were 

not put in at the time of erection, for reinforced terra 
cotta was then unknown, but they antedated the memory 
of anyone now living in the house. 

But before any details of ornament or construction are 
appreciated, one stands captive to the wonderful har- 
mony of color that plays over the whole exterior, em- 
phasizing the close relationship between these two forms 
of burnt clay. This harmony is attributed to the original 
polychrome treatment of the terra cotta in shades of red 
and orange. These have long since faded into a soft rich 






assemblage of russets, orange, salmon and straw colors, 
all melting into a warm cream and toning in wonderfully 
well with the salmon and blue of the brickwork. 

The roof, too, is a clay product ; the tiles were origi- 
nally red but now faded into maroons and slate greens, 
having the effect of shingles, the same in size but some- 
what thicker. They are fastened to the roof battens by 
little oak pegs driven through the tiles and close against, 

but not into, the batten. 
This prevents the tiles from 
sliding while their weight 
is proof against the wind. 
From the inside, as in all 
those old roof s, innumerable 
little shafts of light gleam 
through, which fact never 
retards the owner's solemn 
assuranceof perfect weather- 
tightness. 

As has been said, the for- 
tunes of the Westons stead- 
ily declined. After the 
death of Sutton's founder — 
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judge, courtier, art patron, 
who managed to hold to his 
Romanism and to weather through thirty-three years of 
service all Henry's passions of rule, religion, friendship, 
and love — after Sir Richard's death the family is hardly 
heard of again, though Elizabeth made them much envied 
by paying three visits to Sutton. This was to the old 
man's grandson Henry, named after the treacherous king 
who had beheaded his father, young Sir Francis, Richard's 
only son, on a flimsy charge of being Anne Boleyn's lover. 
Unlike his namesake, the little Henry grew up to be a good 
man, and though his tenacity to Catholicism forbade his 

holding any position at 
court, Elizabeth was known 
to have a warm personal 
attachment for him and his 
distinguished wife, Dorothy 
Arundel. Perhaps the link 
of fate between the Queen's 
mother, Anne Boleyn, and 
her host's father, the gay 
young Sir Francis, was 
what made her always stop 
at Sutton on her way from 
Losely, Cowdray, and other 
manor houses she fre- 
quented. And then com- 
bined with this was the fact 
that the Lady Dorothy was 
her cousin. During one of her visits a serious fire broke 
out in the west wing, and even royal favor did not go to 
the generous extent of repairing it. 

This portion of the house which held the main apart- 
ments originally, is to-day but four empty walls; every 
partition is gone. The family have since occupied the 
south, where the great hall is, and the east wing, 
formerly the servants' quarters. None of the furniture 
and tapestry here is of the original stock, that having 
all disappeared; but I was shown the few remaining 



THE BRIC KBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 6. PLATE 73. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 6. PLATE 74. 



■c 




INTERIOR VIEWS. 

HOUSE IN RADNOR TOWNSHIP, DELAWARE COUNTY, PA. 
George Bispham Page, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 6. PLATE 75. 




h <5LCQND TLOOR 



SCALt 

j — *i° *? * jo *y 



GARAGE, RADNOR TOWNSHIP, DELAWARE COUNTY, PA. 
George Bispham Page, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 6. PLATE 76. 




HOUSE AT LAKE FOREST, ILL. 

Frost & Granger, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 6. PLATE 77. 




HOUSE AT LAKE FOREST, ILL. 
Frost & Granger, architects. 



' 




* 







fLOOR 



tot" I COOIOI 



™1 

a porch ■ 




: nooR. plv) 

30L£ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 6. PLATE 78. 





THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 6. PLATE 79. 




DETAIL OF PORTICO. 

HOUSE AT WILLI AMSTOWN, MASS. 

WlNSLOW & BlGELOW, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 6. PLATE 





HOUSE AT PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
Frank Miles Day & Brother, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 6. PLATE 81. 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 6. PLATE 82 




INTERIOR VIEWS. 

HOUSE AT PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
Frank Miles Day & Brother, Architects 



THE BRIC KBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 6. PLATE 83. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 6. PLATE 84. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 6. PLATE 85. 




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THE BR ICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 6. PLATE 86. 




HOUSE AT ARDSLEY-ON-THE-HUDSON, N. Y. 
Delano & Aldrich, Architects. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER 



'43 



portraits, Oueen Mary, Dorothy Arundel, the great 
grandson who married the Copley heiress, the Weston 
ladies of the eighteenth century, and many of the col- 
lateral Westons to whom Sutton passed in 1782. 

This occupied portion — the great hall and the east 
wing — have little beyond the portraits that is old in 
the way of furnishings. The original flooring is there, 
though — 18 inch square blocks of smooth stone now 
covered with good Oriental rugs. Upstairs the floors 
are wood throughout. These are the original boards, 6 
to 8 inches, and surface nailed with the large nail heads 
plainly visible. In a few rooms where new floors had 
been needed the boards were only 3 inches, blind nailed 
and usually bradded at the ends. 

The woodwork is good, but not remarkable — terra 
cotta plays no part in the interior except for the mul- 
lions, which match the wood in color. Contrary to mod- 
ern terra cotta building with reinforced iron, the walls 
of this early example are as thick as those in the old 
stone mansions of the day. 

With so much inside of Sutton that is, if not positively 
new, at least far newer than the outside, it is a pleasure 
to see intact in the great hall the splendid painted glass 
that Sir Richard placed there. It is second to none 
in England and is of the same workmanship as the 
fragments in the Henry VII. Chapel at Westminster. 
These richly colored arms and devices, set high in the 
tall casement windows, send across the hall glowing 
reminders of the kings and queens who visited Sutton, 
of the illustrious families allied to it, of Sir Richard's 
many famous colleagues who paid with their heads 



for Henry's displeasure, while the honors of Weston 
ever increased. There are the red and white roses 
united ; the Tudor portcullis and crown ; the hawthorn 
and monograms of Henry of Richmond and Elizabeth 
of York; the arms of Catherine of Aragon, of Anne 
Roleyn — in fact, of the five of Henry's queens to 
whom the crafty old Sir Richard paid homage, though 
his only son had been beheaded by their capricious 
lord. 

Thus almost untouched since its building, shaded by 
venerable limes, and with broad open upland all around, 
stands Sutton Place. No one has sought to improve it, 
no owner growing in fortune has thrown out a ponderous 
wing with fantastic gables and profusion of scrolls to 
mar the quiet refinement of its harmonious brick and 
terra cotta mass. 

Though it bears traces of decadent fortunes, a gateway 
and front gone, one wing bare and deserted, huge stacks 
of chimneys from which the smoke never curls upward, 
the chapel and bell gone, many of the amorini still dancing 
bravely under lichens and mosses, grounds that cannot 
be kept up in a way to do it justice, yet .Sutton is proud 
that, while other estates were changing hands or being 
forfeited to the Crown, it has remained always in the 
same family; though they were Catholics and royalists, 
they have held it through the Reformation, through the 
severe penal laws of Elizabeth, through the Civil War 
and the Protectorate, and under the Dutch and Han- 
overian rule. It still stands like the beautiful House of 
Pride described in Spenser's Faerie (Jueene — 
" A Stately Palace built of Squared Bricke." 



DETAIL OF PATH;. 
INTERNATIONAL 

BUREAU OF AMER- 
ICAN REPUBLICS 
BUILDING. 










~«ffl 



• 




LOCATED AT 

WASHINGT* iX. 

I). C. 

K F.I. SKY \- CRET 

ARCHITECTS. 



- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



149 





HOUSE AT 
SPRINGFIELD, 

MASS. 

Built of terra COtta hollow 

tile blocks with plaster 

finish. 

ROBINS & OAKMAN, 
ARCHITECTS. 




DETAIL OF" TEHXAr 
CUTTA 6 CO/lCRErTE 
CO/OTRVCTIOAL 




l 5° 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



MR. STURGIS AND THE BOSTON SCHOOL 

HOUSE COMMISSION. 

IN THE May issue comment was made in these col- 
umns on the dismissal of Mr. Perkins by the Chicago 
Hoard of Education. We are now forced to note the 
retirement, from the same field of endeavor, of Mr. Stur- 
gis, who has for eight years been chairman of the School- 
house Commission of Boston. Thus, within a brief time, 
two out of the four leading experts on schoolhouse con- 
struction have been forced to cease their labors for the 
public good. For while the formalities of the two cases 
were somewhat different, in that while Mr. Perkins was 
dismissed Mr. Sturgis voluntarily resigned, it was merely 
another manifestation of the same underlying force that 
drove Mr. Sturgis to end a public service in which he 
took the keenest interest and by his performance of 
which he has placed Boston among the real leaders in 
scientific school building. 

It was primarily a lack of real appreciation and sup- 
port of expert service that moved in each case. 

For eight years Mr. Sturgis carried forward the study 
of the problems involved with a thoroughness that 
brought consistent progress, evidenced in a series of 
annual reports of recognized authority as well on broad 
questions of planning as on the minor details of construc- 
tion and fittings. Standards were quickly established 
by which to determine economical planning, and these 
standards were carefully adjusted to the shifting require- 
ments of the primary, grammar, and high school grades. 
An immense amount of this work fell necessarily on the 
shoulders of Mr. Sturgis, for however able the other 
commissioners might be, it demanded a man of profes- 
sional training to direct a steadily and consistently pro- 
gressive policy of construction in a series of schools 
designed by various independent architects. 

It is not to be wondered at that during these years 
Mr. Sturgis gained the conviction that there was needed 
on the Com mission at least one other who could relieve 
the chairman of many details of the work demanding 
professional supervision, freeing the chairman's time for 
the consideration of the larger problems. 

It is to be wondered at that anyone with less experi- 
ence in the work should see fit to combat Mr. Sturgis' 
conviction ; and that the Civil Service Commission should 
have approved the Mayor's recent nomination to the 
Board against the judgment of Mr. Sturgis, even had it 
gone without confirmatory evidence from the building 
trades, is one of those official errors that unfortunately 
can be neither explained nor remedied. 

The man who dives in shallow water cannot lay all 
the blame to the water if he strikes his head against the 
bottom. So if, in the course of his political appoint- 
ments, an unfit man is by some chance confirmed, Mayor 
Fitzgerald cannot shift the blame entirely on the con- 
firming commission, but must shoulder the responsibility 
for the initial action in the appointment, and in this case 
must bear the responsibility of the resultant loss to the 
public service of one of its few expert officers. 

Perhaps the greatest wonder is that Mr. Sturgis has 



kept himself in the service so long. The constant fight 
that is necessary with the different forces that hinder 
the best progress of work in municipal departments 
must have put great strain on his sense of public duty; 
and his desire to see the department to which he had 
devoted so much labor established on a firm basis which 
would insure continued sane progress must have clashed 
often with his desire for surcease from the petty annoy- 
ances under which he worked. 

To his strong and logical stand for first class construc- 
tion, the coming years will pay tribute in practical 
results. Unfortunately, however, permanence of con- 
struction is less spectacular than low first cost, and it 
takes an enlightened public opinion to support an official 
who has the wisdom to adopt and the courage to main- 
tain a far-seeing policy whose watchword is, " It's 
cheaper in the end," which, after all, is the true economy. 

It is rather amusing, to those who have some insight 
into the professional problems involved in the work, to 
find that the chairman of the School Committee is willing 
to state publicly that he does not believe it is necessary 
to have an architect as chairman of the .Schoolhouse 
Commission. Verily the unpardonable sin is ignorance 
of one's own ignorance. 

After all, as has been noted in the press editorially, 
the unfortunate retirement of Mr. Sturgis is but an un- 
usually suggestive sign of the political conditions now 
existing, which tend to drive from public service the 
particular type of man most needed at the present day, 
of which type Mr. Sturgis is a conspicuous example. 



THE SMALL BRICK HOUSE COMPETITION. 



AWARD OK PRIZES. 



THE Jury for the Small Brick House Competition 
which was conducted by The Brickbuilder has 
awarded first prize ($500) to William Boyd, Jr., Pitts- 
burg; second prize ($250) to Francis D. Bulman, Boston; 
third prize ($150) to Steward Wagner, New York; fourth 
prize ($100) to A. R. Nadel, Boston; first mention to 
C. Edward Arnemann, Weehawken, N. J. ; second men- 
tion to D. I). Barnes and W. A. Neate, Boston; third 
mention to Charles F. Hogeboom, Brooklyn; fourth men- 
tion to Albert G. Hopkins, Boston; fifth mention to 
Charles Sumner .Schneider, Cleveland; sixth mention to 
Howard A. Goodspeed, Boston. 

The competition was judged in Pittsburg, June 7th 
and Sth, by Messrs. Benno Janssen (Janssen & Abbott); 
Howard K. Jones (Alden & Harlow); Frederick A. Rus- 
sell, Frank E. Rutan (Rutan & Russell); and Albert H. 
Spahr (MacClure & Spahr). 

The Prize and Mention designs with the report of the 
Jury of Award will be published in The Brickbiii.der 
for July. 



The series of articles, " Hints on Architectural Acous- 
tics," by Hugh Tallant, begun in The Brickbuilder for 
May, will be resumed in the July number. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



I5 1 




HOUSE RECENTLY 



IN MADISON 
YORK. 



SgUARK GARDEN, 



EXHIBITED 
NEW 
Built of terra cotta hollow tile blocks, with plas- 
tering applied direct to the blocks both inside 
and out. This house was not " poured," never- 
theless it was built complete in every detail in 
fifty-six hours. 

Plate Illustrations — 
Description. 

House in Radnor Township, Del- 
aware Co., Pa. Plates 73, 74, 75. 
The house is situated on high ground 
falling away to the south. The porte- 
cochere and front entrance are on the 
north side. The roof is of tiles % 
inch thick, with a general tone of dark 
red, the monotony of which is relieved 
by the use of about five different 
shades put on at random. The walls 
are of re-pressed red brick laid up 
with dark mortar joints. They con- 
sist of an outer and an inner wall, 
each 9 inches thick, of brick, with a 
4 inch air space between. The in- 
terior bearing walls are of brick and the partitions of 
hollow tile. Upon the interior, the main hall, the stair 
hall and stairway are wainscoted to the ceiling in fumed 
oak paneling. The dining room is wainscoted in oak to 
a height of 5 feet with the wall space above divided into 
large panels, covered with red Italian damask. The 
woodwork in the library is of Italian walnut with a wain- 
scot 6 feet 6 inches high, while the finish in the breakfast 
room is white, with the wall spaces divided into large 
panels above a low wainscot and treated in gray tones. 
The cost of the house approximates 17 cents per cubic 
foot; the cubical contents being taken from the cellar 
floor to half the height of the roof. The porte-cochere 
loggia and covered porches are also included in the 
cubical contents, but no account is taken of the uncov- 
ered terraces or the wall enclosing the kitchen yard. 
The cubing does not apply to the stable buildings, etc. 
These latter consist of a garage with men's rooms and 
water tower above, the greenhouse with a potting house 
attached, the stable with coachman's and men's quarters, 




ESCH- 



DETAIL BY ALEXANDER C 

WEILER, ARCHITECT. 
American Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



and the barn. These buildings are all connected to the 
houseby;walls,Fgiving'a series of courts and forming a 
group of buildings in one composition. 

House at Williamstown, Mass. Plates 78, 79. The 
exterior is treated in brick, painted white. The interior 
detail is painted white, with doors of mahogany or of 
glazed sash. The only exception to the general treat- 
ment is in the billiard room, which is finished in gum 
wood in its natural color. 

A House and Garden at Wenham, Mass. Plates 84, 
85. The house is situated on a knoll overlooking a lake. 
It is built of Harvard brick with a base course of granite, 
limestone trimmings, wooden cornice and copper gutter. 
The roof is shingled in double courses 7 inches to weather, 
stained a weathered gray. The avenue of approach 
leads to a fore-court enclosed by high brick walls on part 
of two sides and a low stone wall on the other with a 
border of planting around the base. The hall is paneled 
to the ceiling and painted white, while the dining room 
is paneled to the ceiling in gum wood. 
French windows on either side of the 
mantel open upon a screened break- 
fast porch which overlooks the lake. 
From the music room, which has gray 
panels extending to the ceiling, are 
French windows opening on to a cov- 
ered porch overlooking the garden. 
The library is paneled in oak with a 
limestone mantel and fireplace at the 
east end and bookcases from floor to 
ceiling at the west end. 

House at Ardsi.kv-on-the-Hudson, 
N. Y. Plate 86. This house is on 
high ground overlooking the Hudson 
River, in consequence of which the 
principal rooms are all placed on the 
west side. The plan is simple and 
compact. The rooms are finished 
inside with white paint, except the 
dining room, which is paneled and 
painted a light French gray. The 
house is built of hard burned brick of 




SALES GARAGE KOR THE CHICAGO MOTOR CAR COMPANY, 
CHICAGO. 

Trim of white enameled terra cotta by the Northwestern Terra Cotta 

Company. 

Albert Kahn, Architect. 



US 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



an exception- 
ally bright red, 
with a wooden 
cornice and 
trim painted 
white, and 
w it h blinds 
painted white 
and a bluish 
green. T h e 
cost amounted 
to about 33 
cents per cu- 
bic foot, reck- 
o n i n g the 
height from 
the basement 
floor to the 
middle of the 
roof. The 
contract pr ce 
was about 
$26,000. 




INTERIOR, CHURCH OF OUR I 
Interior finish entirely in burnt clay. The bricks 
The ceiling is of Guastavino tile of a soft pink 
greens and yellows, and was made by 
T. II. Poole, 



GREATER 

BERLIN. 

PLANS for 
a "Greater Berlin" have just been worked out as 
the result of a prize competition between leading archi- 
tects, builders, and town planners. Prizes of ,£1,250 
each have been awarded for schemes which provide for 
three generations into the future and contemplate the 
Berlin that will be in the year 2000, which is fixed as the 
period when the. capital will teem with a population of 
10,000,000. It is proposed to avert the evils of such an 
immense population by a far-sighted plan to regulate the 
construction of street buildings and parks so carefully 
that overcrowding will be practically impossible. 



.ADY OK MERCY, BROOKLYN. 

are a light buff shade, furnished by Fiske & C< 
shade. The terra cotta is executed in white, 
the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Architect. 



perhaps the 
chief, glory 
of the nine- 
teenth century 
is the public 
awakening, 
which occurred 
during its last 
quarter, to the 
so-called "so- 
cial question," 
and particu- 
larly that part 
of it which is 
concerned with 
the organiza- 
tion of towns 
with a view to 
dwelling, to 
transport, and 
to the exploita- 
tion of the 
town's natural 
surroundings 
for keeping 
strong and 
healthy its in- 



habitants of every class down to the poorest. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR MAY. 

OFFICIAL returns from forty-four cities throughout 
the country regularly reported to The American 
Contractor, New York, show an aggregate loss for May, 
1910, of seventeen per cent as compared with May, 1909. 
The decrease in the great building centers, New York 
and Chicago, some $12,000,000, must accept nearly all 
the blame for the shortage. 



IN GENERAL. 



THE EXHIBITION AT BERLIN. 



AYERY interesting exhibition 
has just been opened in Ber- 
lin; unique, too, of its kind, as 
nothing like it has been attempted 
in any other country. It is, as 
described by the Berlin corre- 
spondent of the Observer, an as- 
semblage of all that can direct 
the makers of cities in the laying- 
out, building, and organization of 
an ideal place of residence for 
populations, large or small. Plans, 
pictures, photographs, and models 
of parks, streets, and houses are 
to be seen, and not alone of the 
Greater Berlin of the future, 
which is even now engaging mu- 
nicipal attention in the German 
capital, but of cities like London, 
New York, Paris, Boston, and 
Chicago. It is recognized in 
Germany that a great, and 




FACE (H BR ICKET. 

Ketcham Terra Cotta 

Works, Makers. 

Charles R. Greco, 

Architect. 



Three graduate fellowships in architecture are an- 
nounced by the 
University of 
Pennsylvania for 
annual award dur- 
ing a term of years 
beginning in Sep- 
tember, 1910. 
These awards are 
based upon a fund 
established for 
the purpose by 
the General Arch- 
itectural Alumni 
Society of the Uni- 
versity. The fel- 
lowships are open, 
without restriction 
as to age, to grad- 
uates of American 
schools who hold a 
bachelor's degree 
in architecture 
equivalent to that 




DETAIL FOR 
1 [REPLACE, 

HOUSE AT 
I It KAN CITY, 

N. .1. 

Conkling Ai as- 
strong Terra 
Cotta Coin 
pany. Makers. 
W. I.. Blythe. 
Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



*53 



of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Inquiries regarding the 
fellowships may be addressed to 
Warren Powers Laird, Professor 
of Architecture, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 




A series of University Exten- 
sion Courses will be given in 
Boston during the coming winter 
under the direction of Harvard University. These 
courses will be of college grade and will count for a 
college degree. Tuition fees vary from $5.00 to $20 00 a 
course. Full information may be had from the Commis- 
sion on Extension Courses, University Hall, Cambridge, 
Mass. 



DETAIL BY ROUSE & GOLDSTONE, ARCHITECTS. 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



Ian, has taken offices in the 
National Bank of New Jersey 
Building, New Brunswick, N. J. 
Manufacturers' catalogues de- 
sired. 



Charles E. Tousley and Victor 
E. Thebaud have formed a co- 
partnership for the practice of 
architecture under the firm name 
of Tousley & Thebaud, offices Bangor Building, Cleve- 
land. 

Davis, McGrath & Kiessling, architects, have removed 
their offices from 1 Madison avenue to the Flatiron 
Building, New York. 



The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, has Harry L. Brickell, architect, has opened an office at 

issued an attractive pamphlet descriptive of the work 403 West Ferry street, Buffalo, N. Y. Manufacturers' 
which is carried on in its Department of Architecture. catalogues and samples desired. 




H. Toler Booraem, architect, Morristown, N. J., died 
at Saranac Lake, N. Y., June 3d. 
Mr. Booraem had for a number 
of years looked after the build- 
ing interests of the Mutual Life 
Insurance Company of New 
York. 

The new Club House of the 
St. Louis Architectural Club, 
514 Culver Way, was dedicated 
on Saturday, June 11th. 

A new hotel costing approxi- 
mately $650,000 is to be built 
at Galveston, Texas, Mauran & 
Russell of St. Louis, architects. 
With the establishment of a 
chain of hotels on the western coast of Florida, and the 
building of the hotel at Galveston, in addition to the 
admirable hotels now at San Antonio, Texas, the south- 
ern Atlantic and gulf coasts are likely to become an 
American " Riviera " where tourists may journey nearly 
to the borders of Mexico and be assured of the best hotel 
accommodations. 

Walter J. Skinner and C. Wellington Walker, Jr., have 
formed a co-partnership for the practice of architecture 
under the firm name of Skinner & Walker, offices New- 
field Building, Bridgeport, Conn. Manufacturers' cata- 
logues desired. 



The firm of Charles W. 
Dawson, architect, is suc- 
ceeded by the firm of 
Dawson, Kedian & Valeur, 
offices Iowa Building, 
Muskogee, Okla. 

William H. Boylan, 
architect, formerly of the 
firm of Merchant & Boy- 



The Atlantic Terra Cotta Company will furnish the 
architectural terra cotta for the 
following named new buildings: 
Pennsylvania Railroad Station 
at Baltimore, K. M. Murchison, 
architect (exterior and interior in 
polychrome) ; Jenkins Arcade, 
Pittsburg, O. M. Topp, architect 
(glaze and standard finish); 
Douglass School, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, Garber & Woodward, archi- 
tects (mat glaze) ; Sinclair Build- 
ing, Fourth Ave., New York, 
Carrere & Hastings, architects 
(standard). 



<^i4' ( a\- 



DETAIL KY H. J. HARDENHEKG, ARCHITECT 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 




DETAILS FOR SCHOOLHOUSE. 

South Amboy Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 



The houses with walls of terra 
cotta hollow tiles, illustrated and 
described on another page of this issue, were built of 
"NATCO" tiles manufactured by the National Fire 
Proofing Company. 

The Patio in the International Bureau of American 
Republics Building, Washington, D. C, a detail of which 
is illustrated on another page of this issue, has a large 
amount of polychrome terra cotta used in a decorative 
way. The work was furnished by the Atlantic Terra 
Cotta Company. 

"Artistic Brick and the Textile Principle in Brick- 
work " is the title of an 
unusually attractive book- 
let which has just been 
issued by Thomas Mould- 
ing Company, Chicago. 
The work is especially 
valuable, because of the 
new thought which it con- 
tains relative to the weav- 
ing of a wholesome and 
dignified texture into 
brickwork. 



T 54 



THE BRICK BUILDER 








i Mil \ I r.\ ALEX. BAYLIES, 

\kt HITECT. 

Brick, Terra Cotta and Tile Company, 

Makt-rs. 



NEW BOOKS. 
Distinctive Homes 
hi Moderate Cos r : 
Being a collection of 
country and suburban 
homes in good taste, 
with some value in 
suggestion for the 
home-builder. Edited 
by Henry II. Saylor. 
New York, McBride, 
Winston & Co. 



Estim vting Frame 
and Brick Houses : 
Barns, stables, factories, and outbuildings. Eighth edi- 
tion, enlarged, amended and modernized, by Fred. T. 
Hodgson. Containing a detailed estimate of a $5,000 
house and additions. Detailed estimates of kitchen, 
dining room, parlor, den, halls, bedrooms, conservatory, 
basement, bathroom, closets, etc., all figured out and 
measured by the quickest and simplest methods. Also 
showing how to estimate by cubing, by the square of 
floors or walls, and by the process of comparison; with 
hints and practical suggestions for taking measurements 
and making tenders for work. New York, David 
Williams Company. 

The New Bin. dim. Estimator: Third edition. A prac- 
tical guide to estimating the cost of labor and material 
in building construction, from excavation to finish; with 
various practical examples of work presented in detail, 
and with labor figured chiefly in hours and quantities. 

NOTICE TO ARCHITECTS. 

City of Albany, N. Y., — Board of Contract and Supply.— Competi- 
tive plans from professional architects who shall be willing to compete 
in the preparation of plans for the construction of a new High School 
building to be erected upon the site to be acquired for that purpose by 
the City of Albany, N. Y., will be received by the Board of Contract and 
Supply of said city at its office in the City Hall until Saturday, Sep- 
tember 10, 1910, at 12 o'clock noon of that day. 

The program governing the competition can be obtained at the office 
of the Board of Contract and Supply, City Hall, Albany, N. Y. 

Dated Albany, N. Y.. June 2. 1910. 

ISIDORE WACHSMAN, 

Secretary of the Board. 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XIX 



JULY 1910 



Number 7 



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CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

DUHRING, OKIE & ZIEGLER; ALBERT KAHN; MACLAREN & THOMAS; 
PARKER, THOMAS & RICE; WILLIAM G. RANTOUL. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGB 

RUINS OF A BRICK TOMB ON THE APPIAN WAY NEAR ROME Frontispiece 

HINTS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS. — PART II Hugh Tallant 155 

PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENTS FOR ARCHITECTS William L. Bowman 159 

COMPETITION FOR A SMALL BRICK HOUSE — REPORT OF THE JURY OF AWARD 166 

COMPETITION FOR A SMALL BRICK HOUSE — PRIZE AND MENTION DESIGNS , 167 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY ., 172 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. XIX. NO. 7. 



JULY, 1910. 



Hints on Architectural Acoustics. 



BY HUGH TALLANT. 

PART II. 
Computation and Practice. 



THE first paper of this series discussed the relation 
between atmospheric vibration and the sensation of 
hearing, and gave reasons for believing that the acoustic 
qualities of an auditorium are dependent upon nothing 
more mysterious than its size, shape, material and con- 
tents, and the relative position of speaker and audience. 
All of these factors are known to the architect, and all 
except size are largely under his control. Theoretically, 
therefore, he is in a position to determine in advance the 
acoustics of an intended building, to account for the 
defects of an existing structure, and to make such correc- 
tions in design and arrangement as he may find neces- 
sary or desirable. The object of the present paper is to 
indicate how these theoretic possibilities may be practi- 
cally realized. Accurate methods of computing loud- 
ness, distinctness, and quality of tone will be deduced 
and illustrated. The application of these methods to 
auditoriums of different sizes will be fully discussed, and 
means will be suggested whereby the most serious de- 
fects may be overcome without materially affecting the 
architectural treatment. 



Loudness. In a properly designed auditorium there 
is, or should be, a free and unobstructed view of the 
stage. Conversely, there should be a straight path by 
which one small portion of the sound-wave produced by 
the speaker's voice can travel direct to the ear of each 
member of the audience.* This portion of the wave 
will be called the "direct sound." Other portions which 
reach the hearer from time to time by deflection from 
the surrounding surfaces will be called the "deflected 
sounds." The latter are not infrequently audible after 
as many as two hundred deflections — that is, after they 
have traveled a mile or more, back and forth from wall 
to wall — and as the velocity of sound is only 1,200 feet 
a second, some of these deflected sounds may not reach 
the hearer until several seconds after the direct sound. 
In this way a single sound-wave may be heard as a pro- 
longed tone, which gradually dies out as the last deflected 
sounds are absorbed by repeated impact. 

As one-fifteenth of a second is the shortest perceptible 

* It is not necessary to complicate the discussion by the fact that human- 
ity is blessed with a duplicate set of ears. Mathematically, no appre- 
ciable error is involved by neglecting this consideration, because any 
standard of loudness which may be adopted implies the simultaneous 
action of both ears, 
t Intensity and loudness are not exactly equivalent terms. Equal inten- 



space of time, all sounds which reach the hearer within 
any particular fifteenth of a second combine to produce a 
single sensation whose intensity varies with the number 
and loudness f of the component sounds. For the pres- 
ent we are concerned with only the initial loudness — that 
is, the effect produced by the sounds which reach the 
hearer during the first fifteenth of a second. This initial 
loudness is dependent upon four factors, namely : the in- 
tensity of the original sound-wave, the number of sounds 
arriving within the first fifteenth of a second, the distance 
traveled by each of these sounds, and the amount of each 
absorbed by impact before reaching the hearer. It is now 
proposed to show how these four factors may be deter- 
mined from data at the disposition of the architect. 

The intensity of the original sound-wave is evidently 
an extremely variable quantity, dependent upon the cal- 
ibre of the instrument by which the wave is produced 
and the particular modulation imposed by the speaker or 
musician. What concerns the architect, however, is not 
how loud the sound happens mathematically to be in any 
particular case, but whether it is loud enough. On a quiet 
lawn it is possible to converse with reasonable facility to 
a distance of nearly 200 feet, but here the conditions 
are exceptionally favorable, owing to the almost complete 
absence of commotion and sound interference. In an 
auditorium, on the other hand, there are always sound- 
eddies whose effect cannot be estimated, and also a cer- 
tain amount of rustle among the audience. Under these 
circumstances the direct sound of the speaker's voice can- 
not be comfortably understood to a distance of much 
more than 50 feet unless it is reinforced by one or more 
deflected sounds. We shall, therefore, assume that the 
original intensity of the sound-wave is such that a single 
portion of it can be comfortably heard and understood 
to a distance of 50 feet from the speaker; and we shall 
designate by the letter I the intensity (whatever it math- 
ematically may be) of a single direct sound at this dis- 
tance. I is therefore the intensity corresponding to 
minimum efficient loudness, and any sound or combina- 
tion of sounds which falls below this standard will not be 
comfortably heard and understood. 

The number of sounds reaching the hearer within the 

sity corresponds to equal loudness, but an increase in intensity does not 
involve an equal increase in loudness. Two pigs under the traditional gate 
do not make twice as much noise as one. This psychological fact is, how- 
ever, immaterial to the present discussion, which contemplates merely the 
establishment of an equality of loudness throughout the rear of an 
auditorium. 



i 5 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



H 



first fifteenth of a second can be de- 
termined directly from the archi- 
tect's preliminary drawings. Fig. 4 
represents the plan of an auditorium 
whose enclosing walls are \VX, XY, 
YZ, and ZW. S is the speaker and 
A the hearer. The direct sound of 
the speaker's voice reaches the 
hearer by the straight path SA. 
The deflected sounds reach him 
by crooked paths such as SBA, 
SCDA, etc. 

The most important of the de- 
flected sounds are those which 
reach the hearer after a single de- 
flection. The paths of these sounds 
may be laid out by the geometric 
construction shown in Fig. 5. In 
this drawing WXYZ is the plan 
of an auditorium, and HIJK a ver- 
tical section. The speaker and 
listener are located respectively 
at S and A on the plan, and at S' 
and A' on the section. Draw AC 
perpendicular to XY, and prolong it to 
equal to AC. Draw DS intersecting XY 
horizontal projection of the 
point of deflection, and SBA 
the horizontal projection of the 
path of the sound deflected 
from the wall XY. The actual 
length of the path is evidently 
the hypothenuse of a right tri- 
angle of which the legs are SBA 
and S'E. Similarly the length 
of the path of the direct sound 
is the hypothenuse of a right 
triangle having as legs SA 
and S'E. 

The diagram for two deflec- 
tions is shown in Fig. 6 and for 
three deflections in Fig. 7. 
Similar geometricconstructions 
can be applied to any number of 
deflections, but in an audito- 
rium over 50 feet in average 
dimension, sounds which have 
been deflected more than twice 
rarely reach the hearer within 
the first fifteenth of a second, 
on account of the length of their 
paths. Of course sounds de- 
flected from the rear wall are 
never available because they 
are likely to create sound inter- 
ference. The total number of 
sounds which combine to pro- 
duce the initial loudness is, 
therefore, distinctly limited, 
and for a rectangular audito- 
rium can often be estimated by 
eye. 

For curved surfaces the dia- 




Fic IV 



D, making CD 
at B. B is the 




gram is apt to be complicated. The 
most convenient procedure is to lay 
out the sound paths as accurately as 
possible, and then correct them by 
slight alterations in direction until 
the angles of deflection become 
approximately equal to the corre- 
sponding angles of incidence. Fre- 
quently, however, the number of 
deflected sounds and the length of 
their paths can be estimated with 
sufficient accuracy without an exact 
diagram. Fig. 8 represents a sec- 
tion — not necessarily vertical — of 
an auditorium surmounted by a 
spherical dome. This section is 
taken passing through S, A and 
the center of the dome. SBCDEFH 
is laid out accurately, the angles of 
deflection with the tangents at B, 
C, D, E and F being made exactly 
equal to the angles of incidence. 
If FH falls, as shown, just beyond 
A there will usually be as many 
sounds deflected to A in the plane of the section as there 
are points of deflection on the path SBCDEFH — in this 

case five. The longest path trav- 
eled by either of these sounds 
is approximately SBCDEFH, 
and if this distance is not over 
70 feet longer than SA, all these 
deflected sounds will reach A 
within less than one-fifteenth 
of a second after the direct 
sound. A complete discussion 
of all possible cases of curvature 
would far exceed the limits of 
this essay, but the reader will 
readily extend the method 
above suggested to penden- 
tives, niches, and other archi- 
tectural surfaces. 

When the principal sound 
paths have been plotted, their 
length can be scaled from the 
drawing, and the sounds corre- 
sponding to paths not over 70 
feet longer than the path of the 
direct sound* may be selected as 
being the ones which combine 
with the direct sound to produce 
the initial effect of loudness. 

The amount of each sound 
absorbed by impact before 
reaching the hearer can be de- 
termined from the same dia- 
gram. The points of impact 
are all located, and the architect 
is aware of the material of the 
deflecting surface at each point. 
He can therefore determine the 



FigV 



•See the discussion of loudness in the 
first article of this series. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



*57 




Fie VI 



fractional part of each sound absorbed in each deflection 
by reference to the following table of approximate 
absorbing capacities, which, for convenience, is repro- 
duced here from 
the first article. 

Wall, floor and 
ceiling surfaces 
— such as wain- 
scoting, wood or 
marble flooring, 
plastering, glass 
and masonry — 
absorb no sound. 

Heavy cur- 
tains, rugs and 
carpets without 
batting absorb 
one-quarter of 
the sound. 

Carpetingupon 
heavy batting ab- 
sorbs one-half of 
the sound. 

Cushions, or- 
dinary uphol- 
stery, and heavy 
felting hung 
free from the wall absorb three-quarters of the sound. 

The audience and very heavily upholstered furniture 
absorb all the sound. 

The four factors of the initial intensity having been 
determined by the means above indicated, their com- 
bined effect can be computed by the following method : — 

I is the minimum efficient intensity and corresponds 
to the intensity of a direct sound at 50 feet from the 
speaker. As the intensity of sound varies inversely as 
the square of the distance from its source, the intensity 
i of any single sound which has traveled a distance d 
from the speaker will be 

. T 2500 

It does not make any difference whether the distance d 
is traveled in a straight or a crooked line, but in the latter 
case proper reduction must be made for absorption by im- 
pact. For this purpose, 
the intensity must be "^~ 
calculated to the first " >v — 

point of deflection and \ 

then reduced by the 
proportionate amount 
absorbed in the first im- 
pact. The distance 
which would have 

caused this total reduction must then be calculated and 
added to the distance between the first and second points 
of deflection. The intensity at the second point of de- 
flection may then be calculated, further reduction made 
for the loss due to the second impact, and so on until 
the sound reaches the hearer. In this way the final 
intensity of each sound reaching the hearer within the 
first fifteenth of a second may be determined. These 
intensities may then be added together. If the total is 
as great as I, then the combined effect of the component 



sounds will be loud enough. If the total is less than I the 
combined effect will not he loud enough. This procedure 
will be best understood from the following illustrative 
example. 

The direct sound to a hearer seated 60 feet from 

the speaker, is reinforced by a deflected sound which 

travels 25 feet to a curtain, from which it is deflected 

45 feet further to the hearer. Will the resulting 

— 1 sound be loud enough ? 

/ 



The intensity of the direct sound on reaching the 
hearer is 

2500 



i = I 



60 x 60 



0.7 I 



The intensity of the deflected sound at the point 
of impact is 

T 250 ° A T 
1 = 1^ ^7=4 I 

: 25 x 25 

One-quarter of the deflected sound is lost by im- 
pact with the curtain, therefore after the impact 

i=%i=3 I 

2 1 

The distance corresponding to this reduced value is 

d = ^25WTl = ^833 = 29 
i 3 I v 

Adding to d, the 45 feet from the point of impact 

to the hearer we have 

d = d + 45 = 74 

2 1 

Upon reaching the hearer the intensity of the deflected 
sound is 



2500 . 2500 

1, = I T^ I = nA -n* = 0.46 

a. 1 



74x74 



The total intensity of the direct and deflected sounds 
upon reaching the hearer is 

i = i + i = 0.7 I +0.46 I = 1.16 I 




Fic.VII 

As the total intensity is above the standard I, the com- 
bined sound will be loud enough. 



i58 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



This method of determining loudness appears some- 
what formidable, but in practice it is rarely necessary to 
perform such a calculation as illustrated above. The 
number and intensity of the deflected sounds can usually 
be estimated by eye with sufficient accuracy, and even 
where computation is nec- 
essary it is usually simpli- 
fied by the fact that the 
deflected sounds strike 
either among the audience, 
where they are wholly ab- 
sorbed, or upon plaster, 
glass or wood, by which 
they are practically un- 
affected. 

Distinctness. The con- 
ditions of distinctness are 
three: There must not be 
sound interference, exces- 
sive reverberation, or echo. 

As explained in the first 
article, some measure of 

sound interference will always unavoidably exist in any 
enclosed space, but the effects are not likely to become a 
serious menace so long as no sound is deflected to the au- 
dience from the rear wall, that is, the wall opposite the 
speaker. The methods of accomplishing this result are 
not in the nature of computation and will, therefore, be 
discussed later on in connection with practical design and 
construction. 

Reverberation is prolongation of tone produced by re- 
peated deflection of the various portions of a single 
sound-wave. We have just dis- 
cussed its initial intensity in con- 
nection with the question of 
loudness. The most convenient 
measure of the total amount of re- 
verberation is the length of time 
that it remains audible after its 
original cause has ceased. Meth- 
ods of computing this duration of 
audibility will be given in the dis- 
cussion of quality of tone, but it 
may be said here that for musical 
purposes a calculated reverbera- 
tion lasting 1.1 seconds gives 
the best results in a small 
auditorium. For speaking pur- 
poses the time of reverberation 
should be as much shorter as 
possible. 

In an auditorium whose dimen- 
sions exceed 50 feet any rever- 
beration is likely to result in 
indistinctness, because the first 
deflected sounds may not reach the hearer until one- 
fifteenth of a second or more after the direct sound. 
This will be better understood by referring to Fig. 9, 
which represents the plan of an auditorium of indefinite 
size. S is the speaker, whom we will suppose to be 
standing toward the side where the hearer at A is seated. 
One sound of the speaker's voice will travel direct to the 
hearer by the path SA. Four others will reach him after 




Fig. VIII. 




one deflection by the paths SBA, SCA, SDA and SEA, 
and two more will arrive after a single deflection from 
the floor and the ceiling. But now suppose that the 
speaker happens to be standing on the front of a theater 
stage. The sound E will then be engulfed by the pro- 
scenium arch. D must be 
intentionally destroyed to 
prevent sound interference. 
The sound which strikes 
the floor will be completely 
absorbed by the audience, 
and if the auditorium is 
much over 50 feet wide and 
high the sound B and the 
sound from the ceiling will 
arrive one-fifteenth of a 
second or more after the 
direct sound. The sounds 
of double and treble deflec- 
tion will arrive even later, 
and consequently there will 
remain only the sound C to 
break a perceptible interval of one- fifteenth of a second 
between the arrival of the direct sound and the arrival 
of the first deflected sounds. The chance that C may 
happen to be deflected to one side by some irregularity 
of moulding, or absorbed by some curtain fold is ex- 
tremely large, and there is a serious risk that the first 
deflected sounds may not reach the hearer until so long 
after the direct sound as to produce indistinctness. 

Theoretically, this contingency may be corrected by 
proper inclination of the deflecting surfaces. Practi- 
cally, the architect is seldom in 
a position to adapt his design so 
closely to theoretical lines; even if 
the labor of investigating and rec- 
onciling the conditions of some 
hundreds of seats were not almost 
prohibitive. Moreover the prob- 
lem is altered with every change 
in the position of the speaker, and 
where, as in the case of a theater 
or opera house, the actor or singer 
has a considerable freedom of 
movement, the alteration in the 
mathematical conditions may 
easily become fundamental. As 
a rule, therefore, where the di- 
mensions of an auditorium ex- 
ceed 50 feet, it is safer to proceed 
by eliminating the reverberation 
altogether. It is extremely fortu- 
itous that the extreme dimension 
to which reverberation can be con- 
veniently utilized corresponds ex- 
actly to the extreme distance to which the direct sound of 
a speaker's voice will readily carry. This coincidence 
makes it possible to draw a sharp dividing line between 
those auditoriums which may best be treated by utilizing 
the effects of reverberation and those where it is desir- 
able to eliminate the reverberation by concentrating the 
deflected sound upon the rear of the house where the 
direct sound begins to need reinforcement. 



Fig. IX 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Partnership Agreements for Architects. 



: 59 



BY WILLIAM L. BOWMAN, C.E. LL. B. 



ALTHOUGH this might be called the age of corpora- 
tions, there are certain classes of business where 
copartnerships are still much favored. This is especially 
true in professional circles; nor is it to be wondered at, 
because where professional men join together for their 
mutual benefit, ordinarily there is not the same amount 
of capital involved, and thus the chief reason for the 
use of the corporate form, viz., the restriction of per- 
sonal liability, does not have the same force and effect. 
Again, there is a great tendency among many of the 
States to restrict the powers of corporations, and in prac- 
tically all, there are requirements necessitating the filing 
by foreign corporations of papers and the payment of cer- 
tain fees before they can do business in another State. 
Further than this, an association of professional men usu- 
ally calls for and requires much closer personal and social 
relations than are generally required in the ordinary busi- 
ness world. Even the enumeration of these few benefits 
and disadvantages show at a glance the reasons for the 
continued popularity of partnerships among professional 
men. It is for this reason, and because throughout legal 
literature it is difficult to find a special form of partner- 
ship agreement for architects, that this article, with its 
proposed agreement has been offered, with the hope that 
it may be of general aid in the formation of such part- 
nerships in the future. 

A partnership, being generally considered a contract 
relation is, of course created, limited, regulated and ter- 
minated, as between the parties themselves, by their 
articles of agreement; and under the law to-day partners 
may generally enter into any agreements which are not 
void as against statutory provisions or public policy. If 
the express contract does not cover all the duties and ob- 
ligations as between the parties, then those which 
are necessary to be determined will ordinarily be im- 
plied, and such implication is to be collected and in- 
ferred largely from the conduct and general practice of 
the parties. On this account and because of the vagaries of 
human nature it is much safer and better in a partnership 
agreement, as in any other, to express clearly and con- 
cisely the various rights, obligations, duties, powers, etc., 
of the partners, so that there can be no possibility of any 
differences as to the meaning of the articles or of any 
words used therein. 

Although it is generally assumed that anyone may be- 
come a partner, it should be remembered that an infant's 
contract of partnership is voidable at his option, even 
though during the continuation of the relationship he 
would have all of the rights and powers of a partner. 
Further, at common law it would seem that aliens who 
are subjects of nations which are at peace with each other 
may enter into partnership, but upon the breaking out of 
war between their respective countries the relationship 
is probably annulled. 

No particular formalities are required upon entering 
into a contract of partnership, but it should be noted that 
under the Statute of Frauds an agreement to form a part- 
nership in the future, which by its terms could not be, or is 



not to be performed or begun within one year, or an agree- 
ment for a present partnership to continue for more than 
one year from its commencement, is void if not in writing. 
In the latter situation the oral contract, when acted upon 
and business conducted under it, is valid and binding at 
least during the time the parties were doing business 
under it. 

In most branches of business and in most of the pro- 
fessions, specialization is to-day a sine qua non and it is 
affecting to a large extent the architectural profession. 
This profession often requires its business manager, its 
practical builder, its esthetic member, its interior deco- 
rator, and in some cases its politician. These various 
qualities are usually gathered in two or three partners, 
and the vacancies filled with salaried or commissioned 
men. Naturally this situation requires some considera- 
tion in the partnership articles. 

The following agreement is suggested as a basis, which 
with changes made to suit the number of contracting 
parties, their general circumstances, local conditions and 
personal idiosyncrasies, should afford architects an oppor- 
tunity to enter into partnership knowing exactly what 
their relations will be. After the important articles will 
be found short comments regarding the same and other 
possible or probable forms and changes which such con- 
ditions or circumstances may require, with reasons for 
the selection of the article recommended. 

Articles of Partnership. 

This Agreement made 19 . . , 

by and between A. B., of , the 

first party, and C. D., of , the sec- 
ond party. 

Whereas A. B. has for some time carried on the prac- 
tice, profession and business of architecture, with offices 

in City, State of 

-. , aforesaid ; and 

Whereas the said A. B. has agreed to admit the said 
C. D. into partnership (in consideration of the pay- 
ment to the said A. B. by the said C. D. of the sum of 
$ by way of premium), 

Due tothefactthat architectural partnerships are usually 
made by a well-known architect taking into his business 
some younger and unknown member of the profession, 
the preceding Whereas clauses cover such a situation. In 
case both parties have been practicing at different places 
or in the same places, such facts should be stated in sim- 
ilar clauses; or if a present partnership is admitting a 
third or fourth partner such facts should be set forth sim- 
ilarly. In other words, the Whereas clauses or preamble 
should express the present status quo and intentions of 
the contracting parties. 

Now This Indenture Witnesseth, That in considera- 
tion of the mutual confidence of the said parties (and of 

the said sum of $ to the said A. B. paid by the 

said C. D. upon the execution of these presents, the re- 



i6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ceipt of which sum the said A. B. doth hereby acknowl- he will desire to retain. Due to that fact it has always 

edge), they, the said A. B. and C. D., do hereby mutually been found expedient and desirable to list in a schedule 

covenant and agree to become and be partners in the everything which is to go to the partnership. This sched- 

practice, profession and business of architecture, upon ule must be ful1 an d complete, so that no question can 

j , ! r . ., ... . . J _. , ' r ever arise upon this subject, which is quite a common 

and subject to the terms, conditions and stipulations ex- source of trouble and disagreement between the partners. 

pressed in the following articles: It is suggested that a valuation should be placed upon 

I. The said A. B. and C. D. shall be partners in said each article, so that if at any time a partner desires to 
....... , ,,, purchase such article or if either partner should later 

practice as from the day of 19. . , retire and desire to take some articles with hini( such a 

during their joint lives (or for a term of result could be reached with little or no difficulty on this 

years), unless the partnership shall be previously termi- score. 

nated under the provisions hereinafter contained. „. „, . , . , 

IV. The capital of the partnership shall be taken to 

One of the chief objects in a scheme of partnership to mean and consist of the gaM le fixtures et and ef _ 

be kept in view is that the capital invested in the pro- , , . . , . ' , ,. . . 

fession should remain intact and realizable in the event fects enumerated in the last article and listed in the at- 

of dissolution by death or otherwise. In the case of ar- tached schedule as stated therein, and such further stock 

chitects the capital is practically synonymous with the and effects as may from time to time be required for the 

good will and professional connection, and it is therefore efficient working of the practice, to be purchased with 

very undesirable to introduce any article which may seri- the consent of both p artne rs, the cost thereof, and also 
ouslv affect the value of the good will or either partner s , , , 

share in it, should it become necessary to liquidate the such sums of mone y as ma y be ' from tlme to time re- 
partnership. Besides this, the commonest objection to quired, for the firm business, to be borne and contributed 
a partnership is the danger of disagreements between the by the partners in equal shares (or in the proportions in 
partners, and it therefore should be made practicable for which they are to share in the profits, as hereinafter men- 
either party, at some sacrifice and with reasonable restric- tione d). The capital is to be employed in the business 
tions, to retire from the partnership, should he wish to , ., , . , * . . , 
do so. Bearing these facts in mind, and from general of the Partnership and no part thereof is to be drawn 
experience, it is to be recommended that the term out by any of the partners, nor shall firm funds be drawn 
of the partnership be made during the joint lives, subject or used for anything but strictly firm business, without 
to the restrictions which will be mentioned hereafter, consent of all parties. Said partners shall be at liberty 
In this connection it must be remembered that if both or to draw out of the funds o£ the firm each month fof their 

all partners desire to dissolve they can do so at any time . ., £ ,, . _ 

..f • -, • _ ,v „ a a a 1 i.u private expenses the following sums, to wit: A. B. 

without considering the ways or means afforded by the ^ ^ , s ' 

articles signed. $ > C. D. $ ; but no 

, „, , . , moneys shall be drawn or paid to either partner without 

II. The practice shall be carried on at .. . . . . , . -, :. . .. .. 

r its equivalent share being drawn or paid to the other. 

or at such other place or places as may be m , , , ,, , . , ■ ^ ^ 

^ \ ^ J The sums so drawn shall be charged against the partners 

agreed upon, under the firm name or style of B. & D. ,.. , , - c , ., , . .- . . . ». 

to ' J respectively; and if at the annual settlement hereinafter 

Although ordinarily architectural partners use a firm provided for, the profits of any partner do not amount 

name containing some or all of the partners' names, care to the sum so drawn out in that year> he shall be cnarge d 

must be taken, if names other than the partners' are used , . . . .« , ~ . ., , 

., ., . ' r, f s ., • A . r . . , , ., and must pay interest on the deficiency at the rate of.. 

or if the term " & Co. is used, to ascertain what the v } } 

State statutes are regarding said use. In some States percent per annum from that time until such excess shall 

there are penalties connected with the use of certain be repaid to the said firm (or he shall repay such defi- 

names or words. ciency with interest at . . per cent at once to the firm). 

III. The lease, instruments, fixtures, materials, cred- „,, . ,. , . , e . , , , . 

' I his article considers one of the most serious problems 

its, patents, and all the other effects of said A. B , as in partnerships, namely, the power of the partners to 

set forth in the attached schedule marked I., heretofore deal with the partnership funds. In the ordinary arti- 

employed and used by him in connection with his archi- cles it is usually provided that if any partner should 

tectural business at the premises No overdraw his account he shall be charged interest upon 

c , . ■ -a r-:*. „c u 11 i i. the same. Such a requirement is of little solace to a 

.Street, in said City of , shall be trans- , c , ,, } ., ., , , 

, ./ ,. , . ' partner, who finds that the other partner has drawn or is 

ferred to the said partnership and be taken by it at an drawing money from the firm and charging himself 

agreed valuation of $ (or shall be, at the date legal interest when said partner has no funds or prospect 

of the commencement of the partnership, valued by a of being able to re-pay such sums or borrow except 

competent assessor), which sum shall be considered as the from his share of the future profits of the firm. The 

amount of capital brought by said A. B. into said part- writ f ha V n mind an architect's firm where one partner 

,_., .. _, .r , ' . , . ,f acted as business manager and attended to all of the 

nership. (The said C. D. shall, within one month from account s, etc., while the other attended solely to the ar- 

the commencement of the partnership, pay to the said chitectural end of the business. The managing partner 

A. B. a sum equal to of the amount in order to pay unusual personal demands began to bor- 

of such valuation, and the said lease and articles shall row money from the firm, at all times keeping the books 

thereupon become the property of the partnership.) properly and charging himself with the amounts drawn, 

and at no time withdrawing more money than the firm 

If the incoming partner pays for his share of the actual could stand. When the yearly accounting was made, it 

assets of the old business under this clause, he must dif- was found that the borrowing partner had almost $10,000 

ferentiate between this payment and the payment here- of the firm money, and since he had no personal moneys 

tofore set forth, which would be for the good will of the or income outside of the firm, the other partner found 

profession. himself in a situation where it was questionable as to 

The partner possessing the business will probably have when, if ever, he would be able to get and have the use 

in his offices and in use in the business, certain personal in- of his share of the borrowed money, 
struments, books, pictures, etc., the ownership of which After a careful consideration of all probable means and 






THE BRI CKBUILDER. 



161 



methods to avoid such a situation, it has seemed best to 
require absolutely payments to both partners or none at 
all. If any partner desires to leave such payment in the 
firm, as part of his accrued profits drawing interest as 
hereinafter provided, such action would be proper and 
would not affect the situation in the least. 

V. An account shall be opened at the 

Bank, at , in the name of the 

partnership, and within seven days from the commence- 
ment of the partnership the said A. B. shall deposit the 

sum of $ and the said C. D. shall deposit the 

sum of $ to such account, which said account 

shall not, without the consent of both partners, be at 

any time allowed to be less than $ All moneys 

received on account of the partnership by either partner 
shall be at once deposited to the said partnership account 
at the bank, and all checks drawn on account of the part- 
nership shall be signed by both partners. 

This provision of paying all moneys received into a 
bank has one indirect advantage, in that, if at any time the 
partners consider selling the practice, or any part thereof, 
said deposit would be regarded by the purchaser as valu- 
able independent evidence upon which the premium would 
be based. Such banking, moreover, would be of great 
assistance in keeping the accounts of the practice and 
making the division of profits a simple matter. 

The requirement that all checks be signed by both 
partners is unusual and might in some individual cases 
cause some inconvenience. Of course such a method 
would probably be too cumbersome if there were more 
than two partners. In the architectural profession about 
the only payments necessary are the salaries, monthly 
bills for rent, materials, etc., and the payments to part- 
ners. This being so, if any partner were to be absent for 
a short time it would be an easy matter for him to sign the 
weekly or monthly checks in advance. Experience has 
shown that the advantages of this requirement greatly 
outweigh any specific cases of inconvenience, and the 
protection thus afforded each partner and the firm, is in 
line with the constant effort in articles of partnership to 
allay any chances of suspicion between partners, and 
minimize the opportunities where one partner can act 
without knowledge and consent of the other. It might 
also be mentioned as an advantage that in cases of 
forgery it would be more difficult to forge two signatures 
than one. 

VI. The partners shall be entitled to the net profits 
of the practice in equal shares (in the following propor- 
tions: A. B per cent; CD percent), and they 

shall bear in the same proportion the expenses and losses 
arising in the said practice. 

VII. Both partners shall employ themselves diligently 
in the said practice, and neither partner shall engage in 
any other undertaking or business requiring his personal 
attention; and in the event of either partner holding or 
obtaining any appointment or making any profit by con- 
sultation or as an expert, whether directly in connection 
with the said practice or otherwise, the net salary or net 
fees from any such appointment or profit from any such 
consultation or service as an expert shall be considered 
as part of the assets of the said partnership. Any unfin- 
ished work or business of either party shall be assigned 
to, and be completed by, the firm as partnership work, 
subject to the lien of the partner for work already done 
thereupon. Said lien shall be the proportion of the net 
profits on said work or business, less payments made, 
which the amount of time spent by the party bears to the 



time spent by the partnership in completing the same 
(or shall be the same proportion of the net profit less 
payments made, as determined by the percentage of 
completion done by the party). Neither partner shall 
accept any personal professional appointment or office 
without the consent of the other partner. 

A partner who has an established business is some- 
times desirous of reserving for himself the emoluments 
of some appointment which he holds, as supervising ar- 
chitect or expert for some City or Board, but it is not 
reasonable or customary that he should do so. He will 
argue that this work must be done by him and cannot 
be deputed to the other partner, but on the other hand it 
takes time which rightfully belongs to the partnership. 
In case the partners have uncompleted work still on 
hand it should be completed by the partnership or by 
each one personally after the commencement of the part- 
nership as partnership work. The remuneration which 
should go to the partnership and to the partners, should 
be in proportion to the services rendered by each, prior 
to the partnership, with perhaps an additional retainer to 
the partner who secured the business. This has proved 
to be one of the simplest and fairest ways of compensa- 
tion under such circumstances. 

VIII. Any legacy or gift not in direct return for pro- 
fessional services rendered, made to either partner ex- 
clusively, shall belong to that partner and not to the 
partnership account. 

IX. Each partner shall at all times pay and discharge 
his private debts and liabilities and shall save the other 
partner and the partnership effects harmless from all debts 
and claims on his separate account; and neither partner 
shall, without the previous consent in writing of the other, 
become an assignor, endorser, guarantor or surety to or 
for any other person, or in any way use the firm name 
or credit, either directly or indirectly, except for firm 
business. 

X. Each partner shall be liable personally to make 
good any loss occasioned to the partnership by negligence 
or misconduct on his part or by his failure to conform to 
these articles of agreement. 

This article is bound to cause some hesitation on the 
part of certain partners, but it is believed that its influence 
will be very salutary. Of course architects will make 
mistakes. . Whether such acts or omissions as are or- 
dinarily called mistakes amount to negligence is a question 
to be determined on the facts. It may be argued that 
either partner may be negligent at various times and that 
when the losses from such negligence are considered, the 
firm will have suffered about equally from both partners. 
It does not seem that this presumption is a fair one, and 
it is believed that the retention of this clause is most 
essential. 

XI. Such assistants and employees as may from time 
to time be needed for efficient practice shall be engaged 
by mutual agreement or consent; and, except in the case 
of flagrant misconduct, they shall be dismissed similarly. 

XII. Each partner shall be just and faithful to the 
other in all accounts, entries, dealings and transactions 
relating to the said practice, and shall not use the name 
of the partnership, or deal with the property thereof, for 
other purposes than those of the said partnership. 

XIII. Regular books of account shall be justly and 
fully kept of all the business and transactions of the 
partnership, and each of the partners and their respective 



162 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



attorneys or legal representatives or authorized account- 
ant shall have free access to inspect, examine and copy 
the same; and quarterly a statement or balance sheet 
shall be made showing the accounts receivable and pay- 
able, etc. On each 31st day of December during the 
continuance of the partnership, a full particular account 
in writing shall be made and taken of all the stock in 
trade, money, assets, credits and things belonging to 
and owing to said firm, and of all such other matters and 
things as are customarily comprehended in annual reports, 
and a just valuation and appraisement shall be made of 
all particulars included in such account which require and 
are capable of valuation and appraisement, and the 
interest of each partner in its capital and effects shall 
be ascertained and a balance sheet made out and corre- 
sponding entries made in its books of account, so that 
the true condition of the said firm may be thus actually 
known, to the end that the amount of net profits actually 
and without contingency earned may be from time to 
time credited on said books of account to the partners in 
equal shares (or in the following proportions, viz. to 
A. . . . percent; to B. . . . per cent). In arriving at 
the amounts due upon said balance sheet there shall be 
charged to the expense account all expenses of the busi- 
ness and all losses and other charges incident to, or 
necessary to, the carrying on of the business. Either 
partner shall be at liberty to withdraw from the firm at 
any time the whole or any part of his share of accrued 
profits then ascertained and carried on his separate 
account. Each partner is to be allowed interest at the 
rate of 5 per cent (4 per cent) per annum upon the amount 
of accrued profits standing to his credit from time to 
time at each quarterly accounting on the books of the 
firm. 

If any one partner is to receive an extra compen- 
sation as manager, or commission for the securing of 
business, a provision should be made in the above article 
for the payment of such moneys and the reduction of the 
gross profit by such amount in ascertaining the net or 
dividend profit. This at once raises a very serious 
question as to whether the partner who secures busi- 
ness should be given as a commission a certain per cent 
of the resulting net profits in addition to his share of 
the ordinary profits in the firm. In all professions it 
has become a custom to grant commissions for the secur- 
ing of business. While this is necessary with salaried or 
other employees, it is a serious question whether such a 
provision is wise as regards partners. If the commis- 
sions are large a situation may be created where it would 
be to the advantage of a partner to seek business rather 
than attend to the architectural work and to the per- 
formance required by the contracts or work secured. 
Again, if only one partner as business manager is al- 
lowed commissions, a source of jealousy and trouble 
between the partners is created. Careful consideration 
of the situation and a study of cases where it has been 
discussed seems to lead to a recommendation that as be- 
tween the partners no commissions should be paid. They 
are jointly interested in everything that the partnership 
does and that joint interest should be sufficient to call 
forth each partner's best efforts in the particular work or 
branch of the business entrusted to his care. 

If no fixed amount is required to be kept in the bank 
as provided in Article V., then a provision should be here 
inserted requiring a fixed amount of capital which should 
be retained in the business, and which should be con- 
sidered in determining the net or dividend profits. If a 
partner is allowed to borrow money by consent of the 



other partner he should pay legal interest for such money, 
while he receives under this article only 4 or 5 per cent for 
moneys left in the partnership. This, however, seems 
by experience to be sound business policy and much the 
better practice. If the business is large it may be well 
to have a semi-annual, rather than an annual accounting 
as herein provided, but that is a matter to be determined 
by the particular case. 

XIV. If either partner shall desire to determine the 
partnership during the first year thereof, he shall be at 
liberty so to do, on giving two months' notice in writing 
to the other of his intention, and in such case, if A. B. 
be the partner giving the notice, he shall on the date of 
the termination of such notice pay to CD. the sum of 
$....; and if C. D. give such notice, A. B. shall at the time 
last mentioned pay to him the sum of § . . . . for his share 
in the practice, and shall at the same time pay to C. D. 
the value of his share in the capital of the partnership, 
as hereinbefore defined. And in such case C. I), shall be 

subject to such restraint upon practicing in or near 

aforesaid, as is contained in Article XXIV. of these 
presents. 

Usually within the first year of their relationship part- 
ners ascertain and learn the differences and peculiar- 
ities of each other. If everything goes smoothly the 
first year, the chances are good that the partnership will 
last. With this in view and in order to still retain the 
force of Article I., this power of either partner to rescind 
during the first year of the partnership is granted. 

There is serious diversity of opinion as to the sums 
which should be paid under this article. Some think 
that within the first year either partner should be allowed 
to retire, the only requirement being that each partner 
should as far as possible receive what he has contributed 
towards the partnership. Others recommend that the 
condition only works well provided the partner who gives 
notice to resume the status quo makes some considera- 
ble sacrifice; for example, if the notice is given by the 
vendor, A. B., he should pay to the purchaser, C. D., 
from 10 percent to 30 percent above the sum he received 
from him, whereas if it is given by C. D. he should 
receive back from 10 per cent to 30 per cent less than he 
paid, and in either event C, D. should be restrained from 
continuing to practice in the neighborhood. As has been 
well stated, it is usually the man who made a bad bargain 
who desires to withdraw, and why should he be penal- 
ized more than he already has been? On the other hand, 
he could hardly complain that he went into the partner- 
ship blindly, or without complete and full knowledge of 
its terms. 

It will be noted that this is the only article grant- 
ing power to determine the partnership, but if a part- 
ner at any time so desires there is no way to prevent 
his withdrawal, although the terms and conditions of 
such withdrawal can be settled and determined simi- 
larly as they are hereinafter contained in Articles XXII. 
and XXIII. 

XV, The second party, at any time before the termi- 
nation of the year of the partnership, shall have, 

on giving to the first party three calendar months' pre- 
vious notice in writing, the option of purchasing a further 
share of the business, so that his interest may equal that 
of the first party. The purchase price for such further 

share shall be the sum of $ , to be paid in cash at 

the time of the purchase. 

This article should only be used in case the purchaser, 
C. D., buys less than a one-half share, and it is only 
fair to allow him to purchase up to one-half after two 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



163 



to ten years, according to the circumstances. The 
purchase price should be based upon the original valu- 
ation and not upon the valuation of the partnership 
practice. This, because an increase in receipts may be 
due as much or more to the efforts of the purchaser as 
to those of the old partner. An incoming partner will 
naturally be anxious to increase his share in the busi- 
ness, while the vendor will just as naturally try to retain 
as much interest for himself as possible, and thus the latter 
usually endeavors to put off the time of equal joint asso- 
ciation as long as possible. One fair method sometimes 
employed, which obviates this difficulty, is to give the 
j unior partner the option of increasing his share to one-half 
at any time after a given number of years, or sooner, if 
at the end of any year it shall be found that the junior 
partner has during such years done as much work, as 
represented by the fees earned, as the senior partner has 
done. 

XVI. Either partner may, on giving to the other six 
calendar months' previous notice in writing, sell his 

share in the said practice (at any time after the 

day of , 19 . . ). The other partner shall, during 

the pendency of such notice, be precluded from giving a 
similar notice on his own behalf, but he shall have the 
option (to be declared in writing not less than three 
calendar months before the expiration of the notice) to 
purchase, as from the date of the expiration of the notice, 
the share of the partner so retiring for a sum ecpual to 

the gross annual receipts from such share, as 

shown by the average for the last three years immediately 
preceding the expiration of such notice, or since the part- 
nership if less than three years ; such sum to be paid in 
cash at the date of purchase. In the case of the remain- 
ing partner declining or failing to declare his option so 
to purchase, the retiring partner shall be at liberty to 
sell his own share in the practice and in the capital to a 
properly qualified man, who shall (but subject to the 
approval of the remaining partner, which is not to be 
unreasonably withheld) be admitted to partnership by 
the remaining partner, subject to obligations and with 
rights similar to those of the retiring partner at the time 
of sale. Such purchaser shall execute a proper deed of 
accession binding him to observe the stipulations and 
conditions contained in these presents, so far as the same 
shall be applicable, and such other provisions as may be 
necessary or proper to effect the intentions herein ex- 
pressed, and any difference as to the form or contents of 
such deed may be referred to arbitration. (Provided 
always that the said A. B. shall not sell his share in 

the practice until after the expiration of the year 

of the partnership and C. D. shall not sell his share 
until after the expiration of the year of the part- 
nership. ) And if a new partner be admitted under 
this clause, the continuing partner shall not be at liberty 
to sell his share until after the expiration of two years 
from such admission. If either partner shall die before 
the expiration of any notice to sell given under this 
clause, such notice shall be void. 

This article changes one of the usual and fundamental 
rules of partnership by allowing a partner to sell to 
another person. Subject to the restrictions therein 
governing such a sale, it is believed that in general the 
results reached can only be beneficial. 

One of the difficult questions which arises, however, is 
the date at which either party is to be allowed to sell, 
and naturally this should vary, depending upon whether 



the one seeking to sell is the old or the new partner. As 
regards the price at which the remaining partner shall 
have the option of purchasing, it should be the same rate 
of purchase as the original purchase price, but based 
upon the average cash receipts for say three years imme- 
diately preceding the retirement. Of course, if the 
new partner has been taken in by the old partner with a 
view that the latter could retire at some time in the near 
future, this article should be changed so as to prevent 
the new partner from having any power to sell, but 
instead he should have the right of buying the senior 
partner out at any time after a fixed number of years. 

XVII. In the event of either partner absenting him- 
self from the practice or becoming from any cause in- 
capacitated from performing his fair share of work 
therein for more than four entire days in any three con- 
secutive calendar months, he shall, if required in writing 
by the other partner so to do, provide at his own expense 
a competent qualified person as substitute. Provided 
always that nothing herein contained shall be taken to 
imply a right in either partner to absent himself to the 
neglect of his duties in respect of the practice. 

XVIII. In the event of any absence or incapacity of 
either partner continuing (except with the written con- 
sent of the other partner) for more than six consecutive 
calendar months or for more than 200 days in any two 
consecutive years, or if either partner shall become 
lunatic (or if either partner shall commit any breach of 
the articles herein contained and on his part to be observed 
and performed, or shall do or suffer anything whereby 
the interests of the partnership shall be in danger of 
being seriously injured),, it shall be lawful for the other 
partner by notice in writing (such notice in the case of 
breach of these articles or misconduct to be given within 
fourteen days after the partner giving the notice has 
knowledge of such breach or misconduct) to determine 
the partnership, but without prejudice to any remedies of 
the partner who gives such notice. And if the partner- 
ship shall be so determined as aforesaid or by reason of 
a partner having suffered his share to be charged or of 
the bankruptcy of a partner, or shall be dissolved by the 
Court on account of the lunacy, incapacity, absence or 
misconduct of a partner, then and in every such case the 
partner through whose lunacy, incapacity, absence, mis- 
conduct, bankruptcy or other default the determination 
or dissolution of the partnership shall have been caused, 
shall for the purposes of these presents be deemed to be 
dead as from the date of such determination or dissolu- 
tion, and his share and interest in the practice as from 
such date shall {mutatis mutandis) be dealt with as here- 
inafter provided in the event of the death of a partner, 
the legal personal representatives of a deceased partner 
being, if necessary, taken to mean and include a surviving 
partner, or his committee, or trustee, as the case may be. 
Provided always that in case the dissolution or deter- 
mination has been caused by the misconduct or breach 
of one partner the other partner shall not in any event 
be bound to purchase his share. 

This clause deals with several of the serious and diffi- 
cult questions in partnership, as to what shall be done in 
cases of lunacy, misconduct or bankruptcy of a partner, 
and it seems that this provides a satisfactory and fair 
method of overcoming such difficulties. 

XIX. In the event of the partnership being deter- 



164 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



mined by the death of A. B. in the first year of the part- 
nership, C. D. shall purchase (or have the option of 
purchasing) the share of A. B. for the sum of $. . . ., and 
if in the second year of the partnership C. I), shall pur- 
chase (or have the option of purchasing) such share for 
the sum of $ , and if in the third year of the part- 
nership C. D. shall purchase (or have the option of pur- 
chasing) such share for the sum of $ In the event 

of the partnership being determined by the death of C. D. 
during the first three years of the partnership, A. B. shall 
purchase (or have the option of purchasing) his share for 
the sum of $ If the partnership shall be deter- 
mined by the death of either partner occurring after the 
end of the third year of the partnership, the surviving 
partner shall purchase (or have the option of purchasing) 
the share of the deceased partner for a sum equal to 
....times the average gross annual receipts from such 
share for the three years last past immediately before the 
date of the partner's death. (Any option to purchase 
under this clause shall be declared by the surviving part- 
ner within fourteen days after he has knowledge of the 
death of his partner.) 

It will be noted in this article that the survivor is here 
bound to buy, and experience has shown that this is 
much better practice than merely granting him an option 
to buy, because in the latter case the representatives of the 
deceased are largely at his mercy, for without actually 
refusing any purchaser whom they may bring forward, 
he may so deport himself or misrepresent the practice 
that no one would care to join him in partnership; and 
he would eventually obtain the share for nothing, or at 
any rate upon his own terms, although an attempt to 
remedy this has been made by the latter part of Article 
XXII. Regarding the fixing of the price to be paid by the 
survivor, it should, in consequence of the absolute re- 
quirement of buying, be made moderate. Due to the 
fact that these articles are written assuming A.B. to have 
a fixed practice with a certain clientele, and that the new 
partner is a younger man starting out, it would seem fair 
to allow different valuations each year up to and including 
the third year of the partnership. If, however, the two 
prospective partners are older architects with about 
an equal valuation of their individual practice, there 
will be no difference in the purchase price at these 
various times. Naturally it is necessary that each case 
should be considered on its own merits, as circumstances 
may materially alter the amounts which should be pay- 
able in the event of death. 

XX. The practice shall become the property of the 
surviving partner as from the date of his partner's death, 
subject to the payment from the same date of all out- 
goings. The surviving partner shall pay the purchase- 
money in cash within one calendar month of such death 
unless security approved by the legal personal representa- 
tives of the deceased partner shall be given by the 
surviving partner, in which case the surviving partner 
shall pay the purchase-money as to one-fourth within one 
calendar month from his partner's decease and as to the 
remaining three-fourth parts thereof within six, twelve 
and eighteen calendar months respectively from such 
decease, with interest at the rate of 4 per cent per annum 
on the amount for the time being outstanding. 

If the survivor buys, the price not only should be 
moderate, but the terms of payment should be easy, 
though they should be so arranged that the executors of 
the deceased partner should have the best available 
security that the money would be paid in due course ; 



otherwise it would be possible for the survivor to sell out 
within a short time after his partner's death and elude pay- 
ment. If the survivor cannot pay cash or give satisfactory 
security, then his proper course is to take in another 
partner, who will provide the necessary capital. 

XXI. Any purchase of a share or part of a share of 
the practice under these presents shall not (unless other- 
wise specially provided) include any book debts of the 
partnership or of either partner. And in the event of 
either partner or any hereafter admitted partner pur- 
chasing the share or part of the share in the practice of 
the other, the purchasing partner shall at the same time 
purchase a corresponding share in the capital of the 
partnership (not including book debts) for a sum to be 
agreed upon or determined by valuation and to be paid 
in cash at the time of such purchase. 

XXII. Incase of any dissolution of the partnership 
(otherwise than by effluxion of time) the surviving or 
continuing partner shall pay and liquidate all partnership 
debts and liabilities and shall, in accordance with the 
customary dealings, get in and collect all book debts of 
the partnership, and shall render an account thereof 
quarterly and at the same times pay the share of the out- 
going partner therein to him or his representatives, as 
the case may be. 

XXIII. Subject to the provisions of these presents 
and save as herein otherwise provided, upon the deter- 
mination of the partnership, a general and final account 
in writing shall be made and taken of all the moneys, 
credits, property (other than the good will and connection 
of the practice), effects, debts and liabilities of the part- 
nership up to the time of the determination thereof, and 
the said moneys, credits, property and effects, or the 
proceeds thereof, shall, after discharging or providing 
for the debts and liabilities of the partnership, be divided 
between the partners or their representatives in the pro- 
portion in which they shall at the date of such determi- 
nation be entitled to the net profits of the partnership. 

XXIV. If the share of either partner in the practice 
shall be sold or taken over at a valuation under any 
clause of these presents, the outgoing partner shall not 

at anytime thereafter (or within years from the 

date of such sale) exercise or carry on or be directly or 
indirectly interested in exercising or carrying on, upon 
his own account or in partnership with or as assistant to 
any other person, the practice, profession or business of 

architecture at aforesaid, or at 

any place within a radius of miles therefrom. And 

should the outgoing partner so practice or assist any 
other person in practicing within the limits aforesaid, or 
in any way violate this provision, he shall forthwith pay 
to the remaining or continuing partner the sum of $ .... 
(for every month or part of a month during which he 
shall violate this provision), as ascertained and liquidated 
damages and not by way of penalty. 

This article raised at one time a serious question as to 
how far you could restrict a person from acting profes- 
sionally or from carrying on business, but the law now 
seems to be almost unanimously settled that a person can 
by agreement preclude himself from doing certain things 
within a certain territory. In ordinary architectural 
practice it would seem generally sufficient to restrict the 
outgoing partner within the city or town in which the 
partnership has had its principal place of business, 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 7. PLATE 87. 




■ 



. >,'..:• 




HOUSE AT BRYN MAWR, PA. 
Duhring, Okie & Ziegler. Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 19, NO. 7. PLATE 





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SECOND FLOOR. 



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HOUSE AT BRYN MAWR, PA. 
Duhring, Okie & Ziegler, Architects. 



1 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 7. PLATE 89. 








INTERIOR VIEWS. 

HOUSE AT BRYN MAWR, PA. 

DUHRING OKIE & ZlEGLER, ARCHITECTS. 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDKR. 

VOL. 19, NO. 7. p LATE 90 . 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 7. PLATE 9! 




INTERIOR VIEWS. 

MASONIC TEMPLE, COLORADO SPRINGS, COLO. 
MacLaren & Thomas, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 7. PLATE 92. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 7. PLATE 93 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 7. PLATE 94. 




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VOL. 19, NO. 7. PLATE 97. 




STABLE 

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WESTWOOD, MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 7. PLATE 98. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 7. PLATE 99- 




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THE BRIC KBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 7. PLATE 100. 




HOUSE AT WALKERV1LLE, ONTARIO 
Albert Kahn, Architect, Ernest Wilby, associated 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 165 

although there might be cases where such restriction Business Association, which provides for the selection of 

would need to be enlarged. Such clauses are not espe- the arbitrator by the President of said Association. This 

cially in favor with the architectural practice to-day on Association apparently has established an arbitration 

account of the fact that an architect has his personal committee, and it seems reasonable that what has been 

clients, who will deal with him under all circum- done by the architects in Chicago will be followed by 

stances whether he is alone, in a partnership, or in a those in other large commercial centers. Any readers 

corporation. On the other hand, a selling of the business who are interested in this question of arbitration and its 

necessarily involves the selling of the good will, which legal force and effect are referred to the arbitration 

means in turn an introduction of one's own friends and clauses and discussions in the transactions of the Amer- 

clients upon the theory that the purchaser is capable, ican Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. LXVIL, page 438, 

and able to take the place of the seller. With this con- under the title, Agreements for Building Contracts, 

sideration it would seem that there should be no serious If there are more than two partners, then as regards 

objection to such an article. all questions, differences or disputes between the part- 

, T „ TT . ,. . , . ners arising in the business, management or regulation, 

XXV. Any notice to be given to a partner or his the aboye artide should be changed so as to make the 

representatives under the provisions of these presents determination of the majority in number of the partners 

shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given if handed final and conclusive on the others, allowing, however, 

to such partner or addressed to him or to his executors an arbitration under certain conditions of notice, and 

and sent by registered letter to his last known address, Providing the differences are serious enough to require 

n , ° r , . n . such arbitration, 
or handed or sent to any one of his executors or admin- 

istrators or his committee or trustee, as the case may be. XXVIII. In all cases where building contracts, oper- 

ations, repairs, etc., are to be done to the satisfaction 

XXVI. Either of the parties hereto shall, at the re- of B and D> architects, it is agreed that this shall re- 
quest and at the expense of the other, execute any papers quire the satisfaction on i y of the partner having said 
and do any deeds and things reasonably necessary to work in charg6) whose personal decision shall be final 
carry out the provisions of. these presents or to render and binding upon the partnership without the consent or 
the same more easy of enforcement. approval of the other partner. 

This is a most important article, because notwithstand- This article deals with one of the most ser ious practical 

ing how careful the partners are, there are bound to be ques tions raised in architectural partnerships. While 

certain things forgotten during the carrying on of the the writer doubts its additional legal force, yet it is 

business or at a time of dissolution or of retirement, hoped that it may aid a very troublesome situation. The 

One such situation arises where, after dissolution or writer has never seen any such clause and it is, so far as 

retirement, it was intended that the continuing partner he knows, purely a creation of his own. To-day practi- 

should have the use of the firm name. Many state stat- cal]y all building agreements in the English language 

utes require under a severe penalty the consent by the requ j re t he work to be done to the satisfaction of the ar- 

retiring partner, to such use and since such consent should c hitects. When the architects are a partnership or cor- 

be in writing to be safe, it could be secured pursuant to por ation, the builder finds to his sorrow that in many 

the requirements of this clause. instances he is trying to serve several masters. This is 

XXVII. If during the continuance of the partnership unfair to him and he should at the outset be appraised 
or at any time afterwards, any dispute, difference or ques- as to the exact person and architect or which partner he is 

, ,, . , .. r 7. . to take his directions from, and to whose satisfaction the 

tion shall arise between the partners or any of their wQrk mugt be d(me pirms of architects have been 

representatives touching the partnership or the accounts known t0 carry on wor k under the personal inspection 

or transactions thereof, or the dissolution or winding and supervision of a junior partner or hireling and when 

up thereof, or the construction, meaning or effect of time for the final inspection has come another partner 

these presents or anything herein contained, or as to appears on the scene, condemns materials and work done, 

, . , . • j i r ,, . , . ,. much of which may have been furnished or done under 

any valuation herein provided for, or the rights or ha- ^ directions; \ hen certificates which are condition 

bihties of the partners or their representatives under prec edent to payments are withheld and the contractor is 

these presents, or otherwise in relation to the premises, required to do his work over again to please the new ar- 

then every such dispute or difference shall be and hereby chitect. Whether this clause will accomplish what it has 

is referred to the arbitration and final decision of been designed to do is questionable but it is felt that it 

,, , ,. , ., .,,. is a step in the right direction, and if it becomes general 

, or, in the event of his death or unwilling- ^ arch \ tects , par ? ners hip agreements and is known by 

ness or inability to act, of , or m the aiders to be there, it will relieve much of the present 

event of his death or unwillingness or inability to act, day friction between architects and builders and at the 

of a person to be appointed on the request of either party same time will free architectural firms from a usual and 

by the Secretary for the time being of the American In- often fair criticism of their methods. 

stitute of Architects, and the award of such arbitrator In Witness Whereof the said A. B. and C. 1). have 

shall be final and binding upon both parties. Upon hereunto set their hands and seals the day and year first 

every or any such reference the costs of and incidental above written. 

to the reference and award respectively shall be in the (L.S.) 

discretion of the arbitrator, who may determine the T n the presence of 

amount thereof or direct the same to be taxed as between (L.S.) 

the parties, and shall be borne by whom, and to whom and 

in what manner the same shall be borne and paid. ' ' , , , 

^ hile tnese p r0 p 0S ed articles of agreement make a 

The above clause affords the usual appeal to arbitra- mucb longer contract than is customary, yet there are 

tion which is so common to-day in all contracts. If the m clauses wh i c h have not been considered and which 

partners entering into partnership live 111 or near L-ni- J . 

Sago! it is probable that they will desire to use the are common and usual m such agreements. The writer 

arbitration clause provided by the Chicago Architects' calls attention to the following so that prospective part- 



1 66 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ners may have them in mind, i.e., power in the majority 
of partners to force retirement upon a partner after no- 
tice and payment; power to dissolve the partnership at 
any time with provisions regarding the same; power to 
introduce sons or relatives into the partnership; power 
of surviving or continuing partner to sign the firm or 
partners' name to any necessary papers, etc. ; in case an 
option is given under Article XIX. instead of requiring a 
purchase, then the representatives of the deceased part- 
ner should be given an option to sell the deceased part- 
ner's share to a properly qualified person; provisions 
regarding vacations, etc. 

This paper would hardly be complete without some 
consideration as to the relations of the separate partners 
with the firm. While most people to-day consider the 
partnership or firm as a separate entity from the part- 
ners, which is proper in the business relations, yet it is 
strange to note that there are occasions when the in- 
dividuality of the firm is neglected. Take a specific 
instance, which is probably one of the most common in 
all partnerships. The partnership has done certain work 
to the extent of $1,000 for X., a client of A. B. The lat- 
ter owes this client money on certain personal debts and 
desires to offset the personal debts by the partnership 
account. He thereupon goes to C. D. and says, " I will 
take over X.'s account and you pay yourself your share 
of the profits." Assuming that the partners share equally, 
C. D. thereupon draws a partnership check to himself for 
$500, and the indebtedness of X. to the firm is canceled. 
At first blush this situation would seem to be fair be- 
tween the partners, but as a matter of fact both the firm 
and C. D. lost on the deal. The firm lost not only the 
$500 paid to C. 1). but the full account of the $1,000, 
making a total of $1,500, which should have been equally 
divided between A. B. and C. D., so that under these 
circumstances A. B. gained $250 and C. D. lost the same 
amount in the transaction. While such a method of 
transferring accounts is rather unusual and could hardly 
happen where there is a regular bookkeeper, yet it 
has been employed and will be in the future. This is 
the kind of an advantage which a shrewd partner might 
take over a careless or unthinking one. Such a sit- 
uation also shows that the dealings must be made by 
each partner with the firm and not between the partners 
to the exclusion of the firm. 

In view of the warning and suggestion given in the 
foregoing paragraph, and although in the business world 
a partnership is considered as a separate person or en- 
tity, it must be borne in mind that the legal situation 
is exactly the reverse, and that a firm as such, is not re- 
garded as having any legal existence apart from the 
members composing it. This is the rule at common 
law, though there are a few state statutes legalizing the 
business theory. 

In conclusion, I desire to impress upon prospective 
partners that, in accordance with the common law rule, 
what is called the property of the firm is the property of 
the individual partners; what are called the debts of the 
firm are the debts of the partners; and each individual 
partner is liable to the creditors of the firm for the whole 
amount of every debt due therefrom, without reference 
to the proportion of his interest or the nature of the 
articles of agreement. 



Competition for a Small 
Brick House. 

REPORT OF THE JURY OF AWARD. 



THE mandatory conditions of the program for this 
competition "A Brick House, the cost not to exceed 
s 1,000.00," necessarily made the problem rather a difficult 
one if the condition as to cost was to be met, and it was 
so recognized by the jury who approached their part of 
the problem in rather a skeptical frame of mind as to the 
ability of any one to produce a design which should meet 
this condition and at the same time have the charm and 
good planning which should be demanded in a competi- 
tion of this kind. It was recognized by the judges that in 
the vast majority of competitions for low priced houses 
held within the past few years apparently no attention 
had been paid to the condition as to cost, whereas in 
practice in houses of this class it is a vital factor, a 
small variation from the limit set being of serious 
importance to the prospective builder of a moderate 
cost house. 

After consideration $5.00 was agreed upon as a fair 
price per square foot, though it was recognized as rather 
low for building in the immediate vicinity of the larger 
cities. This set a limit of 800 square feet to the allowa- 
ble area. While this simplified the work of the judges 
in considering the three hundred and twelve designs 
submitted, they were disappointed in the large number 
which were necessarily ruled out of competition; never- 
theless it was felt that after this test the best designs 
remained for further consideration. The problem neces- 
sarily demanded great simplicity both in plan and eleva- 
tion and its solution a careful discrimination as to what 
should, and what should not be included in a house of 
this class. The conditions of the program made the 
plan of secondary consideration; their practicability and 
general arrangement were however steadily kept in 
mind. 

First Prize. A very able and charming design with 
good details, a design which would be most interesting 
if executed. The plan is one of the best arranged and 
effective of those submitted. 

Second Prize, A very simple and characteristic brick 
design of the Colonial type which would depend for its 
effectiveness very largely on the texture of brick and 
method of laying. The cornice is unfortunately weak. 
The plan however is excellent and the design one, on the 
whole, which gives the greatest promise of being built 
within the appropriation. 

Third Prize. A simple, straightforward design eco- 
nomical in plan and construction. While the second 
floor has been sacrificed by the method of roofing the gain 
in economy is justified by the results on the exterior. 
The second floor would be improved if there were but one 
room over the living room — three bed rooms being all 



\ 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



167 










TO GO^T FOVH 



JD dollar: 



FIRST PRIZE DESIGN. 
Submitted by William Boyd, Jr., Pittsburg, Pa. 



THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION FOR A SMALL BRICK HOUSE. 



i68 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



4000 DOLLAL 
I) LICK HOUOL 

DDCKt)UlLDI>L (30M.PI/tmoH 




OKLTCH Of tNTKANCE, 



rit-S-T TUJOL MA.H 



5Ko»» tLcol. ?i.iN 



SECOND PRIZE DESIGN. Submitted by Francis D. Biilnian, Boston, Mass. 




THIRD PRIZE DESIGN. 
Submitted by Steward Wagner, New York City. 



FOURTH PRIZE DESIGN. 

Submitted by A. R. Nadel, Boston, Mass. 



THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION FOR A SMALL BRICK HOUSE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




-■—•-'■ - ■'■■■ ' v ' ' — '' : .'■'"- . ■ " .■-"■.• "I 



THIRD MENTION DESIGN. Submitted by Charles F. Hogeboom, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION FOR A SMALL BRICK HOUSE. 



170 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




3«W 







FOURTH MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted by Albert G. Hopkins, Boston, Mass. 



FIFTH MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted by Charles S. Schneider, Cleveland, Ohio. 



that could reasonably be 
required in a house of this 
character. 

Fourth Prize. A design 
rather reminiscent of Eng- 
lish work and one which 
would probably be even 
more interesting in execu- 
tion than in the drawing. 

First Mention. A good 
brick design which is in- 
jured by the large scale of 
the openings in the stair 
bay, while the composition 
is hurt by the importance 
given to the entrance gate. 

Second Mention. An in- 
teresting and unusual plan. 
The garden elevation is the 
simpler and the better of 
the two given. 

Third Mention. A very 
interesting treatment beau- 
tifully presented. The de- 
tails are good but would 
add materially to the cost 
of construction. 



6EJCKBUILDE2 • IXSMPETITION 

A- $4000-00 • BE.ICK • HOU3E • 






SIXTH MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted by Howard A. Goodspeed, Boston, Mass. 



Fourth Mention. A de- 
sign which on account of its 
great simplicity is a good 
solution of the problem ; 
one which would again de- 
pend largely for its effect 
on the kind of brick work 
and method of laying. 

Fifth Mention. This 
design was felt to be rather 
too much broken up and 
lacking in the simplicity 
requisite for a house of 
this class, though interest- 
ing in its effect. 

Sixth Mention. This 
design is the most pictur- 
esque of all the designs 
considered. It is, how- 
ever, hardly fitted to be 
carried out entirely in 
brick. 

Benno Janssen, 
Howard K. Jones, 
Frederick A. Russell, 
Frank E. Rutan, 
Albert H. Spahr, 

Jury of Award. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



i 7 i 



MASONIC TEMPLE, COLORADO SPRINGS, 
COLORADO, Plates 90, 91. 

AN EGYPTIAN character has been observed through- 
out this entire building. The external walls are 
treated in buff brick, with trimmings of terra cotta, the 
color of which is brought into harmony with the tone 
of the brick. The interior of the lodge room is exe- 
cuted in plaster with a general tone corresponding to 
that of weathered Caen stone. The capitals of the col- 
umns together with the other enriching details are picked 
out in the characteristic colors of Egyptian work as 
exemplified in former records of this style which have 
been carefully studied. In the center of the east wall is 



ing in the usual manner is an excessive burden on the 
abutting property. The volume and character of traffic 
in the residence sections also is such that there is no 
need for the width of pavement provided when the space 
between the curb lines is entirely improved. To meet 
this situation, Mr. L. C. Kelsey, formerly City Engineer 
of Salt Lake City, adopted a scheme for dividing the 
residence streets into two roadways with a parked space 
at the middle. The two roadways are connected every 
200 feet. 

The roadways are each 24 feet wide and are sloped 
from the parked space toward the curb and gutter along 
both sides of the street. The parked space along the 
center is retained by a continuous curb, extending 6 inches 




PEDIMENT OF MADISON SQUARE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, NEW YORK CITY. 
Showing new panel executed in polychrome terra cotta by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 



an oil painting representing a restored version of the 
Temple of Luxor at sunrise. The first and second floor 
plans indicate clearly the accommodations provided. 
The building cost $7.44 per square foot of area covered, 
and 17^2 cents per cubic foot. The photos used in illus- 
trating this Temple have been copyrighted by the Colo- 
rado Springs Masonic Building Society. 



THE IMPROVEMENT OF WIDE STREETS IN 
SALT LAKE CITY. 

THE standard width of residence streets in Salt Lake 
City is 132 feet from lot line to lot line, and 60 to 
92 feet from curb to curb. As a result, the cost of pav- 



above the surface of the pavement. The space between 
the two parallel curbs along the sides of the parking is 
filled to the top of these curbs and carefully maintained 
as a lawn. The cost of this maintenance is borne par- 
tially by the property owners along the street improved 
and partially by the city. 

In all, eight blocks of residence streets have been im- 
proved in this manner during the last three or four years. 
The appearance of the streets on which the parking has 
been placed is so greatly improved as to enhance con- 
siderably the abutting property. The latter bears the 
expense of the improvement, except at the street inter- 
sections, which are paid for by the city. - — Engineering 
Record. 



172 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



CLEANING BRICK FRONTS. 

AN EXPERT in the sand-blasting 
trade who has operated on many 
buildings, on being asked as to the 
efficiency of the sand-blast upon soiled 
brickwork, said that he could not ad- 
vise it except when the brick were 
extremely hard. When used against 
stone the blast does not remove the 
original face, he said, "only the 
grime." But in the case of brick, 
not extremely hard, the result might 
be different. 

The force with which sharp sand 
can be driven through a fine nozzle is 
very great. If permitted it would 
quickly cut a stone in two. In the 
case of granite, marble and cut stone 
the skilful operator preserves the 
original face of the block, but he 
cannot guarantee to do so with re- 
spect to all sorts of front brick. He 
advises cleaning front brick with acid 
instead of sand-blasting. The same 
opinion seems to be held abroad. 
The cleaning of brick fronts was the 
interesting subject of a paper recently 
read before the German Association 
of Brick and Terra Cotta Manufac- 
turers. The author protested against the use of sand- 
blast or other method by which the original face of the 
brick would be taken away, saying: 

"When the blast is used, and the face of the brick 
taken off, the cleaned front will show a good appearance 
only for a short time, as the brick with the original face 
removed will be very much more porous than before, and 
absorb dirt more readily. The use of steel brushes is 
also very bad, and will not give a first-class job. The 
best method is cleaning the brick fronts with a solution 
of muriatic acid. The strength of the solution can be 
made to 1 in 12. When this solution is too strong for 
the brick, acetic acid 
should be used. A good 
soap solution will, as a 
rule, take off all thick 
dirt, and the cleaning 
with acid solution can 
then be done easily." 




against fire. The school board has 
just been considering the advisability 
of abandoning the private companies 
and having the city itself assume the 
risk. Many of the largest property 
owners favored this course ; but the 
board voted three to two in favor 
of continuing the insurance to the 
amount of forty per cent of the ap- 
praised value of the buildings. The 
minority favored abandonment of all 
insurance without compromise, and 
they have on their side the principle 
which is the buttress of the insurance 
business. A fire insurance company 
is but an association of persons main- 
tained to distribute among all of them 
the chance losses to which all are ex- 
posed, but which actually fall upon a 
few; and so a city, carrying its own 
insurance on public buildings, is vir- 
tually an association for distributing 
among all citizens the chance losses 
caused by fire of a comparatively small 
fraction of their common property. 



DETAIL BY HOPI'IN A K.OEN, 

ARCHITECTS. 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



DES MOINES has 
been carrying insur- 
ance upon its school build- 
ings at a premium cost of 
about $5,000 per year for 
a period of ten years. 
Within this time the fire 
losses to the companies 
have been but $1,400. 
Meantime the school 
buildings have been 
greatly improved in the 
matter of protection 




THE RECONSTRUCTION OF 
THE ERECHTHEION. 

WITHIN the last few years a 
partial reconstruction of the 
Erechtheion, on the Acropolis at Athens, has been in prog- 
ress. An elaborate study of the stones strewn around the 
building, a sorting-out of them, and the replacement of 
them, one by one, in the walls of the fabric, has produced 
an astonishing result. It has rendered necessary a consid- 
erable readjustment of previous conceptions with regard 
to the original form and character of the Erechtheion. 

The technical direction of the reconstruction has been 
in the hands of M. Balanos, the architect and engineer 
attached to the Ministry of Education. The north por- 
tico has been restored, the west wall built up, and the 
celebrated caryatid porch on the south front renovated. 

The original cornice and 
architrave blocks of the 
south porch have been re- 
stored, as well as frag- 
ments of the podium, 
while, of the caryatid fig- 
ures, the one next the 
entrance is chiefly a restor- 
ation, in marble, made in 
1846, when the portico was 
in danger of falling, and 
another is a terra- cotta 
copy intended to replace 
the one removed in 1804. 
— The Architectural Re- 
view, London. 



DETAIL OF CORNER ENTRANCE TO BANK BUILDING. 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

Diboll, Owen & Goldstein, Arehiteets. 



ONE of 
tures 



)f the novel fea- 
lres included in the 
splendid array of Japanese 
exhibits that will be seen 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



173 



this year at the 
White City, Lon- 
don (Eng.), fa- 
mous exposition 
center, will be an 
immense model of 
the entire city of 
Osaka, the Venice 
of Japan, which 
will contain the 
tiny reproductions 
of some 300,000 
houses and hun- 
dreds of bridges, 
and a model of the 
beautiful temple 
in Shiba Park, 
Tokio. 



THE oldest 
temple in the 
world, so far dis- 
covered, says an 




ENTRANCE TO CLEVELAND BASEBALL PARK, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Watterson & Schneider, Architects. 



exchange, has been unearthed by excavators at Bisya, in 
central Babylonia. The walls of the tower were first un- 
covered and the summit cleared. The first inscription on 
the surface was on a brick stamped 
with the name Dungi, which goes 
back to 2750 b.c. A little lower ap- 
peared a crumbled piece of gold with 
the name Param Sim, who lived in 
3770 b.c. Just below were large 
square bricks peculiar to the reign of 
Sargon, 3800 b.c, who was probably 
the first Semitic king of Babylon. A 
large platform was discovered ly* 
yards below the surface, which was 
constructed of peculiar convex bricks 
such as were used in building 4500 b.c. 



white. An outcry 
was raised, and 
the work was sus- 
pended while an 
inquiry was held. 
It was found that 
by prolonged soak- 
ing in water the 
salt was removed. 
The shaft which 
was completed 
four months ago, 
is composed of an 
inner and an outer 
shaft, between 
which mounts the 
inclined plane 
which leads to the 
bell chamber. The 
walls of the outer 
shaft are 6 feet 
thick. The in- 
clined plane is lit 



by 36 windows. In the new tower the shafts are bound 
together by iron rods, and the pilasters at the angles of 
the inner shaft are similarly united. 



THE VENICE CAMPANILE. 

IT WAS hoped that the old Cam- 
panile of St. Mark's at Venice, 
which collapsed on July 14, 1902, after 
an existence of 1,014 years, would have 
been completely replaced by Easter of 
the present year. There was, how- 
ever, no possibility of the work being 
finished at that time, but it is con- 
fidently expected that the bell of 
St. Marco will again ring out on 
St. Mark's Day, April 25, 1911. The 
intention is to reproduce the old 
tower as faithfully as possible, and 
with that object in view the bricks, 
of which there are about one million, 
have been specially selected and laid. 
The bricks are each 12 inches long, 
6 inches wide, and 3 inches deep. 
The clay is twice mixed to secure 
homogeneity. These bricks contain 
salt, which threatens to turn the tower 




BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR 
JUNE. 

OFFICIAL reports from forty-five 
cities throughout the country 
compiled by The American Con- 
tractor, New York, show a gain of 
2 per cent in the aggregate, in build- 
ing operations as c'ompared with 
June, 1909. Seventeen cities show a 
loss of from 1 to 64 per cent, and 
twenty-eight show a gain of from 2 
to 264 per cent. The cities scoring 
again of 50 per cent or over are: At- 
lanta, 67; Birmingham, 54; Cincinnati, 
61; Denver, 67; Detroit, 109; Hart- 
ford, 115; Little Rock, 118; Manches- 
ter, 63; Memphis, 70; New Haven 
169; Oklahoma City, 264; Portland] 
Ore., 83; Scran ton, 72; Syracuse, 53. 



I 



STORE BUILDING, CLEVELAN I), OH IO . 
Bohnard & Parsson, Architects. 



A GOOD WORD FOR BRICKS. 

N UNCOVERING the fine stone 
bridge over the moat at Hampton 
Court Palace, England, some interest- 
ing discoveries have been made. In 
the wall of the north wing two large 
archways have been revealed, evi- 
dently designed to bring the water 
into the moat; and on the south side 
have been found some curious brick 
steps leading by an archway into the 
moat from a subterranean way. There 
is much which points to the waters of 
the moat having been utilized to flush 
the vast system of arterial drainage 



*74 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



which was one of the 
main features of this 
palace. The brick- 
work of both the moat 
wall and the main 
building, though 
buried for two hun- 
dred years, has mostly 
been found in as satis- 
factory a state as the 
stonework of the 
bridge. Where it was 
otherwise, it has been 
carefully patched with 
the old Tudor bricks. 
Tens of thousands of 
these — unrivaled for 
their texture and 
their varied tones of 
rich color, extending 
from dark purples 
and crimsons to 
bright rose — have 
been collected from the debris and put aside for the 
restoration. 




HIGH SCHOOL, WATERTOWN, N. V. 

Tlie round and square columns are built of brick. Brick furnished by the Iron- 

clay Brick Company. 

J. W. Griffin, Architect. 



Cotta was immediately 
chosen for all the col- 
ored features, with 
the exception of the 
green marble columns. 
It was, in fact, the only 
material in which the 
desired result could be 
obtained in a lasting, 
artistic, solid — but 
not too massive — 
way. Terra cotta ad- 
mitted the defining of 
various members of 
ornament in different 
colors on one piece 
and so maintained the 
solid impression nec- 
essary in a structural 
material. Paint, of 
course, was out of the 
question. Colored 
stone or marble was 



THE NEW PEDIMENT PANEL IN 

DR. PARKHURST'S MADISON 

SQUARE CHURCH. 

OVERSHADOWED by the highest 
office building in the world, sur- 
rounded by modern skyscrapers, situated 
near one of the busiest, most varied, and 
interesting districts in New York, one 
cannot fail to notice and consider the 
Madison Square Church. 

Undoubtedly, in designing this church, 
the architects, McKim, Mead and White, 
deliberately set out to make it fitting 
and harmonious for a church, yet unique 
enough to command attention in a com- 
mercial district, rather than to fade 
insignificantly into the background by 
conforming strictly to 
convention. 

The difficulties of the 
problem were enhanced 
doubly by the facts that 
size must be insignifi- 
cant in comparision 
with the buildings 
which were, or would 
be, erected in the im- 
mediate vicinity, and 
that open space to set 
off the church by con- 
trast was entirely lack- 
ing. Brilliance and 
variety of color, com- 
bined with unique 
design, solved the 
problem. 

Polychrome Terra 




DETAIL BY CROW, LEWIS 

& WICKENHOEFER, 

ARCHITECTS. 

Made by Conkling-Armstrong 
Terra Cotta Company. 




WOODLAWN CHURCH, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Roofed with German tile made by the Ludowici-Celadon Company. 

Arthur Peabody, Architect. 



impracticable because the natural colors do not occur 
with enough tone and life, and combining 
the colors would necessitate very small 
pieces and consequently an undesirable 
mosaic effect. 

The use of Architectural Terra Cotta 
was in no sense an experiment, but it was 
the first important instance of the use of 
Polychrome Terra Cotta in this country. 
In fact, colored faience had been practi- 
cally a lost art since the days of the Delia 
Robbias and was just beginning to be re- 
vived at the time the church was erected. 
For that reason, what to-day seems an 
excess of caution, was used. The colors 
were not applied boldly enough, and cut 
up and divided by the ornament gave 
from any distance but little more effect 
than monotone. Fortunately, the domi- 
nant feature, the pediment, was left a 
blank wall until this 
spring, when the rapid 
development of Poly- 
chrome Terra Cotta — 
given its first impetus 
by its use on the minor 
members of the church 
— enabled the archi- 
tects to use it for the 
pediment in what was 
undoubtedly the ideal 
way. The result is that 
the whole scheme is 
unified and emphasized 
and the building has 
attained a distinct and 
distinctive character — 
unique, but ecclesiastic. 
Worship at the Shrine 
of Truth is the subject 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



175 



of the sculptured panel. The central 
feature is naturally the universal 
Christian symbol, the Cross, in gold. 
Worship is typified by the angels on 
either side, one bearing a lyre and 
the other a scroll with the inscrip- 
tion, " Gloria in Excelsis Deo." The 
allegory is completed by the 
kneeling figures, symbolizing the 
Church as a Shepherd and the Church 
Militant. 

The design is by Harry Siddons 
Mowbray and the modeling by 
Adolph A. Weinman. The figures 
are in bold relief, dull white against 
a background of light blue. The 
effect is brightened by a light Sienna 
background for the cross. The 
cross itself, and the stars, are in 
gold leaf; the white, blue, and Sienna 
are the terra cotta glazes and slips. 

Altogether, the result is interest- 
ing and attractive — a decided relief to the American 
eye, too used to dull monotony in architecture. 




San Francisco. The following 
awards were made in the competi- 
tion: 

First prize design, Palmer & 
Hornbostel, New York City ; honor- 
ary prize, Cass Gilbert, New York 
City; second prize designs, Bakewell 
& Brown, San Francisco; Arnold W. 
Brunner, New York City; Delano 
& Aldrich, New York City; J. H. 
Freedlander, New York City; 
George W. Kelham, San Francisco; 
H. Van Buren Magonigle, New York 
City; Frederick H. Meyer, San 
Francisco ; Rankin, Kellogg & Crane, 
Philadelphia; Ward & Blohme, San 
Francisco; York & Sawyer, New 
York City. 



DETAIL BY FRANKLIN & AYRES, 

ARCHITECTS. 

South Amboy Terra Cotta Company, Makers 



HCL. 



JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO., of Boston have just 
completed tests to determine the action of acids upon 
linoleum. 

The increasing interest and use of linoleum as floor 
covering on cement foundation, render the results of 
these tests interesting in connection with buildings for 
laboratories, medical institutions, etc. 

A strip of linoleum was submitted to the action of the 
following acids, both concentrated and dilute: Nitric, 
HNOs, sulphuric, H2SO4, hydrochloric, HCL, Acetic 
and aqua requa, a combination of nitric and 
The acids were left on between one and a half 
and two hours, and then washed off. In all 
instances the effect appeared to be entirely on 
the surface, and in some instances hardly 
without discoloration. 

Three samples were then submitted to an 
acid bath of seventy-two hours in three differ- 
ent acids. In one case only, that of nitric 
acid, was the fabric eaten. 

They also have under way tests of the prod- 
uct of a number of manufacturers, to discover 
the compound which will give the maximum 
of wearing value with the minimum of stretch. 
Some of the linoleums that are now on the 
market, while apparently up to standard in 
thickness and density, even when laid by most 
approved methods and skilled workmen, con- 
tinue to stretch. This is an important feature, 
and one deserving the attention of architects 
and builders. 

IN GENERAL. 



Twenty-eight sets of drawings submitted 
in competition for the Oakland, Cal., City Hall 
were exhibited during the month under the 
auspices of the San Francisco Architectural 
Club in the Mechanics Institute Building at 




DETAIL BY 

A. B. GROVES, 

ARCHITECT. 

Made by the Winkle 
Terra Cotta Company. 



Members of the Philadelphia 
Chapter A. I. A., T Square Club, 
and the Southern Pennsylvania 
Chapter held its annual outing during June at Princeton, 
N. J., the especial object being an inspection of the 
new work which is being carried on at the University. 
Mr. Frank Miles Day accompanied the party and ex- 
plained the work in progress and proposed. 

The Annual Report of the Schoolhouse Department 
for the City of Boston for the year ending February 1, 
1910, has just been published. 

The Year Book of the Rhode Island Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects which is just at hand 
contains a large number of illustrations of new work 
which has been executed by the architects of Provi- 
dence, R. I. 



Peuckert & Wunder, architects and engi- 
neers, are successors to the firm of Kurt W. 
Peuckert, offices 310 Chestnut street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

J. Flood Walker and H. A. Reuter have 
associated for the practice of architecture, 
with offices in the Frost Building, San An- 
tonio, Texas. 

Will S. Aldrich, a graduate of Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, and winner of the 
Rotch Traveling Scholarship and also for a 
number of years connected with McKim, Mead 
& White has formed a partnership with E. J. 
Eckel, F. A. I. A., and George R. Eckel of 
St. Joseph, Mo., under the firm name of Eckel 
& Aldrich. The firm has taken offices in the 
Corby-Forsee Building. 

The Atlantic Terra Cotta Company will 
furnish the architectural terra cotta for the 
following new buildings: Parochial School and 
Convent, Brooklyn, N. Y., George H. Streeton, 
architect; Station for the Philadelphia and 



176 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




MAIN ENTRANCE TO DEMAREST BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 

Executed in cream white terra cotta by New York Architectural Terra 

Cotta Company. 

P. H. Kimball, Architect. 

Reading Railroad, Columbia avenue, Philadelphia, 
William Hunter, architect; a large amount of poly- 
chrome terra cotta for the new High School Building at 
Norfolk, Va., Neff & Thompson, architects; Engineer- 
ing Building for the University of Cincinnati, Garber & 
Woodward and Tietig & Lee, associated, architects. 

The Western Brick Company of Danville, 111., has pur- 
chased the plant of the Selby Brick Works at Danville, 
and will remodel the plant for the especial purpose of 
making dark colored, medium priced facing brick with 
glazed and matt-finish. 

A series of waterproofing tests covering a period of 
several years have been made on the North German- 
Lloyd docks at Hoboken, and of all the materials used in 
the experiments Cabot's Waterproofing compound was 
found to be the most efficient. Work has now begun 
upon waterproofing all of the brickwork with Cabot's 
material. 

Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, have just 
issued an unusually attractive catalogue, illustrating and 
describing the full line of burnt clay wares which the 
Company manufactures. 



and on system in the execution of building contracts. 
A systematic treatise on factors of cost and superintend- 
ence, with working citations. By Arthur W. Joslin, 
Building Estimator and Superintendent. Illustrated. 
New York, David Williams Company. 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE. 

FOUR YEAR COURSE. {Degree B.S. in Arch.) Architectural engi- 
neering may be taken in lieu of advanced design, etc. 

GRADUATE YEAR. (Degree M.S. in Arch.) Allowing specializa- 
tion in design or in architectural engineering, etc. 

SPECIAL COURSE OF TWO YEARS. {Certificate.) For qualified 
draftsmen ; affording option in architectural engineering. 

ADVANCED STANDING granted to college graduates and others for 
required work completed elsewhere. 

SUMMER SCHOOL in architecture, offering complete group of tech- 
nical subjects, affords advanced standing in regular and special 
courses. Special circular. 

FULL INFORMATION may be secured through application to the 
Dean of The College Department. Dr. GEORGE E. FISHER, 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

"SPECIFICATION BLANKS," by T. Robert Wieger, 
architect (formerly with F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
25 cents. Reduction on quantities. Sample page upon 
request. 628- 14th street, Denver, Colo. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— 1 register as- 
sistants FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK- 
ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEREIRA, 
218 La SALLE St., CHICAGO. Long Distance Tel., Franklin 1328. 



NEW BOOK. 

Estimating the Cost of Buildings with important 
chapters on estimating the cost of building alterations, 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITHER WOODEN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Public Buildings. Elastic, Noiseless, 
and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
German Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The Franklin Union Building in Boston, R. Clipston Sturgis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
the North Dakota, the largest Battleship in the United States 
Navy ; the extensions of the Suffolk County Court House in 
Boston, George A. Clough, Architect ; and the Registry of 
Deeds, Salem, Mass., C. H. Blackall, Architect. 

We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET, Opp. Boylston Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



THE 






V 



A. 



BR^KBV^|RL 

ARCHlffiCVRAL 

MONTHIY 



«l» 



<«««« 



r 



VOL. J9 



1 



»>»»»: 



AUGUST 

WO 



« » 



>»»»>> 



NO. 8 



J 



tccceccicc 



PVBLISHED BY ROGERS & MANSON 
EIGHTYHVE WATER STREET BOSTON MASS. 



TRADE MARK 




b(.u»p»i.i» 



The Most Artistic and 

Permanent Building 

Material in the World 

There Is only one <• Tapestry " Brick. It 
is made exclusively by Fiske & Co. Inc. 
Our trade mark " Tapestry " is branded 
on each brick. It stands for the highest 
product of our skill and 45 years experi- 
ence. It protects you against substitution. 

•• Tapestry " Brick has been used by lead- 
ing architects on residences, churches, 
libraries, hospitals, club houses, schools, 
fraternal buildings, and high grade 
apartments. 

EISKE 6* COMPANY INC 
:E BRICKS} ESTABLISH 
<E BRICKSl-ED IN 1864 

BOSTON. IS Arch St NEW YORK, Ptatlron Bids. 



NEW YORK BALTIMORE 

I I 70 Broadway American Building 

WASHINGTON 

Home Life Building 

O. W. KETCHAM 

Master Builders Exchange 
PHILADELPHIA 



Front Brick Enameled Brick 

Hollow Tile Fireproof ing 

Roofing Tile 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 

Works: Crum Lynne, Pa. 

Sweet's Index, page* 116-117 



Genuine New England M Harvard " Brick* 
- Front . BRICKS ENAMEU0 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 



Garter, Black & Ayers 

I Madison Ave., NEW YORK 
Agents for 

• N. E. Terra Cotta Co. 

Bradford, Pa. 



Atlantic 

Terra Cotta 

Company 

1170 Broadway, N. Y. 

There are as many grades of Archi- 
tectural Terra Cotta as there are com- 
panies that manufacture it ; — about 
twenty-eight in this country. 

By reason of its Perth Amboy 
factory, established thirty-two years 
ago, the Atlantic is the pioneer Com- 
pany. Atlantic Terra Cotta has 
always led in development, and the 
Company has grown to be by far the 
largest in the world. 

An Atlantic estimate is not limited 
to the material product alone; — it 
includes methods and a system that 
insure the greatest convenience and 
rapidity of construction, and that tend 
toward the general elimination of 
contingent expenses. 

The Atlantic Company makes the 
best possible Terra Cotta at the low- 
est possible cost, and does not enter 
into competition with cheap Terra 
Cotta cheaply made. 

In addition, the Architect and 
Builder have to deal with a Company 
glad to cooperate in every way, and 
thoroughly responsible. 

Southern Branch 

Atlanta 
Terra Cotta Company 

East Point, Ga. 



GRUEBY FAIENCE & TILE CO, 

K AND FIRST STS., BOSTON, MASS. 



Durable Architectural 
faience 

for 
exteriors ana Interiors 



CORRESPONDENCE INVITED 



The Hartford Faience Go. 

HARTFORD, CONN. 



NEW YORK 

514 FWTIROK BUILDING 



BOSTON 

OLD SOUTH BUILDING 



ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE 

(All Colors) 

FAIENCE MANTELS 
FAIENCE TILE AND BRICK 

Write for our new catalogue. 



ROOKWOOD 

Architectural Faience 

MAT CLAZES IN ALL COLORS 
ABSOLUTELY PERMANENT 
EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR 

THE ROOKWOOD POTTERY CO. 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 
New York Office - - I Madison Avenue 



Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Co. 

M. E. GREGORY, PROPRIETOR 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA COTTA 

Works and Main Office: CORNING, N. Y. 

NEW YORK ■■.. E. H.THOMAS, 1123 Broadwiy 

ACENCIES 

All the Principal Cities 



PFOTENHAUER-NESBIT CO. 

SL Jttiei Building, Broadwij, Cor. 26th SI.. Rtv Tort 

IMPERVIOUS 

FRONT BRICK 

In Red, Buff, Cray, Mottled, White, Etc 

Enameled Brick, Roofing TAm, Pnhg Gfliktrs, Ete. 
Genuine « 'KITTANN INC" Brick 
Genuine "HARVARD" Brick 



The AMERICAN TERRA COTTA 
AHD CERAMIC COMPANY 

Architectural 
Terra Cotta 

CHICAGO - ILLINOIS 



Conkling-Armstrong 
Terra Cotta Co* 

klaaafecturera of 

Architectural Terra Cotta 

Work., PHILADELPHIA 

OFFICES 

BeililW Exchange, PHILADELPHIA 

1133 Bro»dw*y, NEW YORJC 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XIX 



AUGUST 1910 



Number 8 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1910, by ROGERS & MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ........ $5.00 per year 

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For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: 

PAGE PAGE 

11 Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

II Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

II and III Fireproofing ......... IV 

III Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

,, Terra Cotta 

Brick 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



BIGELOW & WADSWORTH; GEORGE GARY; ALBERT MORTON GRAY; GREEN & WICKS 

JOHN W. LAVALLE; PAGE & FROTH INGHAM; WILLIAM G. RANTOUL; 

MARCUS T. REYNOLDS; WHEELWRIGHT & HAVEN. 



LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

BASES AND COLUMN FROM ANCIENT ROMAN BUILDINGS Frontispiece 

HINTS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS. — PART II. (Continued) Hugh Tallant 177 

PLANNING OF CHILDREN'S HOSPITALS Charles Butler 180 

A CHRONOLOGY OF ENGLISH BRICKWORK 187 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 194 







Q 

W 






^ - « 

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o a z 



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p 



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CO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. XIX. NO. 8. 



AUGUST, 1910. 



Hints on Architectural Acoustics, 



BY HUGH TALLANT. 

PART II. (Continued). 
Computation and Practice. 



FOR auditoriums of irregular shape, or which have 
only one or two dimensions in excess of 50 feet the 
question becomes one of personal judgment in the par- 
ticular case. Some special cases will be considered later 
on in connection with design and construction. 

Echo is produced by an isolated sound or group of 
sounds. In the open, where there is nothing to develop 
reverberation, echo results from the deflection of some 
parts of the sound-wave after a single impact against a 
cliff or hill. In an auditorium it results from the repeated 
deflection of some sound or group of sounds in a semi- 
detached portion of the auditorium where the absorbing 
capacity is below the average. These sounds wander 
back to the main body of the auditorium after a percep- 
tible interval of time, and as they have been relatively little 
diminished by impact they may be much louder than 
what is left of the other deflected sounds. As everyone 
knows, this phenomenon is apt to occur in connection 
with a dome, an aisle-chapel or a long corridor. At the 
same time it by no means follows that such constructions 
necessarily involve an echo. The distance between de- 
flections is evidently much shorter in a small space than 
in a large one, and if the relative absorbing capacity is 
not smaller yet, the reverberation will die out more 
rapidly in the smaller space. In any special case these 
facts must be taken into consideration together with the 
distance of the detached space from the hearer. A low 
dome may be, and often is, of distinct advantage. Such 
a case has already been illustrated in Fig. 8 in connec- 
tion with the question of loudness. The effect of a dome 
is dependent largely upon the angle at which the direct 
sound strikes the tangent at the edge farthest from the 
speaker. In Fig. 10 this edge is shown at A. If the 
angle SAB is less than a right angle there is no chance of 
echo, because sounds striking at A will be deflected into 
the auditorium in the direction AC. There may, how- 
ever, be sound interference at C, if AC is nearly opposite 
in direction to SC ; and there may be indistinctness at D, 
if SAD is 80 feet longer than SD. On the other hand if 
SAB is an obtuse angle as shown in Fig. 11, there will 
probably be a sharp echo in the vicinity of D or E, and if 
the sound is deflected as shown in Fig. 12 there will be a 
prolonged echo throughout the entire auditorium which 
will be particularly accentuated at D and E. A similar 
method of investigation may be applied to any other ir- 
regularity in the enclosing surfaces of an auditorium, 
and usually a mere inspection of the architectural 



drawings will be sufficient to indicate the possibility of 
echo. 

Quality of Tone. The same reasoning which has 
been applied to loudness and distinctness, applies with 
even greater force to quality of tone. Methods which 
give satisfactory results in a small auditorium cannot 
safely be applied to a large one. In a small auditorium, 
where the deflected sounds arrive in rapid and unbroken 
succession the effect of reverberation which they produce 
tends to support and enrich the natural quality of the 
sound. It may, however, easily become excessive, and 
must be carefully computed in advance. 

As already mentioned the most convenient measure of 
reverberation is the time that it remains audible after the 
original cause has ceased. 

The duration of audibility depends upon three factors; 
the initial intensity of the sound-wave, the average ab- 
sorbing capacity of the auditorium, and what has been 
called the " mean free path " between deflections. 

The initial intensity is, of course, a variable quantity, 
but what the architect requires is merely an arbitrary 
standard as a basis for relative classification. For this 
purpose it is convenient to assume that the initial inten- 
sity is one million times the minimum limit of audibility. 

The average absorbing capacity depends upon the rela- 
tive amount and position of the various absorbing mate- 
rials composing the walls and contents of the auditorium. 
If the deflecting surfaces were absolutely non-absorptive a 
sound-wave would continue to be deflected for some hours 
from wall to wall before it would be noticeably diminished 
by the action of the atmosphere. In point of fact, how- 
ever, few sounds remain audible after more than 200 im- 
pacts, and the greater part are destroyed by less than 
half that number. In the case of any given portion of 
the sound-wave, it is a matter of chance whether or not 
it happens to be destroyed early in its course by striking 
upon highly absorptive surfaces. When, however, the 
deflections occur with extreme rapidity, each portion of 
the enclosing walls will receive a number of impacts ap- 
proximately proportionate to its area, and there is thus 
established an average absorbing capacity, which is readily 
determined for any given auditorium by dividing the 
total absorbing capacity by the superficial area of the 
deflecting surfaces. This calculation does not, however, 
take account of the shape of the auditorium, which has a 
pronounced effect. If the shape is such that there is a 
tendency for the sounds to strike relatively often upon 



178 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




highly absorptive surfaces, the average absorbing capacity 
is correspondingly increased. This contingency always 
arises when the walls and ceiling are intentionally curved 
so as to deflect the sound immediately to any part of the 
audience. It also occurs when the rear walls are inten- 
tionally inclined so as to deflect the sound to highly 
absorptive surfaces before 
it can create interference. 
These and similar consid- 
erations cannot readily be 
included in a practical 
mathematical formula, but 
they must be noted and 
allowed for in the results 
of any computation. 

The path traveled by 
any particular portion of 
the sound-wave is liable to 
as great variation as is the 
amount absorbed by de- 
flection. A sound may 
strike near the corner of 
the room where the dis- 
tance between impacts p -y, 
amounts to little or noth- 
ing, or it may travel back 

and forth the full distance between opposite walls. It 
may even travel in a straight line as far as the longest 
diagonal of the room, but if the deflections occur with 
great rapidity there is established a certain average dis- 
tance, P, between impacts, called the wean free path be- 
tween deflections. In a rectangular room the mean free 
path is approximately equal to half the average of the 
three dimensions and the 
longest diagonal. This 
value is convenient for ar- 
chitectural purposes, be- 
cause the three dimensions 
and diagonal may be readily 
obtained by direct measure- 
ment, but it has the dis- 
advantage of not being 
applicable to rooms of ir- 
regular shape. A value of 
more general utility is 

* The former value was deduced 
by the writer from theoretic consid- 
erations and lias proved useful in 
estimating the rapidity of sound 
deflection at the beginning of re' 
verberation. The latter is the re- 
sult of practical experiment by 
Professor Sabine. If P is the mean 
free path, X, V and Z the three 
dimensions, and V the volume, the 
two values expressed algebraically 
are — 

x + Y + ZH \x 4 v-t yj 

8 

A _ 

P = 0.62 \ V 
In ordinary cases the two expressions give identical results, which is at 
least a confirmation of their accuracy. For instance, in the case of 
whose dimensions are 2, 3 and 4, the two expressions give — 

,_2 + 3 + 4-f V^4 + 9+16 14 - 4 




sixty-two one-hundredths of the cube root of the vol- 
ume.* 

It is to be noted, however, that neither of these values 
for P takes into account the shape of the room. Never- 
theless shape may be a very important factor. Suppose 
that Fig. 13 represents the section of an auditorium to 

which the balcony indicated 
by the dotted lines has been 
subsequently added. The 
alteration does not change 
the general dimensions at 
all and affects the volume 
but slightly even if careful 
deduction is made for the 
cubic contents of the bal- 
cony. The calculated value 
of P will therefore be prac- 
tically unaffected by the 
balcony, although the real 
value will be considerably 
diminished because sounds 
which originally were able 
to travel freely from A to B 
will now be intercepted at 
C and deflected back to the 
direction CD. To a greater 
or less extent any irregularity of form or contents is 
likely to reduce the value of P, and must be considered 
in the results of calculations which do not take account 
of the shape of the room in some other way. 

(iiven the initial intensity, the average absorbing ca- 
pacity and the mean free path between deflections, the 
duration of audibility of the deflected sound can be read- 
ily calculated, t The most 
convenient formula for this 
purpose is — 

A + X) T =0.052 V 
Here A is the absorbing 
capacity of the walls, floor 
and ceiling, X the absorb- 
ing capacity of the con- 
tents, T the duration of 
audibility in seconds, and 
V the volume of the audi- 
torium in cubic feet. 

A may be determined by 
multiplying the area in 
square feet of each material 
by the corresponding coeffi- 
cient from the following 
table which gives the ab- 
sorbing capacity of the prin- 
cipal materials of construc- 
tion at the pitch of middle C. 



FicXI 



+ A formula directly based on these factors can be deduced as follows : 

Let I represent the initial intensity, A the average absorbing capacity. P 

the mean free path in feet, N the number of deflections necessary- to reduce 

the initial intensity to the minimum audibility, and D the duration of audi- 



bility in seconds. Then D 



NP. 

12U0 



But (1-A)n I = j- 



UOO.IHKI 



1 whence 



P = 



8 



1. 



N 



-, 77-TT- Therefore 1> 



200 log. (1-A)- 



This formula has only 



P=0.62 



^24 = 



0.62 x 2.9 =1.798 



log. (1-A) 

a theoretic interest in this connection as it is less convenient for practical 
use than the one given in the text. 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



176 



Open window 1.000 

Wood sheathing (hard pine).. .. .061 

Plaster on wood lath .034 

Plaster on wire lath .033 

Glass, single thickness 027. 

Plaster on tile .025 

Brick set in Portland cement .025 

Audience .96* 

Carpeting on heavy batt- 
ing 40 

X may be determined by 
multiplying the amount of 
any given material by the 
corresponding coefficient 
from the following table: — 

Isolated woman 5.81 

Isolated man 5.16 

Plain ash settees with 

solid seats and vertical 

ribs in back .42 

Plain ash settees per 

single seat .083 

Plain ash chairs "bent 

wood"... .088 

Settees upholstered on 1 

seat and back with hair 

cushions covered with 

leather ..11.836 

Upholstered settees per 

single seat 3.0128 

Upholstered chairs similar 

in style 3.228 

Hair cushions per seat. __ 2.2596 

Elastic felt cushions (cotton covered with corduroy) per seat 2.152 




Fig. XII 



ft. 



.033 

.28 

.20 

.29 

.019 

.15 

.23 



House plants per cubic foot 

Oil paintings, inclusive of frames per sq 

Carpet rugs 

Oriental rugs, extra heavy 

Cheese cloth 

Cretonne cloth 

Chenille curtains 

Hair felt, 1 inch thick, 

3% inches from wall, 

per sq.ft._ .78 

Cork, 1 inch thick, loose 

on floor, per sq. ft .16 

Linoleum, loose on floor 

per sq. ft .12 

In the first table the audi- 
ence is given as part of the 
enclosing surfaces of the 
auditorium. In this case 
each person is supposed to 
occupy about 4^ square 
feet, and the absorbing ca- 
pacity of the floor and seats 
is included in the coeffi- 
cient. Where the audience 
is distributed over a larger 
area, each person must be 
taken separately as part 

of the contents of the room in accordance with the 
value given in the second table, and in this case the 
absorbing capacity of the floor underneath each person 
must be calculated in addition to the absorbing capacity 
of the person. The same is true of all the other articles 
mentioned in the second table whose absorbing capacity 
must be added to that of the adjacent walls or floor. f 

The duration of audibility as computed by the preced- 





B\ 








J7 






Af 










D 





ing method, establishes a standard by which the relative 
amounts of reverberation developed in small auditoriums 
may be compared. Experiments by Professor Sabine 
have shown that for rooms varying in volume from 2,500' 
cubic feet to 7,500 cubic feet a calculated reverberation 
lasting 1.1 seconds gives the most pleasing effect for piano 

music. Similar calculations 
by the writer in the case 
of music-rooms of some- 
what greater size have 
given similar results. On 
the other hand, for speak- 
ing purposes a calculated 
reverberation of 1.1 seconds 
is a maximum, and a shorter 
duration of audibility is 
preferable. In the absence 
of data to the contrary 
these experiments seem 
fairly to indicate a stand- 
ard with which other rooms 
may be compared. 

In a practical case the 
procedure is extremely 
simple. All that is neces- 
sary is to compute the dura- 
tion of audibility by the 
method given, and then 
arrange for the addition of 
removal of sound-absorbing material until the compu- 
tation gives satisfactory figures. It is to be noted, 
however, that this method does not take account of 
variation in absorbing capacity corresponding to va- 
riation in pitch. Two rooms might easily have equal 
absorbing capacities at the pitch of middle C and very 
different absorbing capacities at some other pitch. There 

are evidently theoretic pos- 
sibilities demanding care- 
ful investigation before 
results can be absolutely 
guaranteed, but as the char- 
acter of the materials en- 
tering into the construction 
and furnishings of the or- 
dinary room varies but 
little, the chances of failure 
by the method suggested 
are relatively small. 

At the same time it must 

not be forgotten that the 

formula upon which this 

calculation is based does 

not take into account the 

shape of the auditorium 

and the location of the 

different absorbing surfaces. It is easy, and often 

expedient, to increase the average absorbing capacity 

of an auditorium by deflecting a large body of sound 

* By a clerical error this coefficient was given as 0.94 in the first article 
of this series. 

t This entire method of computing the duration of audibility is taken 
bodily from Professor Sabine's treatise by his consent. The same is true 
of the tables of absorbing capacity with the single exception of the coeffi- 
cient for carpeting which is the writer's rough estimate. 



Fig. XIII 



i8o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



at once to a surface of high absorbing capacity. Wher- 
ever the architect has reason to suspect that this is likely 
to occur, either intentionally or by chance, he must 
take careful account of the contingency in his computa- 
tions. Some suggestions along these lines will be given 
later on in connection with practical design. Where the 
average dimension of an auditorium exceeds 50 feet the 
chance of error in the calculated results becomes so large 
that it is preferable to attack the problem along totally 
different lines. The safest procedure is to diminish the 
reverberation to the utmost possible extent by directing 
all deflected sound at once to surfaces of high absorbing 
power. This treatment tends to produce a lifeless quality 
of tone which while excellent for purposes of distinct- 



ness is unsatisfactory in an auditorium devoted to music, 
and must be offset by the introduction of resonant 
material as explained in the first article of this series. 
This method is hardly one of scientific accuracy, but it 
has never failed to give satisfactory results in the numer- 
ous cases which have happened to come under the writer's 
supervision. 

Further investigation will doubtless lead to more defi- 
nite means of dealing with reverberation in the case of 
large auditoriums, but in the meantime the procedure 
suggested is likely to lead to nothing worse than a lack 
of brilliancy of tone — a much less serious defect than an 
excess of reverberation and its usual concomitants, 
indistinctness, and echo. 



Planning of Children's Hospitals. 



BV CHARLES BUTLER. 



THE Children's Hospital as a separate institution is 
a recent development in the United States. Until 
a short time ago it was the custom even in large cities to 
provide for the treatment of children in one of the wards 
of a general hospital, as is the case in the New York 
Hospital, the Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago, and 
others. 

The existence of a Children's Ward in a general hospital 
causes a far greater complication and inconvenience than 
is offset by the service performed. This result is due to 
the requirements for observation, isolation, etc. and the 
tendency which has become apparent of late to care for 
children in separate institutions is one more step in the 
economic improvement of hospital practice. 

Among the earlier Children's Hospitals should be cited 
the one at Toronto, known also for its splendid Island 
Hospital where the patients spend the summer months 
three miles out in the lake, and for its Nurses' Home 
which has set a standard for future buildings in that line. 
Mure recently Children's Hospitals have been erected in 
Chicago and Buffalo, while others are being planned for 
Boston, St. Louis, Philadelphia and other cities. 

In Baltimore the Harriet Lane Home for Invalid Chil- 
dren is now in process of erection on the grounds of Johns 
Hopkins Hospital, and the plans form the basis for this 
article, the writer having been identified with their, prep- 
aration through the association of his firm with that of 
Wyatt & Nolting of Baltimore. In considering these 
plans it should be borne in mind that the buildings are 
placed in the grounds and joined to the main buildings 
of Johns Hopkins Hospital by the corridor which unites 
all of the buildings to the main Administration Building. 

The buildings are exhaustively described, with the 
idea that from this concrete example it will be easier to 
draw general conclusions as to the essentials of a Chil- 
dren's Hospital. And it may be added that the work was 
planned only after a most exhaustive study of the best 
examples of recently built Children's Hospitals in this 
country and abroad. 



The principle of the composition in plan is as follows: 
Facing on the long garden or courtyard is the main build- 
ing of the hospital consisting of a basement and five 
stories; through the east and west axis of this main build- 
ing runs the connecting corridor which, in the case of the 
basement, is continuous while on the first floor the circu- 
lation is interrupted by the out-patient department. In 
the rear of the central portion of the main building is the 
lecture room and south of this are three one story ward 
buildings for observation and isolation. 

Owing to the connection with Johns Hopkins Hospital 
there is no need to provide for a laundry. For the present 
at least it is planned to make use of the main kitchen of 
this hospital, bringing food in wagons through the base- 
ment corridor to the receiving rooms, where access is had 
to the automatic dumb waiters leading to the diet kitchen 
on each floor. 

Similarly the food wagons can pass along the basement 
corridor which, lying to the east of the lecture room, leads 
to the small receiving rooms at the foot of the dumb 
waiters which serve the three diet kitchens in the Isola- 
tion and Observation Wards. 

Adjoining the receiving rooms are the soiled linen 
rooms into which open the clothes chutes from the main 
building and the three rear wards, so that the transporta- 
tion of soiled clothes is entirely in the basement. This 
is an especially convenient arrangement in the case of the 
rear wards, each of which has also its sterilizing room in 
the basement in close proximity to the soiled linen room. 

By means of this arrangement for basement connection 
to the three rear buildings it is possible to isolate them 
completely. Living quarters are provided in the second 
floor for the nurses on duty in these three wards, so that 
with the exception of the visits from the medical staff, 
there need be no communication on the level of the 
wards. 

It is the intention to put all patients in hospital cloth- 
ing. In as much as in a children's hospital most of the 
patients are brought to the institution by their parents it 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



181 



is planned to have the latter carry away with them the 
clothes worn by the children, bringing them back at 
the time of the patient's discharge. By this method 
the space required for locker rooms for patients' clothes is 
reduced to a minimum, as it is necessary only to provide 
for the few patients who have no families to care for 
their effects. For these is provided in the basement at 
the east end a locker room with adjacent sterilizing 
room. 

To the east of the soiled clothes room is provision for 
elevator and dumb-waiter machinery and across the hall 
a room for the fresh air intake and fan. 

As none of the help sleep in the building it is neces- 
sary only to provide small locker and toilet rooms for 
their use. 

Steam and hot water are furnished from the main 
power plant of the hospital so that a relatively large part 
of the basement is left free for laboratories, or for future 
kitchens if it should be decided to make the hospital in- 
dependent of the main kitchen. 

The main elevator of the building is placed just north 
of the corridor to the east of the entrance. A short rise 
elevator goes from the level of the lecture room to the 
level of the first floor and is planned to permit the trans- 
portation of patients in their beds for demonstration in 
the lecture room. 

The general scheme of arrangement becomes more 
clear as we study the ground floor plan. The east end of 
the building contains the out-patient department, acces- 
sible by an outside incline at the end of the building, 
which is planned for the convenience of mothers who 
bring small children in perambulators. Space is also left 
in the covered corridor to the east of the building for 
carriages, while the infants are being treated in the 
dispensary. 

The entrance to the dispensary is through a small ves- 
tibule, where arrival is under the scrutiny of a nurse in 
the office overlooking the entry and waiting room. 
Should a case present suspicious symptoms it is at once 
directed into the small infectious waiting room which is 
divided into stalls with high marble partitions. Cases 
not arousing suspicion pass into the general waiting 
room. To the west of these waiting rooms are the phar- 
macy and four examination rooms; the former, which 
needs but a relatively small area as it is a distributing 
pharmacy only, opens directly off the general waiting 
room. In connection with each waiting room there is a 
toilet. In the main waiting room is also a gas stove so 
that mothers can heat milk for their infants if they are 
delayed past feeding time. Each examination room is 
provided with instrument sterilizer and sink, as are also 
the infectious waiting room and the nurses' office. 

As will be noted on the plans an outside open corridor 
leads from the infectious waiting room directly to the rear 
ward buildings, so that patients may be sent directly to 
the central or observation pavilion or to one of the two iso- 
lation wards. This outside corridor also provides direct 
access to the lecture room so that contagious or doubtful 
cases may be brought directly before the students, with- 
out passing through the main hospital. 

To the west of the entrance are the general office and 
the bath and dressing room for new patients, where the 
children are bathed and put in hospital clothes before 



entering the main hospital wards. On the north side are 
two working laboratories and west of these are two bed 
rooms and a bath for internes, as well as a laboratory 
and office for the director. From this end of the build- 
ing access is also provided to the lecture room. This 
room is placed several feet below the ground floor level 
to permit of the necessary ceiling height for a very steep 
amphitheater without raising the roof above the level of 
the second floor, as this roof like all the five ward roofs, 
is utilized for a roof garden. 

The students' entrance to the lecture room is through 
a door on the west side which leads into an ample vesti- 
bule and by a double staircase to the coat room, and 
thence to the upper portion of the lecture room. Passing 
through the open connecting corridor we reach the three 
rear wards, the center one of which is a true observation 
ward, having each bed placed in a small alcove with 
glazed partitions 7 feet high surrounding it on three 
sides. The service rooms for this ward, as for the two 
isolation wards, are a repetition on a slightly smaller 
scale of the service rooms of the general wards in the 
main building. The same principles of separation of 
service, which will be noted hereafter in connection 
with these wards, are seen here; i.e. all food service is by 
itself, all nursing is by itself, all disinfecting and empty- 
ing of bed pans and urinals are separated from the other 
services and from the patients' bath and toilet services, 
and finally the housemaids' sink and closet are independ- 
ent of the nurses' service rooms. In connection with 
each of these wards is a private room and bath and as 
each ward is planned for ten beds the three rear pavilions 
can accommodate in all thirty-three patients. 

Each pavilion contains also a small nurses' dining and 
sitting room, and on the second floor three bed rooms and 
a bath permitting, as already explained, the isolation of 
each unit. 

Outside of each pavilion is a coat closet where the at- 
tending physicians leave their outer clothes, while just 
inside the buildings are the lavatories and the lockers 
containing gowns and caps. The principle of glazed 
partitions which is referred to in the matter of the obser- 
vation ward, is also applied to the partition between the 
sink room, service room and ward on one side, and be- 
tween the patients' bath room and ward on the other side, 
in order that a nurse in any one of these rooms may have 
complete control over the ward proper. The construction 
of these partitions will be referred to later. 

The lecture room contains space for demonstrations, 
the pit having a diameter of 15 feet with skylight 
directly overhead. The steps of the amphitheater, six in 
number, rise rapidly and are shallow in proportion to 
their height, so that students in the rear rows will still 
be relatively near the demonstration. An unusual feature 
is the absence of seats in the amphitheater ; a condition 
which brings the students much closer to the lecturer than 
could otherwise be possible. 

The second floor is divided entirely into private rooms. 
The central portion contains the diet kitchen placed 
directly over the entrance and served by a special dumb- 
waiter from the receiving room in the basement. The 
diet kitchens contain the usual equipment: steam table 
with gas heater and plate warmer, refrigerator, sink with 
porcelain drain boards, cupboards for supplies, porcelain 



l82 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



lined refrigerators, and in place of the usual dressers 
shelves built of heavy wire mesh so exposed as to leave 
no gathering places for dust, and tray racks of the same 
material. These kitchens also contain small utensil ster- 
ilizers so that dishes and silver may be sterilized. Live 
steam also is brought to each drain board, so that milk 
bottles, cans, etc., may be ster- 
ilized without difficulty. The 
kitchens have floors of vitrified 
tile, and Keene's cement wain- 
scots 8 feet high finished with 
enamel as are the wire racks 
and refrigerators. This de- 
scription applies to the diet 
kitchens throughout the build- 
ing. 

To the west of the diet 
kitchen is a small service room 
containing the porthole to the 
clothes chute which can be 
closed with a heavy cover 
screwed tight when it is de- 
sired to disinfect the clothes 
chute. Here are also a disin- 
fecting sink and drying closet 
so that soiled clothes may be 
disinfected and dried before 
being sent to the laundry. This 
room is also repeated on the 




There are on this floor fourteen bed rooms including the 
head nurse's rooms, some of which are arranged en suite 
as at the southwest corner, others have private baths or 
private toilets or sharing toilets, while some single rooms 
have wash basins only ; an arrangement adopted to meet 
the reepjirements of every purse. To the south of the 

main corridor is a sun parlor 
opening on the roof garden, 
over the lecture room. 

Like all the roof gardens of 
the hospital, this one is pro- 
tected by a rather low brick 
wall with stone coping so that 
patients even from their beds 
are able to see the ground out- 
side. To prevent any possibil- 
ity of accidents in the case of 
convalescents, a high wrought 
iron railing runs from the roof 
level to a point 5 feet above 
the coping of the parapet mak- 
ing it quite impossible for the 
most active children to climb 
over the top. 

The two outside staircases 
from the upper stories land 
upon this roof, and in case of 
fire access may easily be had to 
the lower roofs of the con- 





v 






floor- plan • 



PLANS OF THE HARRIET LANE HOME FOR INVALID CHILDREN, BALTIMORE, Ml). 
Wyatt & Nolting, Architects, Butler & Rodman, Associated. 



upper floors, although in this particular case it is larger 
in order to provide storage space for the two movable 
tubs with their supplies and drains. 

To the east of the diet kitchen are two small offices for 
nurses and doctors, essential elements of a private ward 
plan. There are also separate closets for housemaids, 
for emptying bed pans, and linen and store closets. 



necting corridors and thence to the ground at the rear. 

Over the three rear wards are also roof gardens cut off 
from the private floor roof garden by the two story por- 
tion of these wards, which is not so high, owing to the 
lower grades of the rear pavilions, as to interfere with 
light and air. 

The roof gardens over the two outside rear pavilions 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



183 



will be especially useful, as on them convalescent conta- 
gious cases can enjoy the fresh air without danger to 
other patients. 

The third is a typical ward floor with diet kitchen 
located and equipped as on the floor below, served by 
two electric dumb-waiters with automatic control, and 
with a small service room giving access to clothes chute. 
It should be mentioned that these clothes chutes are of 
No. 20 gauge spiral riveted iron, and with the porthole 
doors above mentioned which may be hermetically sealed 
for disinfection. 

To the west of these rooms on the north front are two 
quiet rooms and beyond these comes the patients' bath 
and toilet room with fixed and 
movable tubs, water closet and 
lavatory ; all separated by marble 
partitions and wainscots 7 feet 
high carried down into the tile 
floors with marble coves. 

To the east of the diet kitchen 
is a nurses' office and toilet, and 
beyond that for the service of 
the surgical ward at the east end 
of the building is a surgical dress- 
ing room with complete sterili- 
zing outfit for hot and cold water, 
dressings and instruments, and 
surgeons' sink. This room has 
a double sound-proof door and 
tiled floor and is a most essential 
part of the equipment of a chil- 
dren's hospital, as in this way 
the cries of a child having a 
dressing changed do not de- 
moralize the other patients in 
the ward. 

At each end of the corridor 
and opening directly into the 
wards are small closets contain- 
ing bed pan hoppers. These 
closets have outside light and 
ventilation in addition to forced 
ventilation and contain small 
vented closets in which speci- 
mens may be kept for inspec- 
tion. Mention should here be 

made of the fact that the width of the main corridor, 
10 feet, is established by the width of the general con- 
necting corridor of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. As this 
width is not necessary on the floors above the ground 
floor it has been possible to place the small service 
rooms, referred to above, in the corridor without unduly 
constricting it. 

Finally the " duty rooms " with gas range for heating 
poultices, refrigerator for ice for external use, sink, 
board for charts, and other necessities are placed in the 
center of each ward, thus completing the separation of 
the four types of service required in a hospital ward, i.e. 
patients' toilets and bath, housemaids' service, disposition 
of feces, etc., and nursing proper. 

The wards proper show perhaps the most interesting 
arrangement in this building; one that is very little 




PLANS OF THE HARRIET LANE HOME FOR 
INVALID CHILDREN, BALTIMORE, MD. 



Europe. The ward contains fourteen beds separated 
into four units, two of six beds and two of one bed each. 
The separation between units is affected by means of 
partitions 7 feet high of which the lower 3 feet are 
plastered coming down to the floor with coved base, 
while the upper 4 feet are glazed. By this means a par- 
tial segregation is effected ; temperatures at the two 
ends of the ward may vary considerably while a general 
circulation of air is maintained. 

This scheme of separation gives many of the advan- 
tages of the small ward systems so desirable in the treat- 
ment of children, while with the glazing of the partitions 
it becomes possible for one nurse to control the entire 

ward thus obviating the practi- 
cal objection to small wards aris- 
ing from the increased number 
of nurses required for proper 
control. The problems of light 
and ventilation are also simpli- 
fied by the fact that the parti- 
tions are not carried to the 
ceilings. 

The central portion of each 
ward will furnish a sort of day 
room where convalescents can be 
outside of the ward proper while 
yet being under the surveil- 
lance of the ward nurse. Each 
of these day rooms communi- 
cates directly with a covered 
porch with southern exposure, 
and planned similar to all the 
porches and roof gardens so that 
beds may be wheeled directly 
out onto them. 

The fourth floor is again a 
typical ward floor with the ex- 
ception that the east ward is for 
babies and is therefore slightly 
different in detail. Instead of 
taking the babies outside of the 
ward proper for bathing it has 
been possible to reduce the one 
bed units to a small area, and 
take the requisite space for 
babies' baths in connection with 
each six bed unit on either side of the main duty room. 
The arrangement of the west ward and of the general 
services is the same as on the floor below. 

The fifth floor is perhaps the most interesting part of 
this building; starting in the early studies as atypical 
roof garden, it has been developed until it now contains 
two roof wards with complete ward services similar to 
those on the lower floors. To the east of the diet kitchen 
is a convalescent dining room, one of the most valuable 
adjuncts of this floor in addition to a wardrobe for heavy 
wraps. 

At each end of the hall is a large enclosed roof ward 
with windows filling three of the four sides and with di- 
rect access to the open roofs. Heat is provided for all 
of this floor, so that in case of very cold or inclement 
weather the enclosed wards may be heated like the rest 



known in this country, but found more frequently in of the hospital, while in good weather patients' beds 



184 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



may be run directly out onto the open roof where awn- 
ings are to be installed for summer use. 

The plumbing of the building is on the lines of mod- 
ern hospital work with great abundance of lavatories 
both in wards and service rooms. The problem of light- 
ing is simpler than in a general hospital, for the reason 
that with children exposed ceiling lighting is not objec- 
tionable. Wall outlets are provided in ample quantity 
and are set at a convenient height from the floor so that a 
nurse can insert a plug without stooping, while the type 
of receptacle is such that children cannot stick their 
fingers into it. 

The mechanical equipment of the hospital is relatively 
simple. Fresh air is forced into wards, the general 
waiting room of the out-patient department and a few 
other rooms, but in general the windows are counted on 
for the supply of fresh air to the building. Vents for 
foul air are provided throughout and a draft is assured 
by an aspirating coil at the top of the general vent duct, 
into which all the branch vents are gathered in the space 
between the fourth floor ceiling and the roof. The air 
forced into the wards is tempered but is in no way 
counted on for heating purposes, as all heating is through 
direct radiation by a hot water system. Steam is fur- 
nished for the numerous sterilizers and steam tables, gas 
is supplied for emergency lighting and gas heaters, and 
the vacuum cleaning system runs through the building 
with outlets on each floor. A stand pipe is also carried up 
through the building with outlets on each floor and roof. 

In construction, the building is fireproof, with the 
walls of brick and the floors of concrete and tile in com- 
bination. 

The finish of the floors in wards and private rooms 
is plain brown imported linoleum on cement. This 
linoleum can be had in 12 foot widths, so that in the 
24 foot wards of this building there is but one joint 
which is to be made tight with cement. 

The kitchens, toilet, sink and service rooms are floored 
with tile while the ground floor corridor, out-patient de- 
partment, lecture room and central portion of the up- 
stairs corridors have terrazzo which is combined with 
composition flooring in the corridors and gives way to 
linoleum flooring in upstairs corridors in order to pre- 
vent the noise which is unavoidable with a terrazzo floor. 

The base throughout the building is of composition 
8 inches high with a 1 inch cove finishing with rounded 
top 'h inch out from the line of the plaster at the top 
and flush with the finish floor. 

The walls of the small sink rooms and of general toilets 
are of marble to a height of 7 feet, while Keene's cement 
wainscots are used in kitchens, dressing rooms, etc. 

All the interior woodwork is of enamel finish while the 
walls are painted with oil paint, with the darker tints 
near the floor and the lighter tones for the upper part of 
walls and ceilings. 

The divisions in the wards are solid 2 inch partitions 
from the floor level for 3 feet with 4 feet of glass above. 
The top members of partitions and capping members of 
solid portions of partitions are rounded in section, of cop- 
per built up like show window construction and stiffened 
with small steel angles and tees. The round sections 
allow few lodging places for dust and can be easily wiped 
clean with a damp cloth. It is intended to enamel all 



this metal work as well as the radiators to match the 
general tone of the walls. 

The stairs are of steel with marble treads and terrazzo 
landings having gates at each floor. The outside fire 
escapes take the form of staircases similar in rise and 
tread to the inside stairs and lead down from the two 
roof gardens, through the third and fourth floor porches, 
to the second floor roof garden over the lecture room 
whence easy access is had to the roof of the porch con- 
necting the main building with the rear pavilions, as 
already described. 

All of the roof gardens have floors of red promenade 
tile, with sockets built into the roofs to receive the bot- 
tom of the awning supports. 

The doors to elevators are of the accordion type to 
avoid the noise and shock which arise from sliding doors, 
and are covered with copper and glazed with wire glass. 

The sills throughout the building, whether of marble 
or cast iron, are set absolutely flush with the floors in 
order to offer no obstruction to the wheeling of beds, 
while in the case of outside sills the top surface slopes 
about 1 inch to the outside finishing flush with the out- 
side and inside floors. 

The type of outside shutter adopted is one which has 
proved most successful at Johns Hopkins Hospital. 
While each blind is hinged at the side to swing out, the 
frame itself is hinged at the top so that it is possible to 
close both blinds and then push out the entire frame at 
the bottom, thus protecting the room from sunlight and 
allowing the air to enter freely. When double and triple 
windows occur, Jolliffe blinds are employed. 

The interior trim is of clear white pine and is reduced 
to the minimum with rounded surfaces throughout, while 
the doors are birch veneered hospital doors. Fly screens 
are provided for all windows and doors. 

For the dressers in diet kitchens the example of the 
Johns Hopkins Hospital has been followed. All the 
wooden shelving has been replaced by 1,'s inch wire 
mesh shelving enameled white and baked. The shelves 
are set out from the wall and carried by brackets and no 
closed-in corners are left to gather dust. On the other 
hand, in a dusty neighborhood it would doubtless be 
preferable to keep to the old-fashioned type of enclosed 
dresser. Deeper shelves with cross rods only and no 
wire mesh are provided for trays. 

The linen closets have the ordinary wooden shelving 
set 1 inch away from the walls and with a slot \y 2 inches 
wide down the middle of each shelf for facility in dusting. 

The hardware is of plain substantial character. Plain 
glass knobs are employed, and set higher than is custom- 
ary so that they will be out of the reach of the smaller 
children. 

In connection with the main bath rooms it is to be 
noted that the tubs are raised to a height of 31 inches in 
place of the usual height of about 20 inches, so as to re- 
duce the exertion required for lifting children into and 
out of tubs. The general bath rooms each contain a 
countersunk marble slab, 2 feet by 4 feet with an 18 inch 
back, supplied with hot and cold water and with a 2 inch 
waste on which it is possible to bathe the children who 
are too ill to be put in the tubs. The surgeons' sinks 
throughout have the "Clover "knee action wastes with 
foot control supplies. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Disinfecting sinks are furnished for each ward in order 
that housemaids' sinks may not be used for this work. 

The majority of the bed pan sinks are sterilizing sinks 
and when these are not used clinical sinks with cleaning 
jets are employed. 

In order to avoid the necessity of carrying bed pans 
through the hails on the private patients' floor each water 
closet has a movable gooseneck supply so that bed pans 
may be emptied into the closet, flushed and cleaned on 
the spot. 

The diet kitchen sinks are of porcelain, enameled, the 
smaller being 20 inches by 30 inches and the larger 
20 inches by 36 inches with 24 inch porcelain enameled 
drain boards at each side through one of which a jet of 
live steam is brought for sterilizing milk cans, etc. 

The type of infants' baths already mentioned consists 
of two countersunk marble slabs arranged like drain 
boards, emptying into a porcelain enameled sink. Over 
these sinks are placed special mixing tanks from which 
descend a spray on an articulated piping system which 
may be turned through a considerable radius, supplied 
with foot control so that the nurse after regulating the 
temperature of the water has both hands free to bathe 
the infant. This is an Austrian appliance introduced 
into this hospital by Dr. Von Pirquet. The infants' bath 
proper is on the lines of those now in use in the Presby- 
terian Hospital in New York. 

The hospital is well equipped with sterilizers, espe- 
cially in the general surgical dressing rooms and the 
examination rooms, dispensary, lecture room, etc. In 
addition to these utensil sterilizers are set up in each diet 
kitchen. Blanket warmers are furnished in connection 
with each ward, those in the infants' ward being placed 
close to the infants' baths. 

In general the Mott type has been adopted with 
wrought iron piping and screw joints and return elbows, 
carried under each shelf, but in most cases in order to 
avoid the annoyance of heating the surrounding air in- 
stead of only the blankets, these warmers have been 
made with double walls and non-conducting linings. 

In connection with the disinfecting sinks, drying closets 
are installed so that objects requiring disinfection may 
be dried before being sent down the soiled clothes 
chutes. The plan of these closets includes the heating 
coils placed at the bottom of the closet with a perforated 
shelf over and with rods projecting from the back of the 
closet and supported by brackets on which may be hung 
the objects to be dried; this type being more easily 
cleaned than the usual built-in closet. 

Porcelain enameled iron medicine cabinets with plate 
glass shelves and doors are built in the walls of the wards. 

The refrigerators in the diet kitchens are of the solid 
porcelain lined type, each section consisting of a single 
piece of solid cast porcelain without joints. The outside 
of the refrigerators is finished in white enamel in place 
of the usual natural finish, as the white seems more in 
keeping with the general modern finish of kitchens. 

The small ice boxes for ward service rooms are in- 
tended only to contain ice for external use and are wood 
lined only. 

The diet kitchens contain combination steam tables 
and gas ranges with plate warmer hot plate and broiler. 
The steam table contains one meat and four soup and 



vegetable jars while each fixture is supplied with a 5 foot 
hood and vent. 

Servants' lockers, also lockers to contain robes and 
caps for visitors to observation wards are of metal, fol- 
lowing out the principle to employ the least possible 
amount of wood throughout the entire building. 

The exterior of these buildings has been treated in red 
brick to harmonize as much as possible with the present 
buildings at Johns Hopkins. In order to make the build- 
ings more cheerful inserts of terra cotta and brick patterns 
have been added. Where no conditions of buildings 
already existing are met it would perhaps be more appro- 
priate to use light brick with colored tile inserts, as has 
been done most attractively in both the Children's Hos- 
pitals in Buffalo. 

First, of all the general essentials of a Children's Hos- 
pital, is ample space for observation and isolation. 
Children should be kept in an observation ward, in certain 
cases, as long as two weeks before being admitted to the 
general wards and ample space should be allowed for iso- 
lation in case of the outbreak of contagion. 

The principle of separation should be carried out 
throughout the building for children are more easily af- 
fected by the condition of those around them, than adults. 

The small units of four to eight beds entirely isolated 
would seem to be even better, but with the absolute 
separation come the difficulty and increased cost not only 
of nursing but also of ventilating, so that the compromise 
system embodied in these plans and already experimented 
with in Europe seems to offer a practical solution. 

The system by which a sort of day room is formed at 
the entrance of each ward will give an opportunity for 
keeping convalescents out of the ward proper and yet 
under the nurse's eye, in bad weather when they cannot 
be sent to the roofs. 

With modern hospital practice, abundance of roof gar- 
dens, porches, etc. becomes more and more important, and 
for children even more than adults this is essential. The 
roof gardens over the isolation pavilions are also most 
necessary, as patients recovering from contagious diseases 
cannot be allowed to play in the gardens with other con- 
valescents and yet must have a place for air and exercise. 

The surgical dressing room separated from the ward is 
an advantage in any hospital, but becomes an absolute 
necessity in the case of a Children's Hospital. 

The arrangement of service rooms in connection with 
the roofs, so that these may become true roof wards and 
be used to their full capacity, is a development of the 
outdoor treatment idea which is applicable to any hos- 
pital, but is especially useful in the case of children. 

A detail, but one which is too often neglected, is the 
working out of the fire escapes. In this case they are 
treated rather as outside staircases with about the same 
pitch as the inside stairs, and in the upper stories they 
are placed at the inside of the porches against the wall of 
the building, so that for those descending them there need 
be no fear of giddiness nor danger of falling. 

It is plain from this resume that the problem presented 
by the Children's Hospital is similar to that of the General 
Hospital, with an additional need of greater facilities for 
observation and isolation, and in general, the separation 
of the patients into smaller units than is customary in 
the general hospital. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 8. PLATE 101. 







a r r r™| i j 



61TL TOR JTASIX 



1 



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COOfJT | 

N I— I—)— I- 





HOUSE AT HUDSON, N. Y. 

Marcus T. Reynolds, Architect. 



THE BR ICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 8. PLATE 102. 




DETAIL OF FOUNTAIN IN WALL OF GARAGE. 



TIR5T rLOOR 
PLANS OF HOUSE. 



HOUSE AND GARAGE AT HUDSON, N. Y. 

Marcus T. Reynolds, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 8. PLATE 103. 




•riEJT FLOOR- PLAN- 
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CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL AT BUFFALO, N. Y. 
Green & wicks, Architects. 



p 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 8. PLATE 104. 




DOR/MTORY 
FLOOR, PLAM 



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BUILDING 

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MASSACHUSETTS SCHOOL AND HOME FOR CRIPPLED 
AND DEFORMED CHILDREN, CANTON, MASS. 

BlGELOW & WADSWORTH, ARCHITECTS. 



F 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 8. PLATE 105. 




WARD BUILDING FOR CHILDREN, HOSPITAL AT BANGOR, MAINE. 
Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 8. PLATE 106 




1 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 8. PLATE 107. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 8. PLATE 108. 




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VOL. 19, NO. 8. PLATE 109. 








HOUSE AND GARDEN AT MARION, MASS. 
Page &. rROTHiNGHAM, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 8. p LATE u0 . 




Pmzza 




FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS 

OF HOUSE 

AND 

FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS 

OF GARAGE, 

HOUSE AT MARION, MASS. 

Page & Frothingham, 
Architects 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 8. PLATE 111. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 8. PLATE 112. 




SERVICE ENTRANCE TO HOUSE. 



MAIN ENTRANCE, GARDEN SIDE; 



^ 




ENTRANCES AND GARAGE, HOUSE AT MARION, MASS. 

Page & Frothingham, Architects 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 8. PLATE 113. 




HOUSE AT CONCORD, MASS. 
John W Lavalle, Architect. 



T tft-B-ACE. 



ft tt. I l K V A I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 8. PLATE 114. 





THE BRICKBUILDER. 

A Chronology of English Brickwork. 



187 



••iii' 



SOME months ago, in the journal of the London Archi- 
tectural Association, there appeared a prize essay by 
Mr. H F. Murrell on "The Development of English 
Brickwork." The matter, as published, would occupy 
too much space to be included in these pages, but as it is 
a valuable contribution to the subject, and is likely to be 
of interest to readers of The Brickbuilder, an abstract 
is here given. This abstract, it will be seen, is arranged 
in chronological order, and is supplemented by a series 
of photographs, illustrating- the succeeding phases of 
English brickwork. 

Roman Brickwork. 

B.C. SS-A.D. 420. Brick burning and brick build- 
ing do not appear to have been practised in England 
prior to the Roman oc- 
cupation, although ex- "• TFiTmM—TWnWIT 
isting remains show 
that the art of pottery 
was not unknown. In 
pre-Roman times the 
forests of Britain 
formed the happy hunt- 
ing-grounds of a people 
whose building needs 
and ideals were doubt- 
less satisfied by wattle 
and daub. 

On the Roman ad- 
vent systematized civi- 
lization took the place 
of Celtic disorder. As 
surely as he fortified his 
camp and leveled his 
military road, so surely 
the Roman introduced 
the brick-concrete con- 
struction which he had already designed for universal 
service from the Euphrates to the Forth. 

That Roman brick-making in England was not confined 
to the typical flat 2-inch brick tile is evidenced by the 
remains of roof-tiles preserved in Colchester Museum. 
These consist of carefully-made channel and bonnet 
tiles, having finely-cast antifixa with anthemion at the 
bottom. 

The remains of Roman brick-building in England are 
in no way different from those in other parts of the Em- 
pire. There are examples at most of the Southern 
Chesters of the two methods of employing brick con- 
struction ; structura ccementicia, a mass of rubble con- 
crete faced in stone, with bonding courses of two or 
three flat tile bricks, and opus testaceum, in which the 
facing and arch work of the structure is brick. That 
the Romans had no predilection for brick is evident from 
the Tyne and Sol way wall, essentially a stone structure; 
yet brick has been found as far north as Perthshire. 

The most important British-Roman brickwork is to be 
found at Dover in the Pharos Tower and at St. Mary-in- 
the-Castle. In the walls of the former are the usual 
bonding courses of flat bricks, some of which have ledges 




WEST DOORWAY, CHURCH OF 
HOI.Y TRINITY, COLCHESTER. 



for keying purposes. The Jewry wall at Leicester 
which is about 7 feet thick is built of rough rag-stone 
and large flat bricks, having fine arches about 14 feet 
high with double rows of large bricks, which radiate 
from the center and are bonded by a course laid tangen- 
tially to the arch. Richborough, Kent, has walls faced 
with courses of stone and brick alternately; while some 
portions of the walls and bastions still remain at Col- 
chester, in Essex. 

Saxon Brickwork. 

A.D. 420-1066. A sudden cessation of scientific con- 
struction followed the withdrawal of the Roman troops. 
Reasonably, it might have been expected that a country 
familiar for three hundred years with Roman methods 
and surrounded in all likelihood with magnificent ex- 
amples of its success would have striven to continue the 
work, at least for a time. But facts prove otherwise and 
to the unrest and upheaval, consequent upon the depart- 
ure of the Romans and the arrival of the Saxons, may be 
attributed the failure of post-Roman builders to appre- 
ciate the basilica, the thermae, and the villas as other 
than yards of ready-made building material. With an 
ignorant and unappreciative vandalism the Saxons mis- 
used the Roman material, often building into their arches 
tapered Roman voussoir bricks upside down; instances 
of which occur at Brixworth and at Britford, near 
Salisbury. 

Saxon obtuseness is also noticeable at St. Pancras 
Church, Canterbury, where Roman triangular facing 
bricks are set with their points outwards. Amongst 
other instances of Roman bricks built into Saxon 
churches may be mentioned St. Martin's, Canterbury, 
which is a very early example, and St. Peter's-on-the- 
Wall, Essex. The Church of Holy Trinity, Colchester, 
possesses a fine late Saxon tower showing throughout a 
consistently intelligent use of Roman bricks adapted to 
essentially Saxon forms. The west doorway might be 
claimed as the reasonable initial of English brick de- 
velopment, had its 
tiles been burnt in 
Anglo-Saxon kilns. 

Norman Brickwork. 

Norman builders, 
having acquired a 
developed masonry 
amongst the fine 
French building 
stones, introduced 
into England a stone 
tradition for church 
and castle to be 
maintained through- 
out the ages of ro- 
mantic faith. Yet 
the Norman, if 
given Roman bricks 

as at Colchester, ruins ok nave, st. botolph's 

could put them to- priory, colchestkr. 




i88 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



gether with far more skill and interest than his Saxon has been long considered the earliest remaining 

predecessor. record of the movement already mentioned. Here 

1078. Colchester Castle. Largely composed of Roman bricks averaging 9^ inches by 4# inches by 2% inches, 

brick, the fine herringbone band in the courtyard shows now dull in color were mixed with courses of stone 

how simply this walling, built often with difficulty by the and flint in the general walling. 

Saxons in stone, could be 1290. — St. Nicho- 

constructed by the Nor- las Chapel, Cogges- 




DETAIL OF CHURCH 01 

ST. MARY- THE-\ [Rl JIN, 

INGATESTONE. 



mans with tiles. The cir- 
cular newel stair, which is 
the largest in England, 16 
feet in diameter, has its 
soffit formed of one contin- 
uous barrel vault springing 
from newel to wall, with 
its brick voussoirs tangen- 
tial to the sweep of the 
stair. The Colchester stair 
vault appears to have been 
the prolific parent from 
which were evolved the 
spiral brick stairs of the fif- 
teenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies. 

1116. — St. Botolph's Pri- 
ory, Colchester. These 
ruins show an ingenious 
and thorough use by the 
Normans of Roman brick 
in columns, arches and arcading. The columns, about 
6 feet in diameter, are carefully built in rubble masonry 
with alternate layers of brickwork, and projecting 
courses for the abaciis and necking of capitals. The 
arches throughout are of brick, generally in two reveals. 

Early English Brickwork. 

Evidence will not justify 
the assertion that no bricks 
were burnt in England from 
the time of the Roman evacu- 
ation in the year 420 till 1260 
the date of the construction of 
Little Wenham Hall in Suf- 
folk, but it is certain that 
brick-making as an industry 
and brick-building as an art 
did not exist during that 
period. Shortage in quantity 
or inferiority of quality in 
local building stone was met 
by the early English builders, 
not by recourse to Roman 
brick-fields but by importation 
of Caen stone from France. 

It is evident that the first 
cause for the re-use of brick 
was the growing scarcity not 
only of stone but of timber. 
The constant destruction of 
timber buildings by fire must 

also have hastened the introduction of a more resisting 
material. This movement manifested itself first in the 
eastern counties. 

1260.— Little Wenham Hall. Suffolk. This structure 











t-CM 






DETAIL OF RYE HOUSE, 
HERTFORDSHIRE. 




LAYER MARNEY TOWER. ESSEX. 



hall. This was the 
earliest attempt at 
brick architecture 
proper. The jambs, 
mull ions and lancet 
arches of its win- 
dows are all of brick, 
while internally the 
splayed jambs are 
finished with 
moulded bricks at 
the corners. It 
would appear likely, 
however, that the 
almost isolated ex- 
amples of Little 
Wenham Hall and 
Coggeshall are but 
the survivors of a 
considerable group 
of early brick buildings long since demolished. 

1400 1500.— Church Work. Although throughout the 
eastern and southern counties churches may be found 
with brick walls and facings of the fifteenth century yet 
it was in Essex that brick church architecture mainly de- 
veloped. But even in Essex the remains are few, includ- 
ing some fine towers, a porch 
here and an arcade there. 
The Church of St. Mary-the- 
Virgin at Ingatestone, in 
Essex, has perhaps the most 
imposing fifteenth-century 
I nick tower in the country. 
The west tower window has 
brick tracery, and above it 
are effective crosses in vitri- 
fied headers. In addition to 
the Church of Chignall, St. 
Nicholas six miles north of 
Chelmsford, which must also 
be cited as an excellent ex- 
ample of English brickwork, 
there are fine brick towers 
to be noted at Billericay and 
Castle Hedingham, and brick 
porches at Burnham-on- 
Crouch, Castle Hedingham 
and Pebmarsh. 

Brick churches in other parts 
of the country are less fre- 
quent. Granby Church, Not- 
tinghamshire, has an east end 
in well-moulded brick, while the brickwork of Old 
Basing Church, Hampshire, is remarkable for its fine 
color. North Wootten Church near Lynn has also a 
fifteenth-century brick tower. 









THE BRICKBUILDER 



189 



Early Tudor Brickwork. 

Although the use of brick in church building was frag- 
mentary and incidental, in house work its possibilities 
were grasped and a style developed which is the most 
typical of English domestic methods. In cottages and 
smaller houses brick was early discovered to be a suitable 
filling for half-timber framing. A fine example is West 
Stow Hall, Suffolk, where every pattern of brick bonding 
seems to have been exploited. 

Another characteristic of Tudor brickwork is the intro- 
duction of diaper patterns, originating in the accidental 
effects of vitrified headers. In Tudor times the door 
and window openings were finished in stone except 
when the more convinced brick builder, by constructing 
his arches, mullions, and transoms in brick, gave to his 
work the satisfaction of completeness in one material. 
Square-headed windows, though not uncommon, seem to 
have been a difficulty prior to the use of flat-headed 
arches with radiating voussoirs, a trick to become in 
Georgian times the motif of a style. 

Corbelling is a marked feature of Tudor brickwork. It 




SOUTH FRONT, EAST BARSHAM MANOR HOUSE. 

retained a strong Gothic tradition till well into the six- 
teenth century, as at Layer Marney, in Essex, and was 
at its finest in such early work as the Rye House, Hert- 
fordshire. 

The chimneys are also a great feature. They were a 
comparatively new thought to the early Tudor architect. 
To quite a late date smoke had blackened the rafters of 
the great Gothic halls ; but when their convenience came 
to be generally appreciated and the Tudor builders had 
given careful thought to their treatment, then the most 
beautiful chimney stacks were produced. Innumerable 
patterns of cut and moulded brickwork were adopted ; 
such in particular as those at Hampton Court Palace. 
With the death of Henry VIII., the elaboration of chim- 
neys ceased, those of Elizabeth's time having straight 
stalks, and an oversailing cap of thin bricks. 

The brick newel stairs of the period form an interest- 
ing study. They are associated mainly with the early de- 
fensive houses before the prominence given to the upper 
floors in Elizabethan times demanded a more spacious 
stairway. In their vaulting the constructive ingenuity 
and originality of their builders, in solving a difficult 




CHIMNEY STACK, EAST HAKSHAM, 
NORFOLK. 



problem, is ex- 
hibited. In the 
typical stair of 
Waynf 1 e t e's 
Tower at 
Esher Place, 
Surrey, which 
was built about 
1500 the newel, 
vault, handrail 
and treads are 
brick through- 
out. 

1425. — Tat- 
tershall Castle, 
Lincolnshire. 
According to 
George Ed- 
mund Street, 
this is "the 
earliest ex- 
ample of the 
free use of 
moulded bricks 
in a noble architectural work." It contains unusually 
fine brick vaulting in its passages and stairs. 

1440. — Hurstmonceux Castle, Sussex. This is essen- 
tially a defensive house entirely faced in brick, with the 
great corbels of its fine machicolated parapet spanned by 
brick arches. Internally it has several brick spiral stairs. 

1440. — Eton College. In part this building was com- 
menced in the reign of Henry VI. It is diapered exter- 
nally and has very fine chimneys. 

1440. — Rye House, Hertfordshire. Henry VI. granted 
a license to erect this castellated house (famous for 
the scene of the well-known conspiracy). Of the orig- 
inal brick building the gatehouse alone remains. The 
oriels, corbell- 
i n g , newel 
stair, and 
chimney are its 
chief features. 

1440.— Neth- 
er Hall, Essex. 
This Hall is of 
the same peri- 
od as the Rye 
House, with 
which it is re- 
puted to be 
connected by a 
secret passage. 
Unfortunately 
again the gate- 
house alone re- 
m ain s, but 
from this it is 
evident that in 
quality its 
work was never 
excelled by the 
best brick 
builders of oxisurgh hall, Norfolk. 




190 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




GREAT SNORING RECTORY, NORKOLK. 

East Anglia. Its bricks are burnt hard and in parts 
almost to a glaze. The construction of the great moulded 
brick arches spanning from turret to turret is in strong 
contrast to the fine corbelling with trefoil heads. 

1480. — The Bishop's Palace, Hatfield. The wall sur- 
face of this structure is treated in especially fine diaper 
work. 

1482.— Oxburgh Hall, Nor- - 
folk. This Hall, while as 

defensive in arrangement ^^a^mM 

us Ilurstmonceux, is treated 
entirely and architecturally 
in brick, alike in the great 
arch across the moat bridge 
and in the vaulted and 
ribbed entrance passage 
beyond. 

1490. — Gainsborough Old 
Hall, Lincolnshire. Here is 
a very fine example of brick- 
work, partly erected in the 
reign of Henry VII. 

1500. — Queen's College, 
Cambridge. This is another 
fine example of about the 
same period as the Gains- 
borough Hall. The gateway 
with its towers is particu- 
larly noteworthy. 

Late Tudor Brickwork. 

Almost with the turn of 
the century a new movement 
was manifested. With the 
reigns of Henry VII. and 
Henry VIII., characterized 
by great domestic building 




SUTTON PLACE, GUILDFORD, SURREY. 



activity, the new Renaissance note with a foreign tone 
was struck in all the more famous mansions. With 
brick architecture approaching its climax foreign influ- 
ence became more felt, and a new material was demanded 
which would be more in harmony with the general brick 
walling than stone. Hence resulted a new development 
in English clay art — the introduction of terra cotta. 

1500 1525. — Layer Marney Tower, Essex. The most 
famous brick mansion in England. It well illustrates 
the tendencies just mentioned. As at Oxburgh Hall, it 
has a great entrance arch, Tudor windows, brick corbel- 
ling and diaper, but its parapet and center windows are 
of terra cotta, and Renaissance in detail. 

1500-1515. — Wolterton Manor-house, East Parsham, 
Norfolk. If not the most famous this is the most perfect 
brick house in England, and was commenced in the reign 
of Henry VII. A panel or a head every here and there 
suggest the new detail, but the general ornament is pure 
Tudor Gothic. Chimneys and turrets, parapets and 
strings, blaze with brick heraldry. 

1520. — Great Snoring Rectory, Norfolk. This Rectory 
was originally a manor-house, located about a mile from 
East Barsham. Its terra cotta, in which the interest 
chiefly lies, is very similar in color and material but the 
detail shows considerably more Italian feeling. 

1515-1520.— Hampton Court Palace, Middlesex. This 
magnificent palace was erected by Cardinal Wolsey and 
presented by him to Henry VIII. A considerable pro- 
portion of the original Tudor Building was demolished 
by William III. to make way for the new State apart- 
ments by Sir Christopher Wren, but there is still a 
great deal of old brickwork remaining particularly in the 

Clock Court. 

1523-1525. Sutton Place, 
Guildford, Surrey. The 
building was one of the 
great houses of the period 
of Henry VIII. It shows 
an unusual mixture of the 
Perpendicular and the Ital- 
ian manner in its orna- 
ment. In no way defensive 
and the newel stair dis- 
carded, the entire building 
is an elaborate study in 
moulded clay. 

Nonesuch Palace, Surrey. 
Although nothing now re- 
mains of this palace, it ap- 
pears from records to have 
expressed in brick and terra 
cotta all the energetic ex- 
uberance of Henry VIII. 

Little Leigh's Priory, near 
Chelmsford, Essex. This 
Priory was built by the So- 
licitor-General to Henry 
VIII. It is notable not 
only for the excellent brick- 
work of the L-planned por- 
tion remaining, but more 
especially for its magnifi- 
cent detached gatehouse. 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



191 



The gatehouse situated at 
Hadleigh, Suffolk, is very 
similar. 

Renaissance Brickwork. 

Geographically, the use 
of brick during the Renais- 
sance period was more 
widespread than during the 
Tudor, the center of inter- 
est passing from the East- 
ern to the Southern and 
South-Midland counties. 

The most characteristic 
feature of Renaissance 
brickwork was the flat 
rubbed brick arch. The 
wider openings, as gate- 
ways, were spanned with 
elliptical arches. In brick 
as in stone the Orders 
formed the great decora- 
tive resource of Renais- 
sance architects. Heavy 




LITTLE LEIGHS PRIORY, ESSEX. 



classic cornices were built 

up of Z l / 2 -mch bricks often with dentils and modillions, 
tiles being used in the early work for the smaller fillets. 
Effective strings were formed of three or four courses of 
brick, slightly projected. 



1538. — H engrave Hall, 
Suffolk. Commenced late 
in the reign of Henry VIII., 
this building indicates the 
first change of importance 
towards Renaissance exam- 
ples. Brick is employed 
throughout for facing work 
but stone takes its place for 
all architectural features. 

Circa 1600. — Hatfield 
House at Hertfordshire, 
Bramshill House at Hamp- 
shire, Burton Agnes Manor- 
house at Yorkshire, Aston 
Hall at Warwickshire, and 
not a few of the Cambridge 
colleges belong to the early 
Renaissance period. They 
are largely faced with brick 
but stone is used for all or- 
namental portions, the 
chimneys alone showing an 
architectural use of brick. 
Dutch influence, especially 
in gables, becomes more noticeable in the early part of 
the seventeenth century; the introduction of Flemish 
bond about this time being significant. 

1604. — Kew Palace. An early illustration of the Dutch 




DETAILOE CENTRE PEDIMENT i* SOVTH FRONT 



SMAt ENTRANCE EAT SIDE 

w 1 rrrrr rrrrrrrrrr w-r 



DETAIL OF ENTRANCE. PEDIMENT tf'OVTH rXONT 



DETAILS OF CHRIST S HOSPITAL. 



I 9 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





KANQUETING HAI.L, KENSINGTON PALACE. 



KF.W PALACE. 




HAMPTON COURT PALACE. 



with tiles — which is always an early 

There is also a suggestion of Flemish 
Pendell House, Bletchingly, which has been attributed 
to Inigo Jones. It has curiously- 
shaped arches over the ground- 
floor windows, and exceedingly 
interesting chimneys. 

Jacobean brick mansions are by 
no means rare but the brick re- 
vival, destined to continue until 
the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, did not become general 
until the latter half of the seven- 
teenth. 

1630. — Inigo Jones' Brickwork. 
Inigo Jones, like his master 

Palladio, was by no means averse to brick though using 
it little in his more important works. West Wood- 
hay Manor-house, an apparently authentic design .by 
Inigo Jones, shows an early use of rubbed brick in its 
window architraves. In Rayn- 
hall Hall, Norfolk, and Chilham 
Castle he employed brick for 
facing only, while Stoke Park 
shows it used in rather a Palla- 
dian manner for pilasters. St. 
Paul's Church, Covent Garden, 
London, was probably the first 
use of brick in Renaissance 
church building in England. 
The fine brick house at Tytten- 
hanger, Hertfordshire, has 
been attributed to Inigo Jones 
but its date and character ap- 
pear to be somewhat later. 

Wrens Brickwork. Wren's 
use of brick is characteristic of 
his natural strength and de- 
cision. For church work he 
evidently preferred stone, em- 
ploying brick only for construc- 
tive utility as in the cone of St. 
Paul's Cathedral, or for an eco- 
nomical facing as at St. James', 
Piccadilly, London. In domes- 
tic work he used brick indis- 
criminately considering it to be 
as suitable for the palace as gatehouse at hadleigh, 



influence. for a terrace 
The win- house. He 
dows have appears to 
projecting have care- 
architraves fully con- 
of 2- inch sidered the 
rubbers, color of his 
with every brickwork, 
third course and for al- 
sunk as a most the 
rustication. first time 
The cor- introduced 
nices and yellow 
projections stocks. The 
are covered quality of 

indication. Wren's brickwork was as excellent as his design, 
influence in 1672.— Christ's Hospital, London. Designed by Wren. 

Among the rather unusual features of this design were 
the cut and rubbed brick Ionic pi- 
lasters and capitals. The build- 
ing was demolished about six 
years ago. 

1682. — Chelsea Hospital and 
Kensington Palace, London. De- 
signed by Wren. These struc- 
tures rely largely for effect upon 
the fine color of the red and yel- 
low brickwork. The famous ban- 
queting hall of the latter indicates 
close sympathy with brickwork 
combined with knowledge of its 
limitations. Protected portions, as the heads of niches, 
are beautifully formed in brick. The slightly-recessed 
arches on the ends are a surface decoration, easy and 
effective in brick. 

1688. — The Bluecoat School, 
Westminster. This is perhaps 
the most careful and con- 
sistent of Wren's brick-build- 
ing. 

Here the pilasters, capi- 
tals, and cornices are of cut 
brick similar to his other 
buildings. 

At Hampton Court Palace 
Wren used his color broadly, 
contrasting an ordinary dull 
red in the lower story with 
the bright red of rubbed and 
gauged brick above. 




SUFFOLK. 



Eighteenth-Century 
Brickwork. 

The brick style initiated by 
Inigo Jones at West Woodhay 
and popularized by Wren be- 
came the vernacular for the 
whole of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. For Queen Anne and 
Georgian alike, brick was the 
medium in which were ex- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



l 93 



pressed the comfort and 
dignity of the English 
house. 

Of town houses the 
finest examples of the 
period remaining in Lon- 
don are Nos. 42, 43 and 
44 St. Martin's Lane. In 
No. 43 the Roman Doric 
Order is rendered com- 
pletely in brick from the 
fluted pilasters to the 
guttse on the soffit of 
the cornice. No. 44 has a 
correct Ionic cornice with 
dentils, and No. 42 an 
enriched Corinthian cor- 
nice with modillions — 
all in brick. 

The climax of Renais- 
sance brickwork was fol- 
lowed by a decline, ha- 
stened by general intro- 
duction of stucco in the 
late eighteenth century. 
This militated not only 
against the artistic value 
of brickwork, but also 
against its constructional 
quality. Not a few of 
the bulging walls of 
to-day may be attri- 
buted to the careless brickwork 




uajtk n ir afWfiM . 



THE BLUECOAT SCHOOL, 
WESTMINSTER. 



1 






— . :-— : ' i ITlf ' * 




— 



LODGE IN KEW GARDENS. 



of the age of Nash. 

Nineteenth-Century 
Brickwork. 
The revivals of the 
nineteenth century in- 
duced from necessity 
a renewed vigor of 
brick practice. Im- 
pelled by economic 
considerations to build 
in brick the great 
Gothic Revivalists em- 
ployed that material 
with architectural en- 
thusiasm for all but 
their most important 
works. Pugin by the 
inclusion in his " Ex- 
amples" of such build- 
ings as Oxburgh,East 



Barsham and Great 
Snoring stimulated the 
movement. Butterfield 
did pioneer work in brick 
at All Saints' Church 
Margaret Street, London. 
Nesfield produced 
some beautiful brick 
lodges at Regent's Park 
and Kew Gardens; and 
Street, with his literary 
research in Northern 
Italy and practical work, 
continued the movement 
in a score of churches. 

The possibilities of 
glazed bricks seem 
first to have been at- 
tempted by Butterfield, 
as in the interior of 
All Saints' Church. 

Of the brickwork that 
has been done in Eng- 
land since the Gothic 
Revival it is impossible 
now to give a survey, as 
apart from the invidi- 
ousness of differentiating 
between the work of liv- 
ing architects, the task 
would occupy too much 
space. Suffice to say 
that brickwork, especially for domestic buildings, is be- 
ing very extensively used by English architects with 
notable success in many cases. It has attained its present 
position of general 
usefulness by its 
ready adaptability 
to requirements, 
and whatever 
method of con- 
struction may de- 
termine the course 
of urban architec- 
ture in the future, 
brick is likely to 
remain the build- 
ing material most 
suited to express 
the amenities of 
English country 
life 

1UC - DOORWAY IN THE CLOSE, SALISBURY. 





THE recent excavations of the Roman Villa at North- 
fleet, England, have proven of immeasurable value 
to the antiquarian student. Among other important dis- 
coveries has been found the existence of an ancient ruin 
about two feet below the foundations of the present 
structure. Another valuable " find " is a large kiln built 
entirely of blocks of chalk lined with red clay, burnt 



through the process of firing to red brick. Buildings 
erected wholly or partly of blocks of chalk are to be 
found in the chalk district dating back to the Norman 
period, or even earlier, and Roman kilns built partly 
of chalk are comparatively common. This new kiln 
is uncommon, on account of both its material and its 
size. 



i 9 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany*. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION. 

Stable and Garage at 146 East 57th Strket, New 
York City. Plate 114. The building is faced with 
brick, laid in Dutch bond with wide joints raked out. 
The general tone of the brickwork is a deep purplish 
red. The roof tile is of a dull green. The coach room, 
lofts and repair shop are all accessible for vehicles by 
means of a 10 foot by 16 foot electric lift of 4500 pounds' 
capacity in a fireproof shaft. 
The floor of the stable is of 
clinker brick, the coach room 
of gray flint tile, and the living 
apartments and stairs composi- 
tion with 6 inch cove base. 
Beneath the sidewalk of clinker 
brick is storage accommodation 
for gasoline, etc. The cost of 
the building per cubic foot 
was 28 cents. In cubing the 
distance was taken from the 
cellar floor level to the top 
of the roof surfaces and 
from the outside of walls, 
not including parapet walls 
and sidewalk. 

Harrington Children's 
Hospital, Buffalo. N. Y. 
Plate 101. The building is of 
fireproof construction through- 
out. Upon the interior the 
halls and toilet rooms have 
marble floors and wainscoting, 
marble. Each ward is equipped with outside veran- 
das. The building contains approximately 200,000 cubic 
feet, the cubage being taken from the foundations to the 
top of the roof. The total cost was $50,000, or 25 cents 
per cubic foot. 

COLOR IN ARCHITECTURE. 

THE value of color in architecture is the subject of a 
discourse by Halsey Ricardo, F.R.I.B.A., Eng- 
land. Mr. Ricardo believes that man should employ 
color in buildings since nature colors all her works. He 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ refers to the 

l ! l^l^ua|iB JW ^ | J^ l ^ l <s l ^m lr , ^ Egyptians, 

Greeks, 
Persians 
and Assy- 
rians, as 
well as 
medieval 
nations, 
who en- 
riched their 
build in gs 
and monu- 
ments with color. Such examples he thinks should in- 
spire the designer to works of art that will furnish a 
sense of pleasure, interest and added value to what might 
otherwise be commonplace. 




SEAL OF MIAMI UNIVERSITY, OXFORD, OHIO. 

Frank L. Packard, Architect. 

Executed in faience by the Rookwood Pottery Company 



The stairs are also of 



The subject divides itself into Structural Decoration 
and Decorated Construction. Structural Decoration is 
the use of such materials as have in themselves the color 
required for decorating the buildings as works of ar- 
chitecture; while Decorated Construction refers to the 
application of colored decoration. He goes on to cite 
Notre Dame of Paris; Sancta Sophia, Constantinople; 
vS. Miniato, Florence; and St. Mark's at Venice as nota- 
ble examples of decoration. 
Mr. Ricardo is a strong advo- 
cate of Structural Decoration. 
He claims that the glazed 
materials are alone able to 
withstand the corrosion of the 
atmosphere and avoid the per- 
manent disfiguration of its 
impurities. He states that 
while glazed bricks and glazed 
terra cotta lose the mellowing 
effect of time and weather, they 
are impervious to both rain 
and wind, always clean, and 
have an endless variety of 
color. 

After discussing briefly the 
stained glass work in which the 
primary colors were chiefly 
used, Mr. Ricardo completes 
his discourse by saying: "Had 
nature applied but one color to 
all objects they would have 
been indistinct in form as well as monotonous in aspect. 
We must appeal to experience and be indebted to the 
past for its wondrous works, if we expect to realize our 
ideals for the future ; for color is essential to the com- 
pleteness of any work of architecture, as distinguished 
from simple buildings, even if only its aim is to please." 




DETAIL BY CROW, LEWIS A WICKEN HOEFER, 
ARCHITECTS. 

Made by Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Co. 



COMPETITION FOR A NEW CAPITAL. 

A GREAT town-planning competition will be an- 
nounced before long by the High Commissioner for 
the Commonwealth of Australia, who is almost ready to 
go ahead 
with the 
construction 
of the new 
federal capi- 
tal. This 
has been lo- 
c a t e d at 
Yass - Can- 
berra, in 
New South 
Wales, a - 
bout equally 

distant from Sidney and Melbourne and one hundred 
miles inland. Here a tract of some nine hundred square 
miles has been turned over to the Commonwealth, and 
engineers and surveyors have been busy for some time 




DETAIL BY ROUSE A i ;OLDSTONE, 

ARCHITECTS. 

South Am boy Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



J 95 




DETAIL BY JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, 

ARCHITECT. 

Made by O. W. Ketcham Terra Cotta Works. 



obtaining topo- 
graphical data 
relating to it, 
for the purpose 
of the proposed 
international 
compet i t ion. 
One feature of 
the undertaking 
is unusual ; the 
land cannot be 
sold but can 
only be obtained 
on lease from 
the federal 
government. 
Consequently, while the administration buildings must 
inevitably be constructed by the government, there is 
considerable uncertainty regarding the way in which 
houses for the officials and members of parliament should 
be provided. This is the first occasion since the laying 
out of the City of Washington when a national capital has 
been presented to engineers and architects for complete 
planning. Moreover, this capital is for an entire conti- 
nent, so that the competition has an unusually unique 
character. The site is apparently one which will call for 
great skill in its development, for a river winds through 
it and there are irregular, rather gentle hills everywhere. 
The river can be 
dammed in order to 
make a small lake, if de- 
sired, and on this ac- 
count the variety of 
plans that may be pre- 
pared for the develop- 
ment of the site is very 
great. The authorities 
are apparently proceed- 
ing in a very careful 
manner, with the inten- 
tion of leaving the de- 
sign wholly to the 
competitors, furnishing 
merely topographical 
information and a state- 
ment of the accommo- 
dations needed by the 
government . — En- 
gineering Record. 



lamation of 
Rome as the 
capital of Italy. 
The committee 
in charge of af- 
fairs feel that 
they cannot 
carry out their 
elaborate plans 
without con- 
necting the 
three buildings 
on Capitol Hill 
by two per- 
manent addi- 
tions. The 
piazza together 
with this group 
of buildings 



























: ^m- 


1 



DETAIL FOR AN OFFICE BUILDING. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

Henry Ives Cobb, Architect. 



was designed by Michelangelo Buonarotti and has existed 
for centuries as a model of proportion and dignity. 
Michelangelo had very little space at his disposal, but 
he made the most of it by various devices, one of which 
was to leave two openings between the lateral and cen- 
tral buildings. To connect these would not only shut 
off all the openings towards the Forum and Palatine 
but would also affect materially the harmony of the orig- 
inal design. We hope this project will not be executed, 

for it will destroy the 
appearance of one of 
our historic creations 
and at the same time 
add fuel to the already 
large and insane desire 
of changing or demol- 
ishing the splendid ar- 
chitecture of the past. 



c 



ANXIETY OVER 
THE ARCHITEC- 
TURE IN ROME. 

ONSIDERABLE 
anxiety among all 
lovers of art has been 
aroused over some of 
the projects contem- 
plated in Rome. In- 
1911 that city will 
celebrate the fiftieth 
anniversary of the proc- 




THE UNIFICATION 
OF THE ARCHI- 
TECTS IN PENN- 
SYLVANIA. 



W 



MAIN ENTRANCE TO LIBERTY TOWER BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 

Architectural Terra Cotta executed by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Henry Ives Cobb, Architect. 



E NOTE with in- 
terest the earnest 
effort being made to 
unify the architectural 
profession in the State 
of Pennsylvania. The 
Association of the 
American Institute of 
Architects in that state 
issued some time ago 
through its officers a 
circular letter asking for 
the co-operation of all 
the members of the as- 
sociation and of the pro- 
fession. The letter 
called for assurances of 
interest in the organiza- 
tion and opinions as to 
the best methods of 



ig6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




t 





establishing the Pennsylvania 
State Association as a vital factor 
in the Commonwealth. Such a 
hearty response has come from all 
sections of the state requesting 
information as to the method of 
applying for admission that the 
association has been compelled to 
issue another circular letter in re- 
gard to this inquiry alone. There 
is no better way to have its influ- 
ence felt as a power for good than 
the united and concentrated action 
of all the professional men that 
have expressed their desire to join 
the organization. 




PITTSBURG'S BIG 
SHOW. 



LAND 



DETAIL BY ROOT & 

SIEMENS, ARCHITECTS. 

American Terra Cotta 

Company, Makers. 

States Government, 



ARRANGEMENTS are being 
made under the auspices of 
the Pittsburg Gazette Times and 
the Pittsburg Chronicle Telegraph 
for a big land show to be held in 
Pittsburg, October 27th to the 
29th. The exhibition will be 
wide in its scope and will include 
among its contributors the United 
the various States of the Union, 
Boards of Trade, Chambers of Commerce, commercial 
bodies and irrigation companies. The object of the ex- 
position is to provide information to the farmer, the 
homeseeker and the investor regarding land openings 
and developments in all sections of the country, and at 
the same time to teach the student and laymen the edu- 
cational facts concerning land reclamation and irrigation. 
.Samples will be shown of all mineral, agricultural, 
horticultural, and botanical 
products of the soil. 



DETAIL BY WARREN A- WETMORE, ARCHITECTS. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

designed in white marble after the Gothic style of the 
fourteenth century. The base is ornamented with the 
symbols of the four Evangelists, while the parapet is 
adorned with the figures of the Evangelists. The panels 
are carved to represent the Sermon on the Mount. 



o 1 ; 



AN OPEN AIR PULPIT. 

A WORK of unusual in- 
terest among architects 
as well as laymen is the open 
air pulpit that has been 
designed for Grace Church, 
New York City. This is the 
first experiment of this na- 
ture that has been under- 
taken in the United States. 
In Europe, however, these 
pulpits built on the outside 
of churches are very com- 
mon, especially in Italy. At 
Perugia there is an open air 
pulpit attached to the side 
wall of the church, which 
may well be styled the pro- 
totype of this one belonging 
to Grace Church. The pul- 
pit faces Broadway and is 




BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR JULY. 

: FICIAL reports from fifty building centers 
throughout the country, compiled by The Amer- 
ican Contractor, New York, show a loss in the aggregate 
of twenty-two per cent for July, 1910, as compared with 
July, 1909. Of this amount, New York city assumes 
nearly three-fourths, a decrease of nearly §15,000,000, or 
fifty-two per cent. The majority of the other cities in 
the list contributes their mite to make the total. Thirty- 
two cities show a loss of from two to seventy-six per 
cent, and eighteen cities show a gain of from two to 
one hundred and eighty-five per cent. The principal 

gains were made in Atlanta, 
one hundred and eighty- five 
per cent; Dallas, one hun- 
dred and twenty-eight; Du- 
luth, forty-five; Hartford, 
one hundred and twenty- 
eight; Los Angeles, ninety- 
eight; Oklahoma City, 
ninety-five; St. Paul, forty- 
four. 



DETAIL KOR PUBLIC SCHOOL, BROOKLYN. 

liri. k Terra Cotta & Tile Co., Makers. 

C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 



THE city government of 
Paris is beginning to 
realize that it must beautify 
still more its streets and 
parks if it is to hold the dis- 
tinction of being the most 
artistic city in Europe. They 
are voting $300,000,000 
worth of bonds to carry 
out the Baron Haussman 
plan which was formulated 
during the reign of Na- 
poleon III. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



197 



AWARD OF ARCHITECTURAL SCHOLARSHIP. 

THE scholarship awarded every year to American 
students in architecture for a post-graduate course 
of study at the American Academy in Rome was won 
by Richard Haviland Smyth of Columbia University. 
Joseph M. Kellogg of Cornell was highly commended, 
and Samuel Hyman of Columbia and Harold D. Boune- 
theau of Boston received honorable mentions. The 
judges were William R. Mead, president of the academy; 
S. B. P. Trowbridge, John M. Carriere, Adolph A. Weid- 
man and Francis C. Jones. 



A JOINT RAILWAY TERMINAL IN 
MANHATTAN. 

THE Dock Commissioner of New York City has sub- 
mitted to the city government an elaborate plan for 
the creation of a joint railway terminal in Manhattan 

together with better 
facilities for the 
handling of transpor- 
tation. The scheme 
contemplates a large 
expenditure for land, 
docks, an elevated 
railway structure, 
upper and lower ter- 
minals, floor space 
for warehouses and 
storage, buildings 
used by factories for 
the fabrication of 
raw materials, piers 
with train facilities 
on the first and sec- 
ond floors and recrea- 
tion pavilions above, 
with private passage- 
ways from the steam- 
ers and car service. 
At the end of a cer- 
tain period the ter- 
minal is to become 
the property of the 
city. The railroads 
are to pay rental for 
use of piers, termi- 
nals, tracks and float 
bridges together 
with light, heat and 
power. The rental 
of floor space above 
will establish a fund for future improvements. The enter- 
prise, as planned, will cost approximately $100,000,000. 




ENTRANCE TO CAFE AT DETROIT 

TREATED WITH HARTFORD 

FAIENCE TILE. 



IN GENERAL. 



Thorgils Thoresen has opened an office at 328 Mohawk 
Building, Portland, Ore., for the practice of architecture. 
Manufacturers' catalogues and samples desired. 

The " Tapestry " brick used for the stable and garage 
at 146 East 57th street, New York, Albert Morton Gray, 
architect, was furnished by Fiske & Co., Inc. 




V 

/ 1 1 1 1 i i\'r* 



DETAIL BY GOLDWIN STARRETT & VAN VLECK, ARCHITECTS. 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

The architectural terra cotta used in the construction 
of the Children's Hospital, at Buffalo, Green & Wicks, 
architects, illustrated in this issue, was furnished by the 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

The firm of C. A. Gill & Son, architects, Dallas, Texas, 
has been dissolved. C. A. Gill has been appointed su- 
pervising architect for Dallas. J. O. Gill, also of this 
firm, and S. C. Skielvig have formed a co-partnership 
with offices in the North Texas Building. 

The Secretary of the Board of Education at Ionia, 
Mich., commenting recently on waterproof brick stains 
said that on all the buildings painted during the past 
few years Cabot's Brick Stain has proven satisfactory in 
every way, and is wearing in a thoroughly good manner. 




Ml'RAT TEMPI. E, INDIANAPOLIS. 

All the trim for this building of architectural terra cotta executed by the 

Indianapolis Terra Cotta Company. 

D. A. Bohlen & Son, Architects. 



198 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The firm of Temple, Burrows & MeLane, Davenport, 
Iowa, has been dissolved, C. D. MeLane having with- 




AUTOMOBII.E SALES HUM DIM;, CHICAGO. 

Curtain walls and mullions in dark green terra cotta, 
balance of building of light cream terra cotta. North- 
western Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 
Holabird & Roche, Architects. 

drawn. The practice of architecture will be continued 
by Seth J. Temple and Parke T. Burrows under the firm 
name of Temple & Burrows. Their office address will 
remain the same, 62-64 McManus Building. 

The Atlantic Terra Cotta Company will furnish the 
architectural terra cotta for the following new buildings: 
Municipal Building, New York City, McKim, Mead & 
White, architects; Rector's Hotel, 44th street and Broad- 
way, New York City, D. H. Burnham, architect; Oueen 
Lane Filter Plant, Philadelphia, Pa. ; St. Francis de 
Sales Church, Philadelphia, Pa., Henry D. Dagit, archi- 
tect; High School, Norfolk, Ya., Neff & Thompson, 
architects; the last two buildings mentioned will use a 
large amount of polychrome terra cotta. 

NOTICE TO ARCHITECTS. (Competition.) 

The Confederate Memorial Association has instructed its 
Executive Committee to receive Competitive plans for a 
memorial building in Richmond, Va., to be known as the 
" Confederate Memorial Institute." The Committee has 
engaged a firm of architects to act as expert advisers in the 
preparation and award of the competition. 

- Cost of building to be $ 1 50,000. 
Prizes ranging from $1,000 to $200. 

Architects desiring to compete should apply for condi- 
tions of competition on or before September 30, 1910, to 
Hon. J. Taylor Ellyson, President Confederate Memorial 
Association, Richmond, Virginia. 



UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE. 

FOUR YEAR COURSE. (Degree B.S. in Arch.) Architectural engi- 
neering may be taken in lieu of advanced design, etc. 

GRADUATE YEAR. (Degree M.S. in Arch.) Allowing specializa- 
tion in design or in architectural engineering, etc. 

SPECIAL COURSE OF TWO YEARS. (CerUficate.) For qualified 
draftsmen ; affording option in architectural engineering. 

ADVANCED STANDING granted to college graduates and others for 
required work completed elsewhere. 

SUMMER SCHOOL in architecture, offering complete group of tech- 
nical subjects, affords advanced standing in regular and special 
courses. Special circular. 

FULL INFORMATION may be secured through application to the 
Dean of The College Department. Dr. GEORGE E. FISHER, 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— 1 register as- 
sistants FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK- 
ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEREIRA, 
218 La SALLE St., CHICAGO. Long Distance Tel., Franklin 1328. 

"SPECIFICATION BLANKS," by T. Robert Wieger, 

architect (formerly with F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
25 cents. Reduction on quantities. Sample page upon 
request. 628- 14th street, Denver, Colo. 

A HOUSE OF BRICK OF MODERATE COST- 

THE TITLE OF A 96 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH 
CONTAINS 71 DESIGNS FOR A BRICK HOUSE 
OF MODERATE COST. THESE DESIGNS WERE 
SUBMITTED BY WELL-KNOWN ARCHITEC- 
TURAL DRAFTSMEN IN COMPETITION. IN- 
TERESTING ARTICLES. ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HISTORICAL BRICK HOUSES. PRICE, FIFTY 
CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 



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The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XIX 



SEPTEMBER 1910 



Number 9 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street ... Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1910, by ROGERS & MANSON 



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Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

,, Terra Cotta 

Brick 



ADVERTISING 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

II 

II 

II and III 

III 



Brick Enameled 
Brick Waterproofing 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

CARRERE & HASTINGS; CLINTON & RUSSELL; FRANK MILES DAY & BRO. ; 

FRANK B MEADE; WILLIAM HART TAYLOR & SON; 

WILDER & WHITE. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

THE BASILICA OF CONSTANTINE, NEAR THE FORUM, ROME Frontispiece 

HINTS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS. — PART II. (Continued) Hugh Tallant 199 

NEW SANITARY BUILDINGS IN BOSTON 203 

NOTES ON HOSPITAL PLANNING s - s - Goldwaier, .1/ />. 207 

A CONTRACT BETWEEN ARCHITECT AND OWNER William Brokaw Bamford 211 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION 214 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 216 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. XIX. NO. 9. 



SEPTEMBER, 1910. 



Hints on Architectural Acoustics. 



BY HUGH TALLANT. 

PART II. (Continued). 
Computation and Practice. 



THE practice of architectural acoustics consists mainly 
in the elimination of defects. Positive results can 
be attained only by tentative methods and through suc- 
cessive modifications in design. In the case of a new 
building the preliminary sketches should first be laid 
out with a general view to acoustic as well as architec- 
tural requirements. The exact conditions at critical 
points can then be investigated by the methods already 
described.* Should defects be discovered the drawings 
may be amended to suit; the acoustics again tested; 
further corrections made; and the process repeated until 
the results prove satisfactory. In the case of an old 
building the problem is simplified 
to the extent that the shortcom- 
ings are already in evidence, but 
the requisite alterations must 
usually be studied out on paper 
by the same tentative methods 
before they can safely be put in 
execution. 

The most dangerous defects are 
insufficient or excessive loudness ; 
indistinctness due to interrupted 
reverberation; indistinctness due 
to sound-interference ; echo ; and 
insufficient or excessive reverbera- 
tion. We will begin by showing 
how this somewhat formidable 
array may be overcome by altera- 
tions in shape, materials, contents 
and arrangement. The treatment 
of special sizes and types of au- 
ditorium will then readily follow. 

The question of loudness seldom 
arises in connection with a small 
auditorium. Where there is no 
difficulty in addressing the furth- 
est members of an audience there is no excuse for shout- 
ing at the nearest. On the other hand, there are few 
auditoriums over 80 feet in depth where the sound is not 
as much too loud at some points as it is too faint at 
others. In a music hall or opera house the seats next the 
orchestra are usually worthless, and in the average 
theatre much of the illusion is lost to the occupants of 

* See The Brickbuilder for July and August, 1910. 




Fig. XIV 



the front rows, who cannot help perceiving that the 
actors are speaking far above a normal tone of voice. 

It is not in the nature of things that the sound should 
be quite so loud at the rear of an auditorium as at the 
extreme front; nevertheless the discrepancy may be 
largely neutralized by the following expedient. Let 
Fig. 14 represent the plan of a rectangular auditorium, 
all of whose dimensions are over 50 feet. The initial 
loudness in the vicinity of the speaker, S, is largely ac- 
centuated by sounds deflected along the paths BC, DE, 
FG, etc. If, however, the angles YZW and XYZ be cut 
off by walls running in the directions MN and OP, these 
same sounds will now be deflected 
along the paths B'C, D'E', F'G', 
etc. ; and will thus be transferred 
from the front and centre of the 
auditorium to the sides and rear, 
with benefit to both. The pro- 
cedure may be carried even 
farther. It will be noticed in the 
diagram that B'C, D'E', etc., 
have a tendency to radiate. This 
divergence corresponds roughly 
to the spread of the sound-wave. 
The greater the distance between 
the paths, the fainter the sound. 
But if the deflecting walls MN 
and OP be curved, as shown in 
Fig. 15, the divergence of the 
sound-paths and the consequent 
diminution in loudness will be 
largely prevented. Of course the 
same principle applies to the angle 
between the ceiling and the front 
wall, which may be cut off with 
similar advantage, as shown in 
Fig. 16. 
The same expedient may be used to advantage in 
another way. It has already been mentioned! that, in 
a theatre, the first deflected sound is apt to reach the 
hearer at so long an interval after the direct sound as to 
cause indistinctness. Even in other types of auditorium 
the first few sounds often arrive with such irregularity 
as to occasion similar trouble. The difficulty usually 
t .See The Brickbuilder for July, 1910, page 158. 



200 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



arises when the speaker is located on the same side of 
the house as the hearer. This fact is illustrated in Fig. 
17 where the speaker is supposed to be standing at S, while 
the hearer occupies an aisle seat at Ai. The principal 




sound-paths arranged in order of actual {not projccteil) 
length, are SAi, SB1A1, SCiAt, SD1E1A, sf\gya\ % 
sQi«i, SH1A1, SK1L1A1, etc. Upon comparing each 
path with the next it will be found that up to sf\gia\, 
the successive increase in length is small and fairly uni- 
form. Between this path and sQim, however, the in- 
crease is so abrupt that in a large auditorium it may 
easily amount to over 70 feet. If similar tests are made 
at a-2, a-.\, a±, etc., it will be found that this sudden dis- 
crepancy in the lengths of the sound-paths has a tend- 
ency to diminish as the distance from S increases so that 
finally a point, a, will be reached where sQa is only 




Fiq.XVI 

70 feet longer than sfga. It therefore appears that at 
all points from a to the rear of the auditorium the sounds 
follow one another so closely as to produce the effect of 
a continuous, and possibly agreeable, reverberation. On 
the other hand, at all points between a and the speaker 
there will occur a perceptible interval of time during 



which no sound will reach the hearer, and the effect of 
this break in the reverberation will be that familiar and 
disagreeable sensation of continually losing a syllable of 
the discourse. 

The obvious remedy for this difficulty is to fill in the 
break in the reverberation with one or two additional 
sounds. As a rule, however, this is more easily said than 
done. Just how to introduce deflecting surfaces which 
will develop sound-paths of the precise length and direc- 
tion required is a problem whose solution varies with the 
case in point, and often demands much architectural in- 
genuity. One expedient is to lower the ceiling at the 
front; but so radical an alteration is often prohibited by 
decorative or practical requirements. A large niche be- 
hind the speaker is sometimes efficacious. At best, the 




Rq.XVII 

proposition is complicated to a degree, and the theoretic 
conditions difficult to express in architectural motives. A 
far better remedy — provided that the rear wall, WX, is 
an almost perfect sound-absorbent — is to pass deflecting 
surfaces through the points M, O and Q, as indicated in 
Figs. 15 and 16. It is sufficiently evident, without pro- 
longing a tedious discussion, that this procedure will so 
alter all the longer sound-paths, such as SBC, Fig. 15, as to 
eliminate practically all the reverberation subsequent to 
the break, leaving the initial effect sharp and distinct. 
The same deflecting surfaces which are of such advan- 
tage in equalizing the loudness of the sound can thus be 
made to do additional duty in eliminating indistinctness. 
It is merely necessary to make them pass through M, O 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



20I 



and Q. The precise inclination and curvature may then 
be adjusted so as to concentrate the sound wherever it is 
most urgently needed. 

Contrary to what might be expected, the most distant 
point from the speaker is rarely the one where the sound 
is the faintest. Conditions at the back of the top gallery 
are usually very satisfactory, because the direct 
sound is reinforced by deflections from the ceil- . 

ing as well as from the side and front walls. 
Many a gallery-god holds down a seat acoustically 
far superior to those for which his betters below 
have given up five times the 
money. The real danger- 
point occurs in the space un- 
derneath the balcony where 
the deflections from the ceil- 
ing cannot penetrate. 

The contour of this sound- 
shadow can be readily plotted 
by the geometrical construc- 
tion indicated in Fig. 18. It 
is merely necessary to draw 
be perpendicular to tax, pro- 
long it to d, making cd equal 
to be, and draw des and eba. 
The point a, thus determined 
on the section, will be pro- 
jected in plan at A. In this 
way any number of points on 
the edge of the shadow may 
be determined. The surfaces 
MN, OP and QR may then 
be adjusted so as to deflect 
as much sound as possible 
into the shadow. The start- 
ing points M, O and Q are, of 
course, already determined by 
considerations of distinctness. 
The exact positions of N and 
P are relatively unimportant, 
acoustically, and may be de- 
termined to suit decorative or 
practical requirements. There 
is, however, an advantage in 
placing R as low as possible 
in order that QR may concen- 
trate its deflected sound as far 
back as possible under the 
overhang of the balcony, and 
for the same reason the in- 
clination at R should be such 
as to deflect the sound in the 
direction R/, just escaping 
the edge of the balcony at b 
by a foot or so. This can be 
accomplished by making the 
inclination R/i at R perpen- 
dicular to the bisectrice of 
the angle sRf. In the same 
way the sound from Q should 
be deflected in the direction 
Qa by making the inclination 
Qk at Q perpendicular to the 




Fig. XVI II 




Fig. XIX 



bisectrice of sQa. If the curvature of QR is now laid 
out tangent to R/z at R and to Q/e at Q the deflected 
sound will be largely concentrated between / and a — 
that is, as far back as possible under the balcony. A 
convenient and accurate method of accomplishing this 
result is to pass an ellipse through Q with one focus at 
s and the other focus at a point about a foot from 
the edge of the balcony. The intersection of this 
ellipse with the wall xy will determine the point R. 
All sounds from the focus s which strike the ellip- 
tical surface will, of course, be deflected through 
the other focus, from which 
they will be distributed al- 
most uniformly between a 
and f. The position of R 
may be lowered if necessary 
by increasing the distance 
Q.r. 

The deflections from MN 
and OP may now be utilized 
to strengthen the sound at 
points where the deflections 
from QR cannot penetrate. 
If the sound from QR is dis- 
tributed in plan over the space 
DFEGAH the sound from OP 
should be distributed over the 
remainder of the sound- 
shadow, or between the two 
aisle seats B and D. Assum- 
ing that the speaker is placed 
at S, the most unfavorable 
position, the curvature of OP 
should be such that the tan- 
gent at P is perpendicular to 
the bisectrice of the angle 
SPD, and the tangent at O 
perpendicular to the bisectrice 
of SOB. By similar means 
the sound from MN may be 
concentrated between C and 
E. The net result will be 
that at any point, A, Fig. 19, 
within the zone of darkest 
shadow BCDE, the initial in- 
tensity of the sound will be 
made up of the following 
components: 

One direct sound SA. 
One deflected sound SFA. 
One deflected sound SGA. 
Two deflected sounds SKA 
and SLA. 

SFA and SGA are each ap- 
proximately as loud as SA 
because of the concentration 
caused by the curvature of 
MN and OP. SKA and SLA 
together aggregate something 
more than SA. The total in- 
tensity therefore amounts to 
at least four times that of the 
direct sound, and is amply 



202 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



sufficient up to a distance of 100 feet from the speaker. 
In this calculation the deflections from NP have been 
neglected because they are not always available; also 
such double deflections as SI J A, because they are apt 

Y 
I 




Fiq.XX 

to arrive more than a fifteenth of a second after the 
direct sound. Even with these deductions, however, it 
is possible to develop an initial intensity amply sufficient 
for any ordinary-sized auditorium. Where the depth is 
so great that the distance from the rear seats to the 
speaker is over 100 feet, it is usually understood that 
the volume of sound is to be equally exceptional. In a 
grand opera house, for instance, the orchestra is rarely 
composed of less than eighty or one hundred pieces, and 
the singers are expected to have voices of corresponding 
calibre. 

Broadly considered, an auditorium constructed along 




best possible advantage. There seems no obvious reason 
why the procedure should not be carried to its logical 
conclusion by cutting off the corners ZWX and WXY as 
shown in Fig. 20. The resulting elimination of the 
rear wall is in itself an excellent feature, tending largely 
to prevent sound-interference. Practically, such a shape 
appears extraordinary, but it may readily be approxi- 




FIG. XXII. 



mated in the case of a square auditorium by locating the 
rostrum in one corner, as shown in Fig. 21. This 
arrangement is not altogether ideal from the standpoint 
of either decoration or acoustics, but it often proves a 
valuable makeshift where conditions of economy pro- 
hibit elaboration of shape or material. It is admirably 
adapted to lecture halls of moderate size and unpreten- 
tious decoration, and possesses the additional advantage 
that the speaker commands his entire audience within an 
angle of 90 , and does not feel the irksome necessity of 
turning continually to right and left in order to address 




Fig. XXI 



FIG. XXIII. 



the lines above described simply amounts to a huge the occupants of the side seats. For larger auditoriums 

scientifically-shaped megaphone, so adjusted as to obvi- the shape indicated in Fig. 18 gives better acoustic 

ate indistinctness from interrupted reverberation and results, and presents a more dignified architectural effect, 

at the same time to distribute the deflected sound to the The deflecting surfaces MN, OP and QR may be treated 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



203 



either as a conical penetration, a large niche, or as the 
pendentives of a shallow dome ; in fact all these geometric 
forms may often be satisfactorily combined in a single 
design. In the New Amsterdam Theatre, for example, 
the proscenium, Fig. 22, was laid out on the principle 
of a cone penetrating a flattened dome. The penetration 
was filled in with a deflecting surface which the flatten- 



ing of the dome caused to tilt inwards at the top, giving 
the inclination required for acoustic purposes. Two cylin- 
drical penetrations at the sides left pendentives which 
when carried down to the floor, furnished deflecting sur- 
faces corresponding very neatly to MN and OP in Fig. 18. 
A complete view of these deflecting surfaces as seen from 
below is given in Fig. 23. 



New Sanitary Buildings in Boston. 



THE problem of successfully designing an individual 
and unique sanitary building for municipal uses, 
one especially that is far removed from environments of 
natural beauty, seems to have been, up to quite recently, 
a matter not quite worthy of the architect's considera- 
tion, but one apparently more likely to be associated 
with the handiwork of the mechanically practical man 
whose main object appears to have been to produce a 
building that would answer the demands of the public 
from the utilitarian standpoint only. It would seem that 
the usually inelegant surroundings of a building of this 



class make it all the more vital that the building conform 
to the present-day conception of individual architecture. 
And, too, why should not the sanitary demand the same 
consideration of the architect as other municipal build- 
ings — a police station, schoolhouse, or fire station ? 

The accompanying illustrations of buildings that have 
been recently completed in Boston show advancement 
along ideal lines and remarkable improvements over 
many of our previously designed buildings of this class. 
The buildings give decidedly pleasing results, many new 
features and forms being introduced in the construction, 






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Architects. 




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Stickney & Austin, Architects. 



chimneys, roofs, wall panels, and cleverly distributed 
window openings. 

The Columbus Avenue building, the largest of the 
group, is perhaps the most successful. It has a long, 
low roof line, interestingly treated at either gable-hip 
end. On one end the brick and plaster chimney occurs. 
The front elevation has a large gable end bay which 
forms the entrance way. The gable has a good group of 
windows, but the semi-circular plaster arch over the win- 
dows is much too white, and has a tendency to strike a 
jarring note. The high brick screens on either side of 
the bay — hiding the entrance ways — are a decided im- 
provement over the ordinary wood lattice affairs so com- 
monly used. 

The Sullivan Square building is much smaller and 
without the center bay, and has a shingle roof instead of 



tin. The wall treatment is similar as regards the brick 
patterns. The window composition is excellent. 

Out in the suburban districts where a free and ram- 
bling effect seems appropriate, the architect has intro- 
duced a feature in the roofs which is a novelty in this 
locality. This feature, while not attempting to be an 
imitation, nevertheless reproduces in shingles the senti- 
ment that is aroused by a thatched roof. The effect is 
obtained by ordinary boarding covered with shingles 
laid in uneven courses and rolled over the edges to the 
verge boards. The walls are laid simply and are without 
patterns or borders. 

In these buildings the architect has achieved results 
esthetically good, and incidentally the total cost of each 
building has not been materially increased by the intru- 
sion of this esthetic element into the problem. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



207 



Notes on Hospital Planning. 



BY S. S. GOLDWATER, M.D. 

Superintendent, Mount Sinai Hospital, N. Y., Consulting Supervisor of Construction to Bellevue Hospital, the Stamford Hospital, etc. 



A Plan for the Construction of Ward Buildings 
in Crowded Cities. 

AN ACCEPTABLE plan for the construction of ward 
buildings of many stories in crowded American 
cities has long been needed. Such a plan must satisfy 
the requirements of convenient administration, and must 
comply in all essentials with the demands of hygiene, 
even under the hard conditions of a restricted site and 
of possibly unfavorable surroundings. The ward plan 
which is the subject of this 
paper is presented as a con- 
tribution to the study of this 
problem. 

It is assumed that eco- 
nomic necessity compels 
us, and will compel us in- 
definitely, to continue to 
house a majority of hospi- 
tal patients in large wards. 
Those who are opposed to 
large wards and who pro- 
pose to provide for each 
patient the particular en- 
vironment best suited to his 
condition and needs, are no 
doubt correct in theory. A 
private room with a porch 
and a garden; a private 
nurse on day duty and an- 
other on night duty; a 
skilled medical officer, not 
too much distracted with 
administrative duties or 
with the care of other pa- 
tients — all these combined 
represent a kind of hospi- 
tal organization which is 
greatly to be desired, be- 
cause in the long run it 
would yield the best results 
in the treatment of patients 
acutely ill. But the folly of 
subdividing wards into sin- 
gle rooms, while there is a 
lack of means to increase 
substantially the number of nurses, has been demon- 
strated to the satisfaction of more than one hospital 
superintendent, and to the serious discomfiture of 
patients in wards subdivided and understaffed. 

Nevertheless the necessity of a partial classification of 
patients within the typical medical or surgical ward 
group must be recognized, even if a complete and per- 
fect classification is at present unattainable; this neces- 
sity is recognized in the accompanying ward plan, as it is 
in all ward plans which provide, among the appendages, 





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TYPICAL BLOCK PLANS. 
High buildings are solid. Low buildings are cross-hatched. 



a lounging and dining room for convalescents, an airing 
balcony or balconies, and one or more " recovery," isola- 
ting, or " quiet " rooms. The problem in ward planning 
is to bring together all of these helps to good nursing and 
proper care, in such a manner as to facilitate their super- 
vision by the limited number of nurses at present availa- 
ble, and at the same time to avoid hemming in the ward 
itself in such a way as to interfere materially with its 
supply of light and air. 

A hundred or more writers in the last decade have 

reviewed the history of 
hospital planning and have 
presented and commented 
upon the ward plans of 
representative hospitals in 
Europe and America. I 
shall, therefore, take for 
granted a knowledge of 
these plans and shall 
merely say that none of 
them, in my opinion — 
meritorious as many of 
them are, and admirable 
as some of them must be 
acknowledged to be — can 
be utilized in a wholly sat- 
isfactory way for the con- 
struction of a hospital of 
any considerable capacity 
on such sites as offer them- 
selves, for example, on the 
island of Manhattan in the 
city of New York, where 
streets, running east and 
west, parallel each other 
at a distance of only 200 
feet from north and south, 
and where most of these 
streets, from house-line to 
house-line, are only 60 feet 
in width. Within the lim- 
its of such a city block 
(and I confine myself to 
the rigorous demands of a 
typical Manhattan block, 
because while better sites, 
permitting greater freedom in planning, are often to 
be had in other cities, worse ones for the erection of a 
large general hospital cannot well be imagined), we are 
called upon to plan a hospital, the wards of which will 
be well lighted and surrounded by a suitable zone of 
aeration. 

The modern hospital must be able to place its patients 
out of doors, whether in gardens or roof-wards or on log- 
gias or balconies. Now since in crowded cities we cannot 
have gardens, and since roof-wards can only be utilized 



208 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



for a relatively small number of patients, the principal 
wards must have balconies; and these must be so placed 
as to be sun-warmed in winter, must be accessible for 
both bed-patients and convalescents, must lend them- 
selves readily to constant supervision, and must be so 
arranged as neither to disfigure the building nor greatly 
to darken the wards. Besides this, the balconies must 
not be too close to the street. 

It is essential also, on account of the rapidly increasing 
hospital needs of urban communities, that the ward plan 
shall be one which, if utilized at first for the construction 
of a four or five-story building, will permit us to super- 
impose new wards upon the old ones without detriment 
to the latter; and it is essential so to locate our ward 
buildings with relation to the other buildings of the hospi- 
tal group, that these other buildings, in their turn, may be 
increased in height and doubled in capacity, if necessary, 



would carry us beyond the prescribed limits of this paper. 
For the present, therefore, I must content myself with 
calling attention to some of the important characteristics 
of the present plan, the comparative value of which will 
no doubt be made plain in the subsequent discussion of 
its merits and defects. 

The use of the T-shaped ward building enables us to 
construct a full-sized ward of thirty-one beds (five of 
which are in " separation " rooms) within a space extend- 
ing only 120 feet from north to south, or a ward of twenty- 
six beds within a space extending 106 feet from north to 
south. If we leave to the north of this an air-zone of 
30 feet in the one case, or 44 feet in the other, there will 
be available for administration and service buildings, 50 
feet along the line of the street which forms the northerly 
margin of a block extending 200 feet from north to south. 
If the ward appendages and main service corridor were 




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without any signal alteration in the hygienic character 
of the wards. 

This is not all that is required by the conditions of our 
problem. If the ward buildings, fronting south, can be 
so placed as to face a park or an open lot, well and good ; 
but inasmuch as such sites are not always available, and 
since empty lots do not always remain unoccupied, our 
plan must be one which will not lose much of its virtue 
if open ground on the opposite or south side of the street 
is not available, or if such open ground, present at the 
time of the construction of the hospital, is subsequently 
covered with buildings. 

A detailed comparison of the plan herewith presented 
\yith others suggested as suitable for the construction of 
many-storied hospital buildings in crowded cities, would 
lead to a discussion of many complicated problems, and 



extended in the axis of the ward (as in the case of the 
typical pavilion hospitals of Germany and Great Britain), 
150 to 170 feet would be required from north to south for 
the ward building alone, and the remainder of the 200- 
foot site would be of little or no use. 

A study of the group plans shows that as much as sixty 
per cent of the total ground area of a site 200 by 200 feet, 
200 by 350 feet, 200 by 500 feet, etc., may be occupied by 
buildings with satisfactory results. 

The wards are well exposed on two long sides and one 
short side, east, west, and south ; the balconies or loggias 
are ample in capacity and have the decided advantage (in 
this climate, at least) of southern exposure. They do 
not to any appreciable extent darken the wards, and they 
are under the eye of the nurses in the ward ; furthermore, 
they are so subdivided that convalescent patients may 



THE R R ICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 9. PLATE 115. 




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TUBERCULOSIS HOSPITAL, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Frank Miles Day & Brother, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 9. PLATE 116. 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 9. PLATE 117. 




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RUFUS S. FROST HOSPITAL, CHELSEA, MASS 
William Hart Taylor & Son, Architects. 



THE BRIC KBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 9. PLATE 113. 




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•*r<<>-.!> **.!-/W/> tL»»V flUUI 




THE JERSEY CITY HOSPITAL, JERSEY CITY, N. J. 

Clinton & Russell, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 9. PLATE 119. 







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THE BRICKBU1LDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 9. PLATE 121. 




THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 9. PLATE 122. 




DETAIL OF LOGGIA OVERLOOKING GARDEN. 



HOUSE AND GARDEN AT OYSTER BAY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



THE BR1CKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 9. PLATE 123. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 9. PLATE 124. 




VIEWS OF GARDEN. 



HOUSE AND GARDEN AT OYSTER BAY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 9. PLATE 125. 





TERRACE 



xbj- 



FIRST rLOOR PLA/N 



HOUSE 

AT 

CLEVELAND, 

OHIO. 

Frank B. Meade, 
Architect. 




5ECO/ND TLOOR P LA/1 



THE BRIC KBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 9. PLATE 126. 






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Frank B. Meade, 
Architect. 



HOUSE 

AT 

CLEVELAND, 

OHIO. 




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THE B RIC K BUI LDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 9. PLATE 127. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 9. PLATE 128. 




HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Frank B. Meade, Architect. 









, 



I 31 pi i ■ . . , . 1 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



209 



amuse themselves without restraint on one balcony, 
while very sick bed-patients are obtaining the benefits of 
fresh-air treatment, in undisturbed quiet, on the other. 
Each balcony is directly visible from one of the princi- 
pal service rooms, namely, the pantry or the sink-room. 
The balconies are set back at a comfortable distance from 
the street. 

The balcony, day-room, lavatories and water-closets 
designed for the use of convalescent patients are grouped 
about one end of the main corridor; the isolation of the 
very sick takes place at the opposite end of the corridor, 
convenient to the principal service rooms, and entirely 
out of the range of observation of the convalescent 
patients and their friends. 

The stairway and elevator lobby is isolated and yet 
occupies an especially favorable location, directly oppo- 
site the main entrance to the ward. Visitors approaching 
the ward do not pass through a long service corridor, but 
find their way immediately to their proper destination. 

The principal corridor is arranged to serve as a true 
cross-ventilating corridor. 

The horizontal arm of the " T, " running east and west, 
can be lengthened, and the vertical arm shortened, if 
desired, for the purpose of increasing the number of 
separation rooms and of diminishing the number of 
patients in the open ward. 

A special modification of the typical ward plan, to meet 
the altered requirements of a children's service, is in- 
cluded among the sketches submitted. Features of this 
plan are the observation windows permitting the control 
of the children's water-closets from the nurses' utility- 
room ; the rooms for isolated cases or for babies and wet- 
nurses; the glass "boxes " for semi-isolation within .the 
large ward; the larger bathroom, to accommodate bath 
tub and slab. 

Bridges may be carried from the ward buildings to the 
north, east, or west, without detriment to the wards. In 
a group plan including two ward buildings, a bridge to 
the east or west would give convenient access to a central 
administration building. In a group plan including but 
one ward building, abridge to the north would communi- 
cate with an administration building facing the northerly 
street; in a larger group plan, bridges to the north would 
communicate, according to the details of the general 
scheme, with an administration building, kitchen and 
laundry building, pathological laboratory, operating 
pavilion, out-patient department, or with buildings used 
for any variety or combination of the purposes named. 
In the larger and more complete group plans a separate 
out-patient building, not too high, would be placed at 
the south-east or south-west corner of the block and 
would be balanced by a private patients' pavilion at 
the opposite corner, leaving the ward buildings well 
exposed. 

The essential feature of the scheme herewith presented, 
in which it differs from any published or applied ward 
plan known to the writer, is the combination of ward and 
balcony in a T-shaped plan, which, under the common 
conditions of hospital construction in crowded cities, 
seems to offer advantages not otherwise attainable. 

I am indebted to Messrs. McKim, Mead and White for 
kindly permitting me to have the accompanying draw- 
ings prepared in their office. 



" On the Use of an Elastic Ward Unit in the 
Construction of Hospitals for Con- 
tagious Diseases." 

A TOWN hospital for contagious diseases usually 
includes two separate ward units, intended respec- 
tively for the care of cases of scarlet fever and diph- 
theria. The ward unit as a rule is planned for both 
sexes, and it includes therefore at least two bedrooms 
for patients, together with the necessary ward appen- 
dages or service-rooms. If the "contagious" wards 
are on the grounds of and connected with a general 
hospital, the central administration buildings of the 
general hospital may be made to serve the contagious 
wards as well. If the contagious hospital is planned to 
be governed independently, administration buildings 
must be provided for it. However this may be, the 
problems encountered in the construction of the wards 
themselves are always the same, and it is with one of 
these problems, which hitherto has appeared to baffle the 
ingenuity of hospital architects and hospital administra- 
tors, that this paper proposes to deal. 

The bed capacity of a hospital ward is determined by 
its cubic contents; and if this is a fixed quantity, as it 
usually is, the normal capacity of the ward is fixed and 
unchangeable. Now the contagious or epidemic diseases, 
from their very nature, are of fluctuating frequency. In a 
given community the average requirement for scarlet 
fever and diphtheria patients together may be twenty, 
forty, or sixty beds, but during one month or season twice 
as many beds may be needed for the care of scarlet fever 
cases as are demanded for cases of diphtheria, while dur- 
ing the ensuing month or season the proportions may be 
reversed. Compelled to face a demand so changeable, 
administrators are sorely put to it to make both ends 
meet; and often they find themselves so circumstanced 
as to be obliged either to overcrowd their wards (a very 
dangerous procedure indeed in the case of contagious 
diseases), or to turn away patients in need of hospital 
care, even though one wing of the hospital remains 
partially unoccupied. Notwithstanding these condi- 
tions, the practice in the construction of wards for 
contagious" diseases is still to provide units of fixed 
capacity. 

It is true that in order to be prepared for emergencies 
towns sometimes plan their contagious wards on the scale 
which is necessary to meet the probable maximum 
demand for beds for each of the more important conta- 
gious diseases; this means that many beds are unused 
most of the time. The great economic waste involved in 
this policy has been repeatedly noticed by writers on 
municipal sanitation, and in at least one instance, 
namely, in the case of the Hospital Pasteur in Paris, it 
has led to the adoption of the plan of caring for a 
variety of contagious diseases, of whatever kind, in 
rooms connected with a single corridor. In this hospital 
the patients' rooms are small and are designed (excepting 
certain three-bed wards for convalescents) for the occu- 
pancy of a single patient. On each floor there is a single 
set of service-rooms, to be used by the nurse or nurses 
assigned to the care of the miscellaneous cases on the 
floor. 



2IO 



THE BRICK BUI LDE R 



Although it is claimed by the medical directors of 
this hospital that nurses can be placed in charge of a 
variety of contagious cases, and can be so trained that 
there is practically no danger of the transmission of disease 
from one patient to another, provided the patients them- 
selves are not allowed to come into contact with each 
other, neither medical nor public opinion in this country 
is prepared as yet to accept these claims as fully estab- 
lished. Even if the safety of this arrangement should 
be established ultimately, the method cannot be com- 
mended as one which is wholly economical from the 
standpoint of nursing administration, because of the 
great loss of time involved in the cleansing and clothes- 
changing process which must be followed by each nurse as 
she passes from one patient to another. A further objec- 
tion to the method of the Hospital Pasteur is that it 
necessitates something akin to prison regimen for the 
patient, who necessarily must be confined closely to his 
room or cell, because if he leaves it he is sure to come 



(rooms for two, four or six beds may be preferred by 
some for the sake of nursing convenience, though from 
a strictly sanitary standpoint, patients suffering from 
contagious diseases are most safely treated in single 
rooms). The patients' rooms open on a corridor which 
terminates in a large balcony east and west, and which 
is continuous with two service corridors, one at each end. 
The main corridor is so planned that it can be sub- 
divided; and in this manner there may be joined to the 
service-rooms at either extremity, any desired number 
of patients' bedrooms, from one to ten (more if a 
longer series be adopted). The mode of procedure is as 
follows: The first scarlet fever case, let us say, is ad- 
mitted to Room 1, and the corridor is closed between 
Rooms 1 and 2. The first diphtheria case is admitted to 
Room 11, the corridor being closed between Rooms 11 
and 10. The rooms between 1 and 11 are uncontaminated, 
and are ready to be used in succession either with Room 
1 or with Room 11, as the demand arises. The second 



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into contact with patients suffering from other conta- 
gious diseases. 

The method just described represents, however, a 
commendable effort to convert ordinary wards for 
contagious diseases, with their fixed capacity and fre- 
quent waste of beds, into wards of variable capacity ; 
and it has occurred to the present writer that wards 
of variable capacity — an elastic ward unit, in other 
words, having convertible or optional bed space, can eas- 
ily be designed in a manner which will entirely satisfy all 
reasonable demands for economy in both construction and 
administration, and which will accomplish this in such a 
way as to recognize and satisfy the prevailing demand 
for completely separate services for each contagious 
disease. Two such wards, arranged as a pair, are shown 
in the accompanying plan. It will be seen at a glance 
that the same principle can be applied to a group of 
three or four ward units, wherever it is thought desir- 
able to make provision for contagious diseases in ad- 
dition to scarlet fever and diphtheria. 

The accompanying plan shows a series of patients' 
bedrooms facing south, and arranged as single rooms 



scarlet fever case is placed in Room 2, the second diph- 
theria case in Room 10, etc. 

The large balconies are sufficiently spacious to afford 
ample opportunity for fresh-air treatment, but are so far 
apart that there is no chance of contact between the two 
groups of patients. Some of the patients' bedrooms 
have individual balconies, and these rooms may be used 
for the accommodation of special cases, such as patients 
for whom strict isolation is desired for sanitary or disci- 
plinary reasons, or private patients who may not wish to 
mingle with the general run of patients who will take 
their airings on the large balconies. 

The plan illustrates in its further details many minor 
administrative methods, but the purpose of this paper 
is not to discuss these. 

The elastic ward unit for contagious diseases is sug- 
gested as a means to economy in the construction and 
administration of hospitals for contagious diseases — a 
means consistent with the principles of sanitary science, 
and entirely practical, because not at variance with the 
controlling beliefs or prejudices of either the medical 
profession or the general public. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

A Contract Between Architect and Owner. 

BY WM. BROKAW BAMFORD, M. AM SOC. C. E. 



211 



ARCHITECTS seldom enter into a written contract 
or agreement with owners for the work they are 
commissioned to undertake. This is partly due to the 
fact that professional men do not as a rule make written 
contracts with their clients. 

When an oral agreement for the employment of serv- 
ices takes the place of a written agreement, and for any 
reason litigation results from such employment, oral 
testimony or professional custom is usually all that can 
be brought forward by an architect in support of his 
claims. In the case of lawyers and physicians much 
litigation and a well established code of professional 
practice largely offset the need for a written agreement 
with clients. With architects, however, their profes- 
sional practices is still a subject of much diversity of 
opinion among themselves, and the numerous cases of 
litigation have served to confuse rather than to simplify 
professional custom. 

It seems, therefore, very desirable for architects to 
enter into written agreements with their clients in order 
to clearly establish what each one agrees to do, and what 
they should expect of each other. Until the very admir- 
able code of professional practice adopted at the 1909 
convention of the American Institute of Architects be- 
comes more thoroughly understood by the layman (who 
is a vital factor in a trial by jury), and followed by ar- 
chitects themselves, the written agreement should be 
executed between architect and client rather than trust 
to an oral understanding or professional custom to jus- 
tify an architect's claims regarding the terms of his 
employment. 

In offering the following agreement together with 
suggestions for same, the writer desires to point out the 
conditions which should be incorporated rather than 
offer a form to be used as a model for universal use. 

AGREEMENT BETWEEN ARCHITECT AND OWNER. 

This Agreement, made this day of 

One thousand, nine hundred and 

between hereinafter 

designated as the Owner and 

hereinafter designated as the Architect, for professional 

services in connection with a 

to be erected at ; 

Witnesseth as follows: 



The owner on his part agrees: 

I. Furnish Information. First: To furnish the archi- 
tect in writing with full information covering the pro- 
posed plan, arrangement and requirements of the building 
together with any special features he may desire, and 
the approximate size and proposed cost thereof. 

In order to overcome much of the uncertainty caused 
by an owner who gives to an architect vague or conflict- 
Copyright, 1910, by Wm. Brokaw Bamford. 



ing instructions of the requirements which he expects to 
have embodied in his drawings, it is best to have the 
owner confirm his final decisions in writing, after all mat- 
ters have been thoroughly discussed. This will prevent 
many misunderstandings and petty friction, if not more 
serious trouble. 

II. Survey, etc. Second: To furnish a complete and 
accurate survey of the property giving the grade and 
lines of streets and adjoining properties; the rights, re- 
strictions, boundaries and contour of the property on 
which the building is to be erected; and full information 
relating to the sewer, water, gas and electric service. 

The owner should be responsible for obtaining a cor- 
rect survey of his property, giving all restrictions, etc., 
which must be observed. In cities especially, there are 
many ancient restrictions of which an owner may not be 
aware. If he obtains a survey, and has it guaranteed by 
some reliable surety company, both owner and architect 
will be saved from very annoying future trouble if re- 
strictions are discovered after the building is partly or 
completely finished. 

III. Borings. Third: To make all borings necessary 
to determine the quality of the foundations, and furnish 
the architect with full information relating to the same. 

The nature of the material underlying the foundations 
will govern the character of such foundations. If this 
material is not known for a number of feet below the 
level of the footings disagreeable surprises may await 
both owner and architect, if, after the building has seri- 
ously settled and an examination has been made, it is 
found that treacherous material lies just below the firm 
material upon which the footings rest. The owner 
should, therefore, have borings made before the final 
drawings are completed and the contract for the work 
awarded to a contractor. 

IV. Specialists. Fourth: To employ any specialists 
who shall be acceptable to the architect, if same are 
necessary in connection with the heating, ventilating, 
mechanical, structural, electrical, and sanitary work. 
Such specialists shall do their work under the direction 
of the architect. 

Any specialists who are employed should be accept- 
able to the architect in conjunction with whom they are 
to work, otherwise men who are incompatible may be 
brought together by an owner, to the annoyance of all 
concerned. 

V. Tests. Fifth: To employ specialists if necessary 
and pay all expenses for chemical and mechanical tests 
which may be required in connection with the work. 

If any tests of materials, etc., are necessary it is advis- 
able to have a distinct iinderstanding regarding them. 
An owner will usually insist that such work is a part of 
an architect's services and that he should pay for any 
specialists necessary to do his work for him. 

The architect on his part agrees: 

VI. Preliminary Studies. First: To consult and ad- 
vise with the owner and make such preliminary studies 



212 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



as will acquaint the owner with the contemplated ar- 
rangement, design and construction of the building, 
and enable the owner to accept said preliminary studies 
as the basis of working drawings and specifications; and 
to agree with the architect upon a definite limit of cost 
for the building. 

In order to reach some definite understanding regard- 
ing the proposed cost of the work and the final re- 
quirements of the owner, the preliminary studies are 
important. These should be formally accepted by the 
owner before an architect proceeds to make his final 
drawings, otherwise the architect may be put to a great 
expense correcting the final drawings. The owner may 
refuse additional compensation for such extra work, or 
may even decline to pay for any work, if after estimates 
are received from contractors it is found that the lowest 
bid overruns an indefinite, intangible, or absurdly low 
cost which the owner claims he did not wish the work to 
exceed. 

VII. Working Drawings. Second: To make, upon 
the basis of the accepted preliminary studies, one com- 
plete set of working drawings and such detail drawings 
on a larger scale as are necessary to explain the working 
drawings and specifications. 

If the working drawings are made upon the basis of an 
approved set of preliminary drawings, then any changes 
or modifications necessary can be more accurately traced 
to their source, and the architect under Section VIII. 
Re-Study or Re-Draw Working Drawings, would then 
be expected to correct only such errors or reasons for 
possible increases in proposed cost for which he has 
been responsible. 

VIII. Re-Study or Re-Draw Working Drawings. 
Third: To re-study and if necessary re-draw without 
charge, any or all of the working drawings, if owing to 
an unwarranted departure from the approved prelimi- 
nary studies or to a needless extravagant or elaborate in- 
terpretation of them in said drawings and specifications, 
the lowest bid for doing the work in accordance there- 
with overruns the limit of cost agreed upon by the 
architect and the owner. 

IX. Prints. Fourth: To furnish for the use of the 

owner and contractor, sets of prints mounted on 

cloth, taken from the said set of working drawings, .... 
copy of all large size details and .... sets of specifica- 
tions prepared for work furnished or done under his 
supervision. Any additional prints or specifications re- 
quired by the owner or contractor shall be paid for at 
actual cost. 

The drawings, specifications and all copies therefrom, 
as instruments of service, shall remain the property of 
the architect who reserves and retains all rights thereto, 
and they shall be returned to him upon the completion 
or discontinuance of the work. 

It is advisable to definitely establish the number of 
sets of prints which an architect should supply to an 
owner or contractor free of cost. Otherwise he may find 
he has been shouldered with a good size expense ac- 
count for prints. 

X. Building Permit. Fifth: To make application for 
a building permit and deliver to the building or other 
local authorities such prints from the said set of working 
drawings and specifications as may be required by them. 



The architect, on behalf of the owner, should arrange 
to obtain a building permit, either before or after the 
contract for the work is let. If this is not done the 
owner may try to compel a contractor to perform a con- 
tract which requires work to be done contrary to law 
and he may be liable for a claim for additional compen- 
sation on account of a modification in the work necessary 
to make it conform to law, or a claim for a right to 
terminate the contract and a demand for damages. 

It is mutually understood and agreed: 

XI. Architect's Authority. First: The architect shall 
have general direction and supervision of all work to be 
done under any contract for the construction of the 
building, including all fixtures necessary to render it fit 
for occupancy. By supervision of the architect (as dis- 
tinguished from the continuous personal superintend- 
ence which may be secured by the employment of a 
clerk-of-the-works or superintendent of construction) is 
meant such inspection by the architect or his deputy of 
work in studios and shops, of the building or other work 
in process of erection, completion, or alteration, as he 
finds necessary to ascertain whether it is being executed 
in general conformity with his drawings, specifications 
or directions. The architect is authorized to reject any 
part of the work which does not conform to the drawings 
and specifications and to order its removal and recon- 
struction. The architect is also authorized to act in 
emergencies that may arise in the course of construction, 
to order necessary changes, and to define the intent and 
meaning of the drawings and specifications. 

If the operations require the services of a clerk-of-the- 
works or superintendent of construction, the architect, 
with the consent of the owner, shall employ such assist- 
ance and the expense shall be borne by the owner. 

This section follows the schedule for professional prac- 
tice adopted by the American Institute of Architects 
and should be included in the agreement to prevent 
misunderstanding. 

XII. Variations and Extras. Second: The architect 
shall have authority at his discretion to order on behalf 
of the owner any necessary changes or modifications to 
the work whether the same may or may not involve any 
variation in the amount of the contract. The architect 
shall also direct the contractor to make any changes or 
additions to the work ordered by the owner either ver- 
bally or in writing, and unless otherwise directed by the 
owner shall notify the contractor of the manner of pay- 
ment as provided in Section XVIII. of the architect's 
standard form of Schedule of Conditions of Contract. 

The architect shall, as soon as is reasonably possible, 
notify the owner in writing of any changes or modifica- 
tions which he has ordered which involve a variation in 
the amount of the contract, and where possible the 
amount of such variation or the method for determining 
the amount of such variation as provided in Section 
XVIII. of the Schedule of Conditions of Contract above 
referred to. 

It is also mutually understood that the owner hereby 
ratifies and confirms all orders or directions of the archi- 
tect which may be given in connection with the work; 
provided, however, that the right is reserved to the 
owner at any time to withdraw the authority for the 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



213 



architect to order changes or modifications involving a 
variation in the amount of the contract, by giving to both 
the architect and contractor written notice of his with- 
drawal of such authority. In such an event the archi- 
tect shall issue no further orders involving any variation 
in the amount of the contract unless the same have been 
authorized in writing by the owner, and in the event of 
the architect's then giving any such orders or directions 
he shall be held personally responsible for any expense 
in connection with the same. 

This section is a decided innovation, and the writer asks 
for it special study as the subject is one of vital impor- 
tance to architects — the status of the architect. 

The status of the architect, as agent of the owner or 
professional adviser, is most often called into question in 
connection with orders tor extra work or alterations to 
the contract. The architect may verbally order certain 
work to be done or changes made, and even should such 
work legitimately entitle the contractor to extra com- 
pensation, he may find it hard to collect such compensa- 
tion without the written order of the architect. Even 
with such written order there may be trouble for both 
architect and contractor if the owner repudiates such 
order as not being authorized by him, and a court of law 
holds the architect to be the professional adviser and not 
the agent of the owner, and that he had no authority to 
involve the owner in additional expense without his ex- 
press authority. In such a contingency the contractor 
may find that his only chance for redress is in a suit 
against the architect. 

There are many times when extra work or modifica- 
tions to the contract should be made at once in order not 
to delay the work. The architect who always has his 
orders confirmed by the owner before issuing them to 
the contractor, may find the owner temporarily away or 
difficult to reach at once or for other reasons may con- 
sider it advisable to order such work on his own initia- 
tive without first consulting the owner. For that reason 
the writer advocates placing in the general conditions of 
the contract a section for a provisional sum for contin- 
gencies similar to the following: 

" Provisional Sum for Contingencies. Provide the sum 
of $ for extra work (over and above the provi- 
sional sums specified in the various trades), to be used as 
directed by the architect, or deducted wholly or in part 
if not directed to be used." 

An architect can then legally order the work within 
the amount available for contingent items without wait- 
ing for an owner's confirmation. This is a very impor- 
tant consideration for rush work and a contingent sum 
provides a very practical help out of much of the 
difficulty. 

Such a section as the above is usual in many carefully 
prepared British specifications. The blanket sum usually 
allowed for contingencies would vary from about five per 
cent to ten per cent of the contract amount depending on 
the nature of the work and the uncertainties likely to be 
encountered. This section would cover extra orders of 
the architect not otherwise protected by an owner's 
written confirmation, and would assist in expediting the 
work and help to straighten out the analogous position of 
the architect in issuing orders direct to a contractor; 

The money for contingent items would be spent as the 
architect directs and the following section should be 
given in the conditions of contract to cover such cases: 

" Provisional Sums. The provisional sums mentioned 
in the specification for materials to be supplied or for 
work to be performed by special contractors or mechan- 
ics or for other works or fittings to the building, shall be 



paid and expended at such times and in such amounts 
and to and in favor of such persons as the architect shall 
direct, and sums thus expended shall be payable by the 
contractor without deductions or discount, or (without 
prejudice to any rights of the contractor existing under 

the contract referred to in Section ) by the owner 

to the said contractors or mechanics. The value of 
works which are executed by the contractor in respect 
to provisional sums, or in additional works, shall be 
ascertained as provided by Section At the set- 
tlement of accounts the amount paid by the contractor to 
the said contractors and mechanics, and the said value of 
such works executed by the contractor, shall be set 
against all provisional sums or any sum provided for 
additional works, while the balance after allowing pro 
rata for the contractor's profits at the rate of . . . per cent, 
unless different rates are contained in the contractor's 
original estimate, shall be added to or deducted from the 
contract sum provided that in estimating the amounts 
paid as last herein provided no deductions shall be made 
by or on behalf of the owner in respect of any damages 
paid by the sub-contractor to the contractor, the inten- 
tion being that the contractor and not the owner shall 
have the benefit of any such damages." 

To carry the question a little further towards a legal 
solution the writer considers that for certain cases it 
might be advisable to insert the section hereinafter given 
in a contract between the architect and owner. 

XIII. Certificates. Third: The architect shall make 
recommendations concerning all estimates and allow- 
ances of the contractor for payments under any con- 
tract, and issue a certificate to the contractor for the 
amount he considers due him. 

No certificate of the architect shall of itself be con- 
sidered conclusive evidence as to the sufficiency of any 
work or materials to which it relates so as to relieve the 
contractor from his liability to execute the works in all 
respects in accordance with the terms and upon and 
subject to the conditions of the building contract or from 
his liability to make good all defects as provided thereby. 

This is rather an innocent looking -section but it relates 
to a subject which has been the source of loss of consider- 
able sums of money by architects in Great Britain. In 
many cases damages have been recovered from architects 
because they issued certificates to contractors for work 
which later was found to be defective. It was claimed 
that those certificates actually warranted that the work 
paid for was properly completed. When the contract 
between the owner and contractor did not provide for 
legal recovery against a contractor, the architect has 
been held financially responsible. 

In a uniform form of agreement and conditions of con- 
tract prepared by the writer the following is inserted to 
overcome the legal difficulty: 

"No certificate of the architect shall of itself be con- 
sidered conclusive evidence as to the sufficiency of any 
work or materials to which it relates so as to relieve the 
contractor from his liability to execute the works in all 
respects in accordance with the terms and upon and sub- 
ject to the conditions of this agreement, or from his 
liability to make good all defects as provided thereby." 

XIV. Changes in Work. Fourth : The architect shall 
advise with the owner on any work or changes in the 



2I 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



building contemplated by the owner, and the owner shall 
order through the architect all work or changes required 
by him. 

Such a section is desirable to establish the fact that an 
owner should not order the contractor to make changes 
or modifications, but such orders should be given by the 
owner to the architect and from him to a contractor. 
This seems obvious but too often it is not understood or 
followed by an owner. 

XV. Payments. Fifth: The owner shall pay all 
necessary traveling expenses of the architect and as full 
compensation for the services aforesaid shall pay the 

architect per cent upon the total cost of the 

building and other work, including all fixtures necessary 
to render it fit for occupation. The total cost of the 
building shall be interpreted as the cost of all materials 
and all labor necessary to complete the work, plus the 
contractor's profit and expenses, as such costs would be 
if all materials were new and all labor fully paid at 
market prices current when the work was ordered. Pay- 
ments shall be made as follows: Upon completion of pre- 
liminary sketches one-fifth (Vr.) of the entire fee; upon 
the completion of specifications and general working 
drawings (exclusive of details), two-fifths (-.-,) additional, 

and thereafter per cent of the amount which 

the architect shall certify is due the contractor. The 
final payment shall be however an amount sufficient to 
make the total payments equal the full amount due the 
architect. Until an actual estimate is received, the 
architect's charges shall be based upon the proposed cost 
of the work, and payments shall be made on account of 
the entire fee. 

In case of the abandonment or suspension of the work, 
the owner shall upon demand of the architect pay the 
architect as follows: For preliminary studies, a fee in 
accordance with the character and magnitude of the 
work; for preliminary studies, specifications and general 
working drawings (exclusive of details), three-fifths (%) 
of the fee for complete services. 

This section follows the procedure adopted by the 
American Institute of Architects. 

XVI. Payment for Variations-. Sixth: When for 
any reason other than those stated under architect's 
agreements, Section VIII. above, the owner shall request 



the architect to make alterations or modifications to the 
approved studies, drawings or specifications, or request 
him to prepare studies, drawings or specifications for 
work not included in the approved studies, etc., for the 
building, the owner shall pay to the architect if such 

work is constructed per cent of the total cost, 

and if such work is not constructed he shall pay in pro- 
portion to the importance of the work done and service 
rendered. 

When for any reason the owner shall vary the amount 
of any contract by accepting a credit for the omission or 
modification of any work, the owner shall pay the archi- 
tect the full commission on the work, the same as if it 
had been executed. 

In many respects this section may appear to many to 
be a novel provision. It would certainly be novel for 
many architects if they should receive compensation for 
the work covered by this section. Claims for such extra 
work on the part of the architect are legally difficult, if 
not impossible, to collect without a written agreement. 
This clause, therefore, will undoubtedly be studied and 
probably indorsed in principle by a goodly number of 
architects. 

XVII. " Building" Defined. Seventh: It is further 
mutually understood and agreed that in the above agree- 
ment the term " building " is used to define not only the 
structure itself, but all work in connection with it com- 
mitted to the architect by the owner such as fencing, 
grading, roads, walks, planting, decorative painting and 
sculptural decoration. 

A definition of the word " building" will prevent mis- 
understanding in many cases regarding payment to the 
architect for work which is not always included in the 
allowance for an architect's services. 

In Witness Whereof, the parties to these presents 
have interchangeably set their hands and seals the day 
and year above written. 

Signed, Sealed and Delivered 

in the presence of: 



In conclusion, the writer trusts that the preceding sug- 
gested forms of agreement may indicate ways in which 
architects can obviate much of the unnecessary mis- 
understanding between themselves and their clients. 



Plate Illustrations — Description. 



Tuberculosis Hospital, Washington, D.C. Plate 115. 
This hospital for the District of Columbia is situated 
upon a high and rolling plot of thirty acres, about three 
miles to the northward of the White House. The ground 
was purchased by Congress for a large general hospital 
with contagious and tuberculosis departments. Up to 
the present time this is the only one of the forty build- 
ings originally intended that has been constructed. The 
services, such as nurses' home, domestic service building, 
etc., which were originally planned in separate buildings, 
have had to be accommodated in the present instance 
under one roof. The interest of the building lies in the 
four open wards, one of which is found over each of the 



three wings and one upon the fourth floor over the cen- 
tral building. Each ward is provided with its own 
dressing room, roofed in and amply protected on the 
exposed sides. The idea of these covered roof spaces 
used in lieu of the usual slightly constructed open-air 
wards upon the ground has proven very satisfactory, both 
to the management and to the patients, and was suggested 
by Dr. Geo. M. Kober, Washington, D. C, chairman of 
the commission in charge of construction. A fact which 
considerably complicated the planning of the building 
was the necessity of making provision not only for 
the usual divisions of incipient and advanced cases in 
the male and female wards, but also the separation of the 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2Ii 



white and colored. This gave rise to the eight divisions 
shown upon the plan, such as incipient white male cases, 
advanced white male cases, etc. The appropriation was 
not sufficient for the number of beds called for, and so 
it was impossible to erect the building of fireproof con- 
struction. But by pursuing every possible economy the 
building was constructed for the low cost of $900 per 
patient, which price included all but movable equipment. 

The Lawrence Hospital, Bronxville, N.Y. Plate 116. 
This building was planned to meet the needs of a grow- 
ing suburban community. It was designed to appear a 
completed structure externally, and still permit of 
future additions, which led to the adoption of the pa- 
vilion type. In order to accommodate both surgical and 
medical cases a large number of private rooms were 
planned, while its public 
character required wards 
for both men and women. 
The public wards are lo- 
cated in the so-called ward 
wings temporarily and will 
later be permanently 
housed in ward buildings 
connected with the ward 
wings and constructed at 
right angles with their main 
axes. The isolation ward 
is some distance to the rear 
of the administration build- 
ing, and the nurses' home is 
within easy access to all. 
The building is semi-fire- 
proof in construction. The 
exterior is faced in gray 
pressed brick with marble 
and dull white glazed terra 
cotta trim. The interior 
finish is of the simplest and 
most sanitary character, 
the trim being of oak. The 
operating rooms, baths and 
toilets have tiled floors and 
wainscots. Flush panel 
doors are installed through- 
out. The electric equip- 
ment is complete with 
extensive call and intercommunicating telephone system 
between all rooms. 

Rufus Frost Hospital, Chelsea, Mass. Plate 117.. 
This building covers an area of about 6,000 square feet. 
The material upon the exterior is " Tapestry " brick with 
trimmings of cast limestone. The general tone of the 
brick is dark red, laid in Flemish bond with a white 
joint. The administration building is three stories high 
on the front and four stories on the rear, with wings on 
either side, which in turn are two stories on the ■ front 
and three on the rear. Upon the interior each floor is 
provided with a diet kitchen, also a toilet and bathroom 
for each sex. The third floor is devoted entirely to 
nurses' sleeping apartments, being individual rooms 
with a general bath. The entire building is finished in 
ash and hard plaster. Monolith floors have been used in 
the operating, surgeons', and sterilizing rooms, as well as 




gateway in garden, house at oyster bay, 

long island, n. y. 

Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



baths. A glazed solarium and open porch has been fur- 
nished for convalescents. A convalescence exit from the 
sun porch to the lawns has been provided, the same being 
of an easy grade, doing away with steps. The building 
is equipped with elevators and stand-pipe for fire protec- 
tion. The cost of the building was $56,449.46. 

House and Garden at Oyster Bay, Long Island, N. Y. 
Plates 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124. The first house in 
America to be constructed of brick similar in size and 
texture to many of those used in ancient Rome is shown 
in the plate illustrations of the house at Oyster Bay, L. I., 
Carrere & Hastings, architects. This house marks an 
epoch, in many respects, in the development of artistic 
brickwork in this country. 

The brick are most unusual in size, being 18 inches 

long, 2 inches thick and 6 
inches wide. They vary in 
color from a rich red to a 
deep blue with many inter- 
mediate shades of light and 
dark brown, purple and 
olive. Many of the indi- 
vidual brick bear several 
colors each and all have 
rough, rugged surfaces. 
They are laid in Flemish 
bond with a 1 inch cream- 
gray, rough textured mor- 
tar joint. So skilfully have 
these brick been woven to- 
gether that one loses all 
sense of a wide variety of 
color and sees before him 
only a rich, dark fabric-like 
wall possessing a delight- 
ful texture, yet an extreme 
softness, perfect harmony 
and simple dignity. 

In appropriate parts of 
the work patterns have 
been introduced by the use, 
as in the gables, of the 
Dutch cross bond with its 
diagonal lined mortar 
joints; by simple belt 
courses of headers and in- 
teresting "herring-bone " patterns, as in the stair tower; 
by ornamental spandrels over the loggia arches and by 
the use, as a frieze, of some forty mosaic panels; in 
all of this work a sufficient amount of soft brownish- 
gray brick and tile has been used to properly bring out 
the patterns. 

Perhaps the best single word expressive of this brick- 
work would be "harmony"; it fits its environment. 
One has the feeling that the house is "at home " among 
the trees and the flowers of the wonderful old-new gar- 
den. There is no jarring note in the blending colors of 
the brick any more than among the flowers themselves — 
in fact the house seems to have grown up among them. 
These illustrations are of great interest as they exem- 
plify the rapidly increasing use of brick for country 
house work in America — the adaptation to our needs of 
the charming old brick house of rural England. 



2l6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 

REPORT OF PARISIAN FLOOD COMMISSION. tion, December 1, 1910, models will be made from the 

winning designs and given a permanent place in the ex- 

THE commission that was appointed to investigate hibition department. The committee to judge the 
measures necessary to prevent a recurrence of the drawings will be William A. Boring, Donn Barber and 
disastrous floods in Paris has submitted its report. It Grosvenor Atterbury. The program of the competition, 



F 



provides for the widening of the Seine above Port St. 
Michel, the reconstruction of the Archeveche, Double 
and Petit Pont Bridges, the displacement of the Orleans 
railway, the modification of the Monnaie barrage and 
lock, the raising of the embankment walls 50 cm. above 
the water level of 1910, and the adoption of suitable 
means for hermetically closing 
the openings into the Seine. 
While these suggestions are in- 
tended to protect the railways 
and public works, and prevent 
the Seine from overflowing the 
embankments, a still more im- 
portant undertaking is pro- 
posed for relieving the Seine in 
its passage through Paris. 
This is to be done by widening 
the left arm of the Seine on the 
right of the lie de la Cite, at 
an estimated cost of 12,000,000 francs; the deepening of 
the bed of the river between Suresnes and Bougival, at 
an estimated cost of 30,000,000 francs; and the construc- 
tion of a canal from Annette on the Marne, to Epinay 
on the Seine, at an approximate cost of 170,000,000 
francs. 

COMPETITION. 

Til E Building Trades Employers' Association of New 
York City is conducting a competition in connection 
with its permanent exhibition of building materials. 
The program calls for two houses, one of four rooms 
costing §2,500, and another of eight rooms costing 
$4,500. The competition divides itself into two classes; 
in the first class, or 
$2,500 house, the 
three best drawings 
will be awarded 
prizes of §100, $50 
and §30 respectively, 
while a like number 
of drawings in the 
second class will re- 
ceive §150, §75 and 
§50. In addition to 
the six prizes men- 
tioned, three draw- 
ings in both classes 
receiving honorable 
mention will be 
awarded §20 each. 
Designs are solicited 
from all architects 
and architectural 
draftsmen. At the 
close of the competi- 



with full terms, may be obtained from the Association 
at 34 West 33d street, New York City. 



^L^l &** 




MOVING A STRAIGHT BRICK WALL. 

THE setting of a larger paper machine in the Water- 
vliet, Mich., paper mill, necessitated the relocating 
of one of the brick foundation 
walls of the old machine, 150 
feet long, 16 feet high and 21 
inches thick, which was com- 
posed of a succession of 3-foot 
piers, 8 feet on centers, arched 
over with a 42-inch crown. The 
new machine was 23 inches 
wider than the old, and the 
paper company intended to 
tear down one of the brick 
foundation walls and rebuild it 
in proper location to accommo- 
This would have involved an 
It was suggested by the con- 
tractors, who were reconstructing a considerable portion 
of the interior of the mill, that new footings be built and 
the wall moved 23 inches to one side. This plan was 
adopted by the paper company when the price for the 
work agreed upon was less than half the cost of tearing 
down and rebuilding. — Engineering Record. 



DETAIL FOR CHURCH. 
Made by Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company 
Joseph Dntersee, Architect. 



date the new machine, 
expense of about §1,000. 



AN ENGLISH VIEW OF TOWN PLANNING. 



A. 




HOUSE AT (IRANI) RAPIDS, MICH. 

Built of light gray " Astrakhan " rough faced brick, made by Columbus Brick and Terra 

Cotta Company, P. H. McDonald, Agent. 

Frank Lloyd Wright, Architect. 



R. DAVIDGE, F.S.I., England, in an elaborate 
discussion of Town Planning gave expression to 
the following points: Each town must have an individ- 
uality of its own; 
natural assets — such 
as hills, wood and 
water — must be pre- 
served and extended ; 
main lines of route 
must take direction 
required by traffic 
and contour of 
ground ; geometrical 
planning must not 
necessarily be 
adopted as satisfac- 
tory; long, straight 
streets when adopted 
should have a definite 
"motive"; slight 
curves or irregulari- 
ties in frontage lines 
may in many cases be 
adopted with advan- 
tage; line of sight 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



217 



should in most cases be restricted within reasonable lim- 
its — i e., lines of long streets except as mentioned above 
should be broken and all views should as far as possible 
be framed in a suitable setting; the grouping or arrange- 
ment of the principal buildings and open spaces should 
in all cases be specially studied with a view to securing 
the best effect for the whole; no planning scheme can be 
considered as complete without a sufficiency of open 
spaces, and due regard must be paid to proportion and 
to architectural design. 



TWO METHODS FOR SOUND-PROOFING 
HOUSES. 

ONE of the chambers of the Amsterdam Royal 
Academy of Science has been made noise-proof in 

the following manner: The walls of the room consist of 

six layers, alter- 
nately of wood, 
cork and sand. 
There are two 
spaces, one be- 
tween the second 
and the third 
layer, and one be- 
tween the fourth 
and the fifth, 
from which the 
air has been ex- 
tracted. The 
inner walls are 
of porous stone 
covered with a 
kind of horsehair 
cloth known as 
trichopiese, a 

Belgian invention, which is sound-resisting and is widely 

used in Belgium in telephone booths. The walls are 

pierced by acoustically isolated leaden rods. The roof 

is composed of layers of lead, wood, asphalt, paper, sea- 
grass and cork. The second method, which is cheaper, 

is suitable for 

apartm en ts. 

It consists of 

sheathing the details for filter plant building, 

partition studs 





DETAIL FOR SCOTTISH RITE 
CATHEDRAL. 

Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 
Jones & Furbringer, Architects. 



HOUSE AT GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 

Faced with " Ironclay " brick, made by Ironclay Brick Company. 

Williamson & Crow, Architects. 

which was recently consecrated, is considered by many 
to be the " most original building of modern times." It 
is built in the early Christian Byzantine style. The inte- 
rior is adorned with the mosaics with which it is pro- 
posed to cover all the walls similar to those of St. 
Mark's in Venice. The cost, exclusive of the site, was 
$1,500,000. The dimensions of the cathedral are as fol- 
lows : Exterior — extreme length 360 feet, width 156 feet, 
height of nave 117 feet, height of campanile (St. Ed- 
ward's Tower) 273 feet, and to the top of the cross 284 
feet; interior — length 342 feet, width of nave with aisles 
98 feet, height of main arches of nave 90 feet, and of 

[the domes 112 feet. The area of the whole building is 

[54,000 square feet. 

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING FOR SCHOOLHOUSES. 

A SERIES of tests was recently conducted for the 
Board of Education of Newark to determine the 
best form of lighting for schoolrooms. The rooms in 
which the experiments were tried measured 22 by 34 
feet, and were 12 feet high. Three systems were tried, 
consisting of twenty- 
two 16-candlepower . 

1 y^^^te^ 



with tin or 
aluminum. 
This idea is of 
German origin 
and was used 
first in lining 
wooden tele- 
phone booths. 



CATHE- 
DRAL AT 
WESTMIN- 
STER. 

'"pHE great 
A. cathedral 
at Westmin- 
ster, England, 




PHILADELPHIA. 

Executed in terra cotta 

by 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 





2l8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



lamps, five 75-candlepower graphitized filament lamps, 
and five 100- watt tungsten lamps with glass reflectors 
and frosted tips. The tungsten lamps were the most 
economical and gave by far the best light at each desk, 
as was determined by illuminometer readings. A simi- 
lar investigation has been made in Boston, where it was 
suggested that the room be lighted by lamps placed 
along the side walls just under the ceiling in boxes with 
prismatic glass bottoms, which would cast the rays into 
the room at the 
desired angle. — 
Scientific Ameri- 
can. 



of art under any circumstances. The Lille Museum is con- 
sidering a similar rule. Such action will become univer- 
sal unless absolute protection is assured to all donors. 



T' 




EIFFEL 
TOWER. 

THE Eiffel 
Tower, 
Paris, which is 
300 meters high, 
has been ob- 
served by scien- 
tists to contract 
during the day 
and expand dur- 
ing the night. 
They attribute 
this to the effect 
of the sun upon 
the iron with 
which it is con- 
structed. In 
summer the 
tower twists it- 
self in such a 
manner that by 
s u n d own the 
lightning rod at 
the top leans 
ea s twa r d. In 
the winter it 
points westward. 
By dawn next 
day the rod is 
vertical again. 
The tip of the 
lightning rod 
leans from the 
plumb-line, a dis- 
tance of from about \% inches to as much as 8 inches. 
Recent observations have shown that the tower's habit 
of twisting in different directions does not increase with 
age and there seems, therefore, no danger of its falling. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR AUGUST. 
'HE statistics as compiled by The American Con- 
tractor, New York, show a gain in twenty-five 
cities of from 3 per cent to 199 percent; others showing 
a loss of from 3 to 69 per cent. Cities scoring a gain over 

50 per cent are 
Baltimore, 158 
Birmingham, 85 
Columbus, 123 
Louisville, 114 
Manchester, 59 
Nashville, 199 
New Haven, 89 
Portland, Ore. 
156; Toledo, 84 
The United 
States Steel 
Corporation is to 
build a branch 
plant at Duluth 
and has taken out 
a permit to erect 
the first forty- 
eight buildingsat 
an estimated cost 
of $10,000,000. 



DETAIL OF APARTMENT HOUSE, RIVERSIDE DRIVE, NEW YORK CITY. 
Executed in white mat terra cotta by New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company. 

G. Ajello. Architect. 



CONSTRUCTION OF EXHIBITION BUILDINGS. 

THE recent destruction of art treasures by fire at 
the International Exhibition at Brussels will un- 
doubtedly act as an incentive to a better class of build- 
ings in the future. In fact, fireproof construction will be 
necessary for housing works of art if exhibitors expect 
to secure valuable material from the various countries. 
Already a motion has been introduced by a Paris munic- 
ipal councilor forbidding the city of Paris to lend a work 



ANEW office 
building 
has been de- 
signed by D. H. 
Burnham & Co., 
architects, for the 
People's Gas 
Light & Coke 
Company, Chi- 
cago, 111. This 
building will be 
twenty-one stor- 
ies high, having 
a frontage of 196 
feet on Michigan 
avenue and 172 
feet on Adams 
street. It will 
accommodate fifteen hundred offices and cost approxi- 
mately $6,000,000 when finished. The exterior will be of 
granite and glazed terra cotta. The two main facades 
will have a colonnade of eighteen monolithic columns, 
each of which will be 4 feet 3 inches in diameter and 26 
feet 6 inches in height, weighing thirty tons. The build- 
ing will be absolutely fireproof. 



COl 
1« 



)LUMBIA UNIVERSITY announces a course of 
lectures by Edward R. Smith, Reference Librarian, 
Avery Library. This course will cover the entire devel- 
opment of the fine arts among European peoples. The 
history of art will be shown not so much in the succes- 
sion of monuments as in the development of style. The 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



219 




size 14^ x 20. Price portfolio, 
York, William Helburn. 



Bound, $11. New 



ANDERSON GARAGE, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Of white enameled terra cotta furnished by the Northwestern Terra 

Cotta Company. 

Jenney, Mundie & Jensen, Architects. 

course is intended to be entirely simple and elementary, 
giving the general information on the history of art, 
which should precede special and critical study. There 
will be thirty sessions beginning October 8th. 



THE scholarships of the Architectural League of 
America in Harvard University have been awarded 
to Robert Finn and Henry Jansen of Detroit, and Fred- 
erick Larsen of Boston, with Ernest Hayward of Somer- 
ville, Mass., as alternate. Thirteen drawings in all were 
submitted in the final competition. The teaching staff 
of the Department of Architecture of Harvard Univer- 
sity and Edmund Wheelwright of Boston formed the 
committee of award. 

NEW BOOKS. 
Italian Brick Architecture of the Middle Ages and 
the Renaissance. A new book by H. Strack. 47 plates 



A Primer of Architectural Drawing — for young 
students. Twenty-five problems, each illustrated by 
a plate. One hundred and sixty-one explanatory 
detail figures, 154 pages. Pocket size, by Wm. S. B. 
Dana, B.S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). 
Cloth, price $1.25. New York: William T. Comstock. 



IN GENERAL. 



Lyman A. Ford and Leslie Allen Oliver, formerly 
of the architectural firm of Ford, Stewart & Oliver, 
have formed a co-partnership with Lawrence Smith 
Butler for the prac- 
tice of architecture 
under the firm name 
of Ford, Butler & 
Oliver. Offices: 103 
Park avenue, New 
York City. 

Elmo Cameron 
Lowe and J. Carlisle 
Bollenbacher have 
formed a co-partner- 
ship for the practice 
of architecture, with 
offices at 1612 Corn 
Exchange Bank 
Building, Chicago. 




DETAIL BY E. F. GU1LBERT, 

ARCHITECT. 

South Amboy Terra Cotta Company, 

Makers. 




COTTAGE FOR PARENTAL SCHOOL, MAYFAIR, ILL. 

Roofed with interlocking shingle tile made by Ludowici-Celadon Company. 

W. B. Mundie, Architect. 



Luther Morris 
Leisenring has 
opened offices for the 
practice of architec- 
ture at 1320 New York avenue, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Henry Auerbach has opened offices for the practice of 
architectural engineering at 90 West street, 
New York City. Manufacturers' catalogues and 
samples solicited. 

D. H. Perkins and J. L. Hamilton, architects, 
have removed to their new suite, 1100 Straus 
Building, 132 Clark street, Chicago. 

Frank C. Walter, formerly of the architectural 
firm of Edwards & Walter, has established offices 
for the practice of architecture at 502 3 Forsyth 
Building, Atlanta, Ga. 

Richard H. Marr announces that he has opened 
an office at 1529 Ford Building, Detroit, for the 
practice of architecture. 

The " Tapestry " brick for the house at Oyster 
Bay, Long Island, illustrated in this issue, was 
furnished by Fiske & Co., Inc. 

A Town Planning Conference will be held in 
London from October 10 to 15, 1910, under the 
auspices of The Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects. 



220 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The restoration of the Palace of the Popes at Avignon 
is steadily proceeding, and numerous interesting archae- 
ological discoveries are being made. The apartment 
called the " Salle des Audiences " is now completely 
restored, and in the chapel the stained glass which was 



"SPECIFICATION BLANKS," by T. Robert Wieger, 
architect (formerly with F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
25 cents. Reduction on quantities. Sample page upon 
request. 628- 14th street, Denver, Colo. 




DETAIL BY T. H. POOLE & CO., ARCHITECTS. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

destroyed during the occupation of the building as a 
barracks has been replaced according to its original de- 
sign. The municipality of Avignon is occupied with the 
restoration of the ancient battlements extending along 
the bank of the Rhone between Porte Saint-Dominique 
and Porte de l'Oulle. 

POSITION WANTED —A graduate of Columbia Univer- 
sity desires position with reliable New York firm. Willing to 
start for nominal sum and work for advancement. Address, 
W. D., care of The Brickbuilder. 

DESIGNER AND CHIEF DRAFTSMAN — An all- 
around man of long experience desires position with or with- 
out charge of office. For four and a half years he has had 
charge of designs, details, and superintendence of costly build- 
ings. A specialist in Gothic, and especially good at perspec- 
tives and interiors. Can turnish highest references. Will 
go west or south. Terms, $1.00 per hour, or partnership. 
Address, " M. A.," care of The Brickbuilder. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— i register as- 
sistants FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK- 
ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEREIRA, 
218 La SALLE St., CHICAGO. Long Distance Tel., Franklin 1328. 

A HOUSE OF BRICK OF MODERATE COST- 

THE TITLE OF A 96 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH 
CONTAINS 71 DESIGNS FOR A BRICK HOUSE 
OF MODERATE COST. THESE DESIGNS WERE 
SUBMITTED BY WELL-KNOWN ARCHITEC- 
TURAL DRAFTSMEN IN COMPETITION. IN- 
TERESTING ARTICLES. ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HISTORICAL BRICK HOUSES. PRICE, FIFTY 
CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 



UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE. 

FOUR YEAR COURSE. (Degree B.S. in Arch.) Architectural engi- 
neering may be taken in lieu of advanced design, etc. 

GRADUATE YEAR. (Degree M.S. in Arch.) Allowing specializa- 
tion in design or in architectural engineering, etc. 

SPECIAL COURSE OF TWO YEARS. (Certificate.) For qualified 
draftsmen ; affording option in architectural engineering. 

ADVANCED STANDING granted to college graduates and others for 
required work completed elsewhere. 

SUMMER SCHOOL in architecture, offering complete group of tech- 
nical subjects, affords advanced standing in regular and special 
courses. Special circular. 

FULL INFORMATION may be secured through application to the 
Dean of The College Department, Dr. GEORGE E. FISHER, 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

NOTICE TO ARCHITECTS. (Competition.) 

The Confederate Memorial Association has instructed its 
Executive Committee to receive Competitive plans for a 
memorial building in Richmond, Va., to be known as the 
" Confederate Memorial Institute." The Committee has 
engaged a firm of architects to act as expert advisers in the 
preparation and award of the competition. 

Cost of building to be $1 50,000. 
Prizes ranging from $1,000 to $200. 

Architects desiring to compete should apply for condi- 
tions of competition on or before September 30, 1910, to 
Hon. J. Taylor Ellyson, President Confederate Memorial 
Association, Richmond, Virginia. 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITHER WOODEN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Public Buildings. Elastic, Noiseless, 
and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
German Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The Franklin Union Building in Boston, R. Clipston Sturgis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
the North Dakota, the largest Battleship in the United States 
Navy ; the extensions of the Suffolk County Court House in 
Boston, George A. Clough, Architect ; and the Registry of 
Deeds, Salem, Mass., C. H. Blackall, Architect. 

We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET. Opp. BoyUton Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



Program for The Brickbuilder Annual Terra Cotta Competition, page 242 



THE 



BRICKBVILDER 




ARCHUBCVRAL 

MONTHIY 




• I » 







PVBLISHED BY ROGERS & MANSON 
EIGHTYFIVE WATER STREET BOSTON MASS 




J 



TRADE MAKK 




I4UIIMW 



The Most Artistic and 

Permanent Building 

Material in the World 

There 1* only one «• Tapestry " Brick. It 
Is made exclusively by FIske aft Co. Inc. 
Our trade mark ••Tapestry" is branded 
on each brick. It stands for the highest 
product of our skill and 45 years experi- 
ence. It protects you against substitution. 

*• Tapestry " Brick has been used by lead- 
ing architects on residences, churches, 
libraries, hospitals, club houses, schools, 
fraternal buildings, and high grade 
apartments. 

eiske 6- company inc 
:e bricks* establish 
IE BRICKSi-ED IN 1064 

BOSTON, 31 Arch St NEW YORK, Plat I ran Bide;. 



NEW YORK BALTIMORE 

I I 70 Broadway American Building 

WASHINGTON 

Home Life Building 

O. W. KETCHAM 

Master Builders Exchange 
PHILADELPHIA 



Front Brick Enameled Brick 

Hollow Tile Fireproof Ing 

Roofing Tile 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 
Works : Crum Lynne, Pa. 

SwMt'i I odti, page* ft 6-1 J 7 



leke 



. Frtlt . 



BRICKS 



ENAMELED 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 



Carter, Black & Ayers 

I Madison Ave.. NEW YORK 

Agente for 

N. E. Terra Cotta Co. 

Bradford, Pa. 



PFOTENHAUER-NESBIT CO. 

St Jtutt Bulldlii, Blatant, Cm. 2Sth ti, Km Y«t 

IMPERVIOUS 

FRONT BRICK 

In Red, Buff, Cra*, Mottled, White, Ite. 

Eiamlil Brick, Booting Tilts, Pnttf Clikm, Etc. 

Genuine "KITTANNINC" Brick 
Genuine "HARVARD" Brick 



Atlantic 
Terra Cotta Company 

1170 Broadway, N.Y. 



Architect* should insist upon close 
fitting Architectural Terra Cotta and 
embody " ground joints " in their 
specifications. 

The Atlantic Company makes 
a practice of grinding joints — in- 
variably on lower story and entrance 
work. 

Although grinding frequently ac- 
counts for the difference between 
good and poor Terra Cotta, the 
practice is far from general among 
manufacturers; few have the neces- 
sary equipment. 



Southern Branch 

Atlanta Terra Cotta Company 

East Point, G*. 



The AMERICAN TERRA COTTA 
AND CERAMIC COMPANY 

Architectural 
Terra Cotta 

CHICAGO - ILLINOIS 



GRUEBY FAIENCE & TILE CO. 

K AND FIRST STS, BOSTON, MASS. 



Durable Architectural 
faience 

for 
exteriors and Interior. 



CORRESPONDENCE INVITED 



The Hartford Faience Co. 

HARTFORD, CONN. 



NEW YORK 

114 fUTIRM IUILDMS 



B08TON 

MO SOUTH IUILDIM 



ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE 

(All Colors) 

FAIENCE MANTELS 
FAIENCE TILE AND BRICK 

Write far our new catalogue. 



ROOKWOOD 

Architectural Faience 

MAT CLAZE8 IN ALL COLORS 
ABSOLUTELY PERMANENT 
EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR 

THE ROOKWOOD POTTERY GO. 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 
New York Office - - | Madison Avenue 



ick, Terra Cotta & Tile Co. 

M. E. GREGORY, PROPRIETOR 
MANUFACTURERS OF 

ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA COTTA 

Works and Main Office : C0RNIN6, N. T. 

REV TOM - £. H. THOMAS, 1123 

ACENCIES 
All the Principal Cities 



G)nkIing-Armstrong 
Terra Cotta Co* 

Manufacturer! of 

Architectural Terra Cotta 

Work*. PHILADELPHIA 

OFFICES 



PHILADELPHIA 

JJ33 Broadway, NEW YORE 




■a a 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XIX OCTOBER 1910 Number IO 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1910, by ROGERS * MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ........ $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ..................... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............... $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union .......... ...... $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

Agencies — Clay Products ....... II 

Architectural Faience ........ II 

,, Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick Ill 



PAGE 

Brick Enameled ......... Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

Fireproofing ......... IV 

Roofing Tile ■ IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

EDWARD G. GARDEN; PERKINS & HAMILTON; JAMES PURDON; LOUIS SULLIVAN; 

H. R. WILSON. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

COLUMNS OF THE PORTICO OF THE PANTHEON, ROME Frontispiece 

HINTS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS. — PART II. {Continued) Hugh Tallant 221 

INEXPENSIVE ENGLISH HOUSES WHICH OFFER SUGGESTIONS Henry A. Frost 226 

BURNT CLAY'S SHARE IN THE REBUILDING OF SAN FRANCISCO.— I William C. Hays 230 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 237 

THE BRICKBUILDER ANNUAL TERRA COTTA COMPETITION PROGRAM 242 



5 « 


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THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. XIX. NO. 10. 



OCTOBER, 1910. 



Hints on Architectural Acoustics. 



BY HUGH TALLANT. 

PART II. (Continued). 
Computation and Practice. 



AS ENUMERATED in the September number of 
The Brickbuilder, the principal acoustic defects 
are insufficient or excessive loudness ; indistinctness due to 
interrupted reverberation ; indis- 
tinctness due to sound-interfer- 
ence ; echo ; and insufficient or 
excessive reverberation. It has 
already been shown that the first 
three defects result mainly from 
conditions at the front of the 
auditorium, and may be remedied 
by arranging the side walls and 
ceiling in the form of a scientific- 
ally-shaped megaphone. The 
fourth defect, indistinctness due 
to sound-interference, results 
mainly from conditions at the 
back of the auditorium, and may 
be remedied by preventing the 
rear wall from deflecting sound 
into the audience. The obvious 



» 



Jl 



2 S 



.Felhng-^ 



T'c 



Levei 



FIG. XXIV 



has been stretched above the felting, and marked off in 
imitation stone-joints. The effect is said to give satis- 
faction, although scarcely a sincere expression of the 
means employed. However, there 
seems no valid objection to cover- 
ing the felt with some one of the 
burlaps, tapestries, brocades or 
other textile wall coverings which 
have recently come into such ex- 
tensive use. The absorbing capac- 
ity thus obtained is over eighty 
per cent, or amply sufficient for 
all practical purposes. The ma- 
terial may be either tacked on 
battens secured at proper inter- 
vals to the wall, or it may be 
stretched on loose frames and dis- 
posed in the form of panels in a 
strip wainscot. In the latter case 
if the alternate stiles are made 
movable, as suggested in Fig. 24, 



I'MouIdings ' 
attached to 
felt panels 



Alternate 
stiles to be 
movable 



~y 



means of accomplishing this result is to cover the rear the panels-can be removed for cleaning — often a consid- 

wall with sound-absorbing material. All textile fabrics eration of some moment. 

are good absorbents, but the best results are obtained As a rule, however, the covering of large wall surfaces 



from hair-felt 
set out a couple 
of inches from 
the wall. The 
absorbing ca- 
pacity is les- 
sened if the felt 
is placed closer 
to the surface 
behind it. Un- 
fortunately the 
decorative 
effect of this 
material leaves 
much to be de- 
sired, and con- 




fig. xxv. 



in the manner 
described is in- 
convenient as 
well as expen- 
sive, and other 
expedients for 
preventing 
sound- interfer- 
ence are to be 
preferred. It 
is well to begin 
by reducing the 
exposed area of 
the rear wall to 
a minimum. 
This may be ac- 



siderable ingenuity is often required to disguise its un- complished by stepping up the floor toward the back of 
sightly appearance. In one well-known case a fine mesh the auditorium as shown in Fig. 25, a procedure which is 



222 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




of benefit to the sight lines as well as to the acoustics. 
In this connection it may be noted that the better an 
audience can see the speaker the better they will hear 
him. An uninter- 
rupted line of sight ^ c' 
presupposes an 
equally clear path 
for the direct sound, 
and anything that 
promotes the former 
will subserve the 
latter. For instance, 
the so-called isacous- 
tic curve obtained by 

increasing the II,; - txvt. 

heights of the step- 
pings as they recede from the speaker, is of distinct 
acoustip as well as visual advantage, because it raises 
the occupants of the rear seats clear of the sound- 
shadows cast by 
those in front. The 
curve is difficult to 
realize in a balcony, 
but may almost al- 
ways be obtained on 
the main floor. The 
precise curvature 
which gives the 
best results is of 
somewhat compli- 
cated design, but a 
close approxima- 
tion may be ob- 
tained by increasing 
the heights of the 
risers in arithmet- 
ical progression. 

Where the speak- fig. xxvii. 

er's platform rises 
some 3 feet above the adjacent floor the first stepping 




possibly to the backs of the last row of seats) before it 
can reach the ears of the audience. If the floor is car- 
peted the sound will be largely destroyed by the impact, 

but in any case what 
is left of it will take 
such a path as 
DEF(iH, and, when 
it finally does reach 
the audience, will be 
moving almost par- 
allel to the direct 
sound, which it will 
tend to reinforce 
rather than to coun- 
teract. At the same 
time, in a mega- 
phone-shaped auditorium this deflected sound may easily 
reach the audience at H so long after all other parts of 
the same sound-wave as to threaten an echo. For this 

reason it is wise to 
cover the floor be- 
hind the last row of 
seats with extra 
heavy carpeting so 
as to absorb as 
much of this dan- 
gerous sound as 
possible. 

This expedient is 
often effective at 
the rear of a bal- 
cony, but, as will 
be seen from 
Fig. 25, it involves 
a height of step- 
pings which is ex- 
cessive for the main 
floor. Where this 
proves to be the 



case, the same result may sometimes be attained by the 
should be about 2 inches high. If the platform is lower introduction of a false beam, as shown in Fig. 26. A 
the front riser should be higher. The successive heights sound which would otherwise cause interference by mov- 



of the following 
risers may be de- 
termined by mak- 
ing the common 
difference such as 
to bring the top 
stepping to the de- 
sired height. The 
curve thus ob- 
tained is a little 
too flat, but will 
serve the purpose 
in ordinary cases. 
If possible, the 
floor at the rear of 

the auditorium ! ' • kxviii. 

should be so high 

that the first sound SB, Fig. 25, which escapes above the 
shoulders of the audience, will strike the ceiling before 
it can reach the rear wall. This will cause every sound 
which strikes the rear wall to be deflected to the floor (or 




ing in the path 
SBCD will be in- 
tercepted by the 
beam at B' and de- 
flected into the 
audience in the di- 
rection D'E'. This 
procedure is, of 
course, open to the 
same objection as 
the preceding one, 
and must be care- 
fully checked for 
echo in the case of 
a megaphone- 
shaped audi- 
torium. 
Under the soffit of a balcony the conditions are more 
tractable, and a false beam may often be inserted with im- 
punity as well as advantage. This is owing to the fact 
that the overhang of the balcony intercepts the direct 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



223 




sound in such a way as to cast a broad band of sound- 
shadow, as indicated in Fig. 27, while at the same time 
the audience below absorb airthe deflected sound. Un- 
der these condi- 
tions no sound can 
reach the front 
face of the beam 
so long as it is kept 
within the limits 
of the shadow, and 
there can be no 
danger of echo if 
the corner C does 
not protrude be- 
low the contour 
S B D of the 
shadow.* By 
carrying up the 
ceiling behind the 
beam in the form 
of a high barrel- 
vault, as indicated 
on the diagram, 
practically all the 
sound that escapes 
above the should- 
ers of the audience 

may be harmlessly deflected to the carpet by some such 
path as DEFG, instead of causing serious interference 
at G'. 

Where the slope of the balcony is slight, as shown in 
Fig. 28, the above expedient 
cannot be employed because 
the overhang does not cast 
a sufficient shadow. In this 
case the barrel vault should 
be replaced by a groined 
vault carried on arcades. 
The arches above the im- 
post can then be filled with 
a heavy valence which will 
absorb the sound which 
strikes it from either side. 
What little sound passes be- 
tween the audience and the 
lower edge of the valence 
will be immediately dissi- 
pated under the vaulting 
beyond. Fig. 29 gives a 
general view of the con- 
struction employed for this 
purpose in the New Am- 
sterdam Theatre, while 
Fig. 30 shows a single ar- 
cade and valence. In this 
case a series of irregular 

•Theoretically the direct sound 
has a slight tendency to spread side- 
ways into the space above the line 
SBD. It is well known that on the 
exact contour of a shadow the sound 
still retains a quarter of its intensity. 
This fact is of no practical impor- 
tance in this connection. FIG. 



FIG. XXIX. 




domes on pendentives was employed instead of a groined 
vault. A simpler means of obtaining the same result is 
shown in Fig. 31. This last arrangement has the advan- 
tage of utilizing 
such sounds as 
SBA to reinforce 
the direct sound 
SA at the very 
point where rein- 
forcement is most 
needed. It is con- 
venient and pre- 
sents a simple 
decorative effect 
where the balcony 
has only a slight 
projection, but it 
cuts down the 
headroom at C to a 
disagreeable ex- 
tent if the over- 
hang is large. 

All of the above 
methods of pre- 
venting sound-in- 
terference may 
often be required 
in a single case. Fig. 32 is taken from the preliminary 
layout for a theater where the first expedient is being 
employed on the upper balcony, the second on the lower 
balcony, and the last on the main floor. The reader's 

ingenuity will doubtless 
suggest other architectural 
devices for accomplishing 
the same result. 

The fifth defect, echo, is 
really an exaggerated case 
of interrupted reverbera- 
tion, being merely the re- 
turn to the audience of a 
certain sound or group of 
sounds after the rest of the 
reverberation has very 
largely died away. 

This may bejsimply illus- 
trated by the example of an 
ordinary corridor. The 
listener at A, Fig. 33, hears 
at first a succession of 
sounds beginning with the 
direct sound and followed 
by others deflected one or 
more times from the side 
walls XY and ZW. These 
sounds grow rapidly fainter, 
partly because of the in- 
creasing length of their 
paths, and partly because 
of the additional number 
of impacts against the side 
walls. Suddenly, however, 
there arrives a great acces- 
xxx. sion of tone caused by the 



--M 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




return of the sounds deflected from the end wall, WX; 
and the shock is accentuated by the fact that the new- 
comers have been deflected a relatively small number of 
times, and therefore have been comparatively little weak- 
ened by impact and absorption. Of course if the corridor 
is less than 40 feet 
long the sounds from 
the further end will 
return before a per- 
ceptible interval has 
elapsed, but other- 
wise the result will 
be a loud and pro- 
longed echo. 

As, however, all the 
sounds causing the 
echo must strike 
the end wall before 
returning to the lis- 
tener at A, they can 
all be destroyed and 
the echo prevented 
by applying an ab- 
sorbent to the end 
wall. In this case 

the effect will be that of a single sound accompanied by 
a rapidly fading reverberation. On the other hand, if 
the absorbent be applied to the side walls and not to the 
end, it will permit only two sounds to reach the hearer, 
namely, the direct sound traveling in the path SA and 
the deflected sound traveling in the path SBA. In this 
case the effect will be that of an initial sound and a sharp 
distinct echo 
without accom- 
panying rever- 
beration. It 
therefore ap- 
pears that the 
position of the 
absorbent is of 
prime impor- 
tance and that 
totally different 
effects may be 
produced in the 
same building 
by an alteration 
in the position 
of the absorb- 
ents with rela- 
tion to the 
speaker. 

The example 
just quoted is 
typical of the 
general condi- 
tions which pro- 
duce echo in an enclosed space. The same train of 
reasoning may readily be applied to other similar 
cases. For instance, a semi-detached room at a dis- 
tance of 40 feet or more from the hearer may de- 
velop an echo if the reverberation lasts longer in the 
room than in the hall. The difficulty can be readily 



FIG. XXXI. 




FIG. XXXII. 



overcome by increasing the absorbing-capacity of the 
room. 

The conditions under which echo is produced by a 
dome have already been fully discussed. Where, for 
decorative reasons, the dome cannot be flattened to such 

an extent that echo 
is impossible,* the 
only alternative is to 
cover its entire sur- 
face with felting. 
Apparently under 
favorable conditions 
the central portion 
BD, Fig. 34, might be 
left unprotected and 
used with advantage 
as a deflecting sur- 
face, but the writer 
is acquainted with no 
precedent for such a 
treatment. Dangling 
wires or a fine silken 
mesh suspended at 
the base of the dome 
are sometimes used 
as absorbents, but their effect is only palliative. 

The last defect, insufficient or excessive reverberation \ 
is best treated by avoiding reverberation and depend- 
ing as far as possible upon resonance for proper quality 
of tone. All reverberation tends toward confusion. In 
moderation it undoubtedly adds quality of tone, but an 
even better quality without the corresponding indistinct- 
ness can be ob- 
tained by means 
of resonance. 
This fact seems 
to have been 
known to the 
ancients and to 
have been con- 
sidered in the 
construction of 
their auditori- 
ums. One of 
the best restora- 
tions of a classic 
theater f is re- 
produced in 
Fig. 3 5. As 
will be seen, the 
speaker was 
placed so far be- 
low the top row 
of seats that all 
sounds which 
did not strike 
the audience 
rose at once into the open sky. In fact, such an audi- 
torium is the perfection of the megaphone principle, the 
sloping sides of the amphitheater corresponding to the 

• The Bricebdildbb for August. 191". page 178, Fig. 10. 
t The Theater of Ostia from the drawing by Pierre Andre, as published ' 
by D'Espouy. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



225 




megaphone surface, while the heavens above furnish a 
perfect sound absorbent. No continuous deflection is 
possible under such conditions, and the complete absence 
of reverberation results in that marvelous distinctness and 
carrying power so 
often remarked, not X 
only in ancient struc- 
tures but also in mod- 
ern amphitheaters, 
such as the Harvard 
Stadium* and the 
open-air theater at 
Berkeley. 

At the same time this arrangement possesses the defects 
of its qualities, as the lack of reverberation naturally in- 
volves a distressing poverty of timbre. The Greeks, 
with their delicate sensibilities, did not fail to perceive 
this blemish, and had recourse to a surprisingly ingen- 
ious and scientific remedy. 
Their method was to dis- 
tribute at regular intervals 
throughout their auditori- 
ums what the modern text- 
books would call resonators. 
"These are hollow vessels 
whose air cavity has been 
carefully tuned to a definite 
pitch, and the air in which, 
therefore, is readily thrown 
into vibration by a note of 
the same period. The older 
resonators were spherical, 
but the later ones are cylin- 
drical in form. If the sound to which the resonator is 
tuned exists in the air in the vicinity, it will be reinforced 
and become audible, "f The ancient resonators consisted 
of vases, generally bronze but sometimes earthenware, 
which were disposed in niches hollowed out between the 
theater seats. These niches are still in evidence at Taor- 
mina, where they are contrived in the dwarf wall on which 
the columns of the upper gallery stood. J The vases were 
set with the orifice downward, like a bell, and were care- 
fully wedged up so that their vibration might not be 
checked by contact 
with the masonry. 
The Greeks were 
well aware of the 

*This fact was amus- 
ingly demonstrated at the 
opening of a recent Har- 
vard-Yale football match. 
At the very moment of 
putting the ball in play 
— when every voice was 
hushed in the tense ex- 
citement — someone high 
up on the bleachers saw fit 
to unbosom himself of the 
trite remark, " Oh, cut it 
out!" Instantly a ripple 
of laughter spread 
throughout the entire sta- 
dium, showing that the 
admonition, although ex- 
pressed in an ordinary 
tone of voice, had been 
simultaneously under- 
stood by 20,000 spectators. 



FIG. XXXIII. 




FIG. XXXIV. 




FIG. XXXV. 



principles of sympathetic resonance, and knew that a 
resonator would respond only to tones of the precise 
pitch with which it was in unison. They were, accord- 
ingly, at extreme pains to attune their vases with mathe- 
matical precision so 
that there would be 
vases to respond to 
tones of every pitch, 
and also to arrange 
the vases in regular 
order so that those 
which corresponded 
to any particular 
pitch might be evenly distributed. In a small theater there 
was usually only one row of these vases, placed half way 
up the incline of the seats, but in more important struc- 
tures there were sometimes as many as three rows, divid- 
ing the auditorium into four equal parts, and the size of 

the vases was further propor- 
tioned to the size of the house. 
In this way the lack of re- 
verberation was offset by a 
proper amount of resonance 
evenly dispersed among the 
audience, and requisite qual- 
ity was given to the musical 
tones. 

The foregoing description 
is, of course, transcribed from 
the well-known account of 
Vitruvius (V. 5), which also 
contains an introductory 
chapter on the principles of 
musical harmony according to which the vases were at- 
tuned. Unfortunately there is no mention of any precise 
method for computing the number and size of the reso- 
nators, so that we do not know whether the Greeks had 
established any mathematical relation between the dimen- 
sions of an auditorium and the quantity of resonance re- 
quired. Moreover the Greeks were ignorant of the third 
as a musical consonance, g and consequently their method 
of tuning would probably be imperfectly adapted to a mu- 
sical system based, like our own, on the major and minor 

triads. Neverthe- 
less the example of 
the classic theater is 
of extreme interest 
and value, as indi- 
cating that the an- 
cients had arrived 
at a perfect solution 
of their own acous- 
tic problem by de- 
pending wholly 
upon resonance for 
quality of tone. 

t Barker, Physics, pages 
250, 251. 

I See the Encyclopedia 
Brilannica, Vol. XXIII., 
pp. 222 and 223. 

§See What is Music by 
Isaac L. Rice, Chapter 
VI., page 14. 



226 THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Inexpensive English Houses which Offer Suggestions. 



BY HENRY A. FROST. 



OF ALL the problems given an architect to solve few 
are capable of such a wide range of expression or 
possess greater possibilities of treatment than the small 
house. While affording him much trouble and little 
profit, it is at the same time a problem which exerts 
upon the community, and upon the country at large, an 
important influence. As a beautiful church or an im- 
posing public building raises the tone of a city square, 
so it remains for the houses of the people to make upon 
a visitor the lasting impression that will cause him to 
look back upon the city as a desirable place in which to 
live. Any problem vitally affecting life, and the mode 
of living, assumes greater importance to the mind than 
does the contemplation and enjoyment of a purely ex- 
traneous work of art. 

The problem of the well designed house, therefore, is 
one of first importance. In the congested districts, 
where many families must live within very limited areas, 
where every foot gained is money saved, and where 
numberless city ordinances are imposed, the housing 
problem becomes very complex. Little wonder then if 
the results tend to show a surprising uniformity and 
lack of interesting features. In such problems what- 
ever genius the architect may have had, is too often 
swamped in a sea of requirements. But in the suburbs 
and in the smaller towns, where more space can be had, 
even though the lot be limited, the opportunity for indi- 
viduality is great. Within recent years individuality 
has meant simply difference, for it has not been realized 
that a house might possess such a quality and still not 
be strikingly at odds with its neighbors. On the other 
hand it has been felt necessary to make the house en- 
tirely different from those surrounding it. But indi- 
viduality not accompanied by a strong sense of fitness 
becomes mere eccentricity. 

The truly successful house, to possess individuality, 
must harmonize its surroundings, not subordinate them. 
That there are at present so many houses possessing 
this desirable quality is due largely to the fact that the 
fascination which the problem has for the architect 
causes him to labor far beyond the point where it may 
be counted profitable. In return for his sacrifice is the 
satisfaction of knowing that one spot in an otherwise 
uninteresting neighborhood has been made attractive, 
that another step has been taken toward the beautifica- 
tion of the American town. It is beginning to be under- 
stood that the beauty of the New England colonial 
village was gained by the very means which later were 
so conscientiously shunned — truth of expression. 

It is but natural to turn for suggestion in this matter 
to the country from which the American colonists drew 
their inspiration, and where the expression of the home 
has always been beautiful. The same straightforward 
simplicity of the English house, which influenced the 
colonial builders so profoundly in all their work, excites 
our admiration now. In the success of these houses 
the use of local materials, often employed for reasons 
of economy rather than from an appreciation of their 
beauty, plays an important part. For the same reason, 



in New England, with the increasing scarcity of wood, 
brick, as a local material, easily obtainable, seems to be a 
happy choice. 

A small house, generally speaking, presupposes a 
moderate income. While this by no means necessitates 
cheapness of construction it naturally suggests simplicity 
and a straightforward use of materials. These very 
limitations are often its salvation, and make the small 
house in many instances far more successful than its 
more pretentious neighbors, where wealth finds an out- 
let in over-elaboration. 

Of the houses here shown, three are single, and three 
are double. They all have brick as the basis of construc- 
tion. In some it is allowed to show only as high as the 
first story window sills, in others it shows to the level of 
the second floor, and in one example the exterior walls 
are entirely covered with stucco. In England many 
single and double houses such as these are built for in- 
vestment, and again, as in this country, by men of 
limited means, who desire to own a home, but hesitating 
to tie up so much capital, find a way to compromise by 
renting one-half of their house in order to pay interest 
on their investment, while their own rent consists of 
taxes and repairs. 

The houses, it will be seen, are of extreme simplicity, 
and would appear bare were it not for generous planting. 
Given a good wall surface and a few well spaced, well 
proportioned openings, an interesting roof, and in the 
less expensive work, few dormers — often a fortunate 
omission — and an Englishman is content to overcome any 
suggestion of baldness with shrubbery, hedges and climb- 
ing vines. As a result one is struck first, not so much by 
any intrinsic beauty of the house alone, as by its perfect 
fitness to its surroundings. For the house is made to fit 
the surroundings, and they in turn are improved, to set 
off the house. 

Sketch plans of the houses are shown. They have 
been changed somewhat with an idea of suggesting how 
easily the work is adaptable to American needs. Such 
changes are chiefly in the service portion of the house, 
where the requirements of the English differ from those 
of Americans. The double house near Horsham, with 
the brick lower story, the plaster and half timber work 
above, and the roof of heavy slates, recalls in its plan the 
old colonial houses, particularly some of those still found 
in Connecticut. The hall, running through the center, 
opens on the one side into the living room, on the other, 
into dining room and kitchen. 

In the actual house it is quite possible that the living 
room does not run the full depth, for English houses of 
this general type seem, as a rule, to prefer two small 
rooms instead of one large one. Perhaps this is due to 
inefficient methods of heating during the cold seasons. 
In an English house of this size, also, it is not unusual 
to reserve one end of the living room for a dining alcove, 
or if there is a separate dining room, to place the kitchen 
across the main hall from it. A bathroom and either a 
maid's room or a sewing room are provided on the sec- 
ond floor plan as opening off the stair landing three steps 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



227 




228 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



229 






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THE BRICKBUILDER 



below the main second floor. This may be regarded as 
a makeshift, though it is an arrangement with some 
advantages. 

In the smaller English houses, specially such as are 
found in the country, bathrooms are not usually under 
the main roof, and cellars are almost unknown. The 
attempt to provide these conveniences as in the Hors- 
ham house causes at times more or less departure from 
the original plans. The attic in this house is of use only 
for storage and ventilation. Such houses, with almost no 
breaks and a straight roof over all, with the simplest 
arrangement of rooms, are, of course, the least expen- 
sive to build, both from point of view of first cost and 
maintenance. 

In the two houses at Cuckfield perhaps a more charm- 
ing effect is obtained by a simple use of gables. In none 
has the mistake been made of trying to hide the fact that 
they are double. On the other hand, the truth has been 
emphasized, and the line of division is strongly marked, 
in one by a heavy chimney and conductor, in another by 
a leader from the divided gable, and in the third in a 
more subtle way, the line of division being felt rather 
than distinctly expressed. 

The double house at Cuckfield, with its two projecting 
bays, offers rather an economical and convenient plan. 
In order to give a comfortable ingle, a bathroom resulted 
above, which is full ample for a house of this size. The 
extra space is not a matter of particular importance, as 
the three bedrooms are as many as could be accommo- 
dated on the floor. An attempt to add a fourth would 
result in cutting them all down to a size which would 
be very cramped. 

If the kitchen and dining rooms were changed about 
all flues could be carried in one stack, thus effecting some 
saving. But the dining room would be darker and less 
attractive. 

The second Cuckfield house works out well. Perhaps 
its greatest objection is that the dining room has to be 
approached through the living room, except, of course, 
for the service door through the pantry. 

The chimneys deserve mention. In the three houses 
they differ radically, but in each the effect is gained by 
the simplest use of brick, tiles and chimney pots. The 
gates and the hedges around the two Cuckfield houses 



add much to the general appearance, and instead of giv- 
ing the effect of cramping the houses, both of which are 
on small lots, the effect gained is one of greater spacious- 
ness coupled with privacy. 

( >f the three single houses the one at Dymchurch, 
with its brick, stucco and half timber, is typical of the 
English shore cottage. That the charm of these cottages 
is much enhanced by their surroundings is strikingly 
evident here, where an otherwise attractive house loses 
much from lack of trees and planting. The contrast of 
timbers blackened by exposure, with plaster dead white, 
needs to be softened by generous foliage. The plan is 
similar in general arrangement to that of the double 
house at Horsham. The rooms, however, are smaller, 
and closet space is at a premium, as must be the case 
when a cottage of seven rooms occupies considerably 
less than 700 square feet. The disposition of chimneys 
permits fireplaces in nearly every room. 

The two houses at Woking depend for their effect 
upon good lines, a charming grouping of windows and 
plain wall surfaces. The plans as shown, with their 
slight adaptations, are but little changed from the orig- 
inal. The larger house is perhaps a trifle pretentious for 
the rest of the houses treated in this article. The separate 
service stairway, maid's room, and the large living porch 
all mark it for a more expensive house. It cannot, how- 
ever, be considered extravagant. It merely contains the 
elements of the other houses carried a little farther. 

The smaller of the Woking houses, on the other hand, 
may well be considered in proportion to its size the 
most expensive of the six. It approaches the extrava- 
gant, with its generous use of gables and dormers. It 
is also, perhaps, the most picturesque. 

The chimneys again are worthy of study. Many 
houses, otherwise uninteresting, have been saved from 
stupidity by their judicious use, while others of much 
excellence have suffered from their haphazard, un- 
studied positions. In English work such a failing is 
rarely encountered. 

Examples such as these could be produced without 
number, all showing the same beauty of treatment, the 
same harmony of the parts with the whole, and the whole 
with its surroundings, which makes England deserve the 
name of the country of beautiful homes. 



Burnt Clay's Share in the Rebuilding of San Francisco. 



I. Commercial Buildings. 

BY \V I I.I.I AM C. HAYS. 



THE kernel of it all here in San Francisco is that 
the optimist made good. It was on the second 
day of the great fire: those not busy in moving house- 
hold or office effects to safe places were gathered in 
groups, watching. We stood on Nob Hill during the 
destruction of the Hopkins' Institute of Art, and the 
gutting of the nearly completed Fairmont Hotel. 
Below, the south slope, out Sutter and Bush streets, 
was a seething hell ; south and eastward was ruin. 
Even then, in the hour of destruction, he was there, 



the "Coast" type, the practical optimist. Shaking 
both fists at the flames, he declaimed: "I tell you, 
San Francisco will rise from these ruins like a 
Pin l nix" — and the man next him, a scoffer, echoed, 
" Nix !" 

But in two days, the mayor, a practical — if impetuous 
— optimist sent telegrams to city executives everywhere: 
" Send us architects; not food nor clothes — architects." 
Then another loyal son and seer paraphrased Kipling and 
published : — 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 10. PLATE 129. 




HOUSE AT RIVERSIDE, ILL. 
Louis H. Sullivan, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 10. PLATE 130. 




HOUSE AT RIVERSIDE, ILL. 
Louis H. Sullivan, Architect. 



THE BR ICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 10. PLATE 131. 




HOUSE AT RIVERSIDE, ILL. 
Louis h. Sullivan, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 19. NO. 10. 



PLATE 132. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 10. PLATE 133. 




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O 
I 





THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 19. NO. 10. PLATE 134. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 10. PLATE 135. 





HOUSE AT DEDHAM. MASS. 
James Purdon, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 10. PLATE 136. 








LINCOLN PARK REFECTORY, CHICAGO, ILL. 
Perkins & Hamilton, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 10. PLATE 137. 




LINCOLN PARK REFECTORY. CHICAGO, ILL. 
Perkins & Hamilton, architects. 



THE BRIC KBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 10. PLATE 138. 



'X: ; 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 10. PLATE 139. 



#0 *' , 



/ -•> 







HOUSE AT CHICAGO, ILL. 
H. R. Wilson & Co., Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 10. PLATE 140. 




HOUSE AT CHICAGO, ILL. 
H. R. Wilson & Co.. Architects. 



THE BRIC KBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 10. PLATE 141. 




HOUSE AT ST. LOUIS, MO- 
Edward G. Garden, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 10. PLATE 142. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



231 



THE DAMNDEST FINEST RUINS.* 

Put me somewhere west of East Street where there's nothin' 

left but dust, 
Where the lads are all a-bustlin ' and where everything's gone 

bust, 



Yes! it was the practical optimist who wrought the 
miracle of reconstruction: he started the wave of enthu- 
siasm ; he compiled figures to show that the earthquake 
wasn't really so destructive, and that fires have occurred 
elsewhere. Scarcely waiting to collect his insurance, the 




DETAIL OF UPPER STORIES, THE NEWHALL BUILDING. 
Lewis P. Hobart, Architect. 



Where the buildin's that are standin' sort of blink and blindly 

stare 
At the damndest finest ruins ever gazed on anywhere. 



Bully ruins — bricks and wall — 'through the 
night I've heard you call, 

Sort of sorry for each other 'cause you had 
to burn and fall, 

From the Ferries to Van Ness you're a God- 
forsaken mess, 

But the damndest finest ruins — nothin' 
more or nothin' less. 

The strangers who come rubberin' and a- 
huntin' souvenirs, 

The fools they try to tell us it will take a mil- 
lion years 

Before we can get started, so why don't we 
come to live 

And build our homes and factories upon 
land they've got to give. 




" Got to give ! " Why, on my soul, I would 

rather bore a hole 
And live right in the ashes than even move to Oakland's mole, 
If they'd all give me my pick of their buildin's proud and slick 
In the damndest finest ruins still I'd rather be a brick ! 

* Copyright, 1906, Lawrence W. Harris. 



DETAIL FROM NEWHALI 
BUILDING. 



optimist backed up his confidence. He rented tempo- 
rary quarters and wired orders everywhere for big stocks 
of new — -and the best — goods. Then he sought outside 
capitalists who believed in the stability 
of San Francisco's business to outweigh 
the instability of soil in an earthquake 
zone. So again the city arose, almost, 
it seems in looking backward, over night, 
which four years ago lay leveled. To- 
day it has more and better stores, banks, 
office buildings and great hotels than 
ever in its history. 

Merely to take a cursory look over the 

reconstruction means traversing miles 

of streets, and then some of the best 

among the smaller buildings are apt to 

be missed, since there are many good 

things tucked away in hidden corners. 

Over an area of several square miles the 

change is complete but for topography 

and here and there a familiar feature 

that has been restored. 

Architecturally and structurally, it is true, the average 

new building is far better than the average old one 

which it replaces. But nevertheless one feels in the new 

streets an intangible loss; it is the colorful quality of the 



232 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



old town that, inevitably though unfortunately, is no 
more. Happily in the midst of their nouveaux neighbors 
still stand Page Brown's fine Crocker Building, the low 
Montgomery Block and its surrounding buildings, the 
old Parrott Building — of granite brought ready-hewn 



and partition blocks, the plants generally being run to 
their full capacity in making exterior terra cotta, so that 
this great tield has in most cases been left uncontested 
to other structural materials. However, the partitions 
and floors in some of the principal new hotels, stores and 




OF UPPER STORIES, THE ALASKA COMMERCIAL BUILDING. 

.Meyers & Ward. Architects. 



from China way back in the early days — the 
ing and the Mint; all these unchanged, 
dignified, aloof. Many other " before- 
the-fire " buildings are restored too. but 
they are mostly of more recent date than 
these. 

At costs varying greatly these land- 
marks have been saved of the city that 
was, although much stone facing was 
badly spalled by the heat and some terra 
cotta was shaken and sheared. I am told, 
by the way, that a total outlay of only 
$2,000 restored all terra cotta on the 
Crocker, Union Trust, and II ale Brothers 
Department Store buildings, though these 
are all tall structures and were exposed to 
the severest of earthquake and fire, in the 
great test. 

It is worth while to note the immensely 
important part played by bricks, terra 
cotta and tiles in the construction of the 
entirely new buildings, as well as in 
restoration of *he old. As to internal 
structure, the local manufacturers of clay 
products do not push the making of floor 



Mills Build- 




DKTAIl. I ROM NEWHALI. 
BUILDING. 



office buildings are of hollow blocks — always, of course, 
tied carefully with clips, for security 
against vibration. 

The former business section was a city 
of cast-iron frontage: the new shows 
block after block of brick and terra cotta, 
contrasted here and there with equally 
interesting and imposing structures of cut 
stone. In the shopping districts the lower 
stories are frankly show windows, and of 
such size as to remind one of the old 
Elizabethan rhyme anent a great house 
in Derbyshire: 

" Hardwick Hall 

More glass than wall," 
and to suggest the paraphrase : 

" Windows tall 
All glass, no wall." 

Among these brick, terra cotta and tile 
buildings there is a broad variety in com- 
position : some are clever counterfeits of 
cut stone, as to form, finish and color; a 
few are orgies of exaggeration in the 
plastic quality of clay; many are sane 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 33 




METROPOLITAN LIFE INSURANCE BUILDING. 
N. Le Bran \- Sims, Architects. 



and appropriate ; a few are beautiful. They vary in color 
from the simple match of terra cotta and brick, ranging 
through grays, buffs and reds, to the sprightliness of old 
decorated majolica. 
There are examples 
of standard surface, 
matt glass and lus- 
trous enamel. 
Some of the orna- 
ment has been mod- 
eled charmingly by 
the handsof artists, 
though much of it 
is crude and ill 
studied — in mitiga- 
tion of which it may 
be argued that the 
earliest buildings 
were rushed 
through by owners 
who would not al- 
low their sometimes 
well-meaning arch- 
itects time for 
proper stud y — 
which undoubtedly 
was true. 

Probably the first important work chronologically in 
the business district was the Sherman Clay building, 
eight stories high, of steel frame — of course for earth- 




THE "WHIT 
Albert Fissis 



quake resistance, as are all the best new things — and of 
cream-colored matt glaze terra cotta exterior. This build- 
ing was a pioneer in the complete elimination of ap- 
parent means of 
support through the 
lower story, the col- 
umns all being back 
behind the contin- 
uous area of plate 
glass. It is entirely 
occupied by a piano 
and music house, 
and the owners have 
been followed by 
their three strong- 
est competitors, 
who likewise have 
all provided them- 
selves with hand- 
some quarters and 
shown their prefer- 
ences for matt 
glazed terra cotta 
facades. 

The department 
stores moved back 
into the down-town 
district almost simultaneously, nearly all occupying im- 
posing new structures, second to but few in the country — 
almost all of them being, like the piano dealers', lustrous 



E HOUSE. 

Architect. 



! 34 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





THE GUNST BUILDING. 
Lansburg & Joseph, Architects. 



THE ROYAL INSURANCE BUILDING. 

Howells& Stokes, Architects. 





THE BALDWIN JEWELRY CO. BUILDING. 

Bliss & Paville, Architects. 



THE SECURITY BUILDIM1. 
Howard & Galloway, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2 35 




THE ALASKA COMMERCIAL BUILDING. 
# Meyers & Ward, Architects. 





THE NEWHAI.L BUILDING. 
Lewis P. Hobart, Architect. 



fjoi' 



yw ■. 



S m 1 1 

\ 111111 




THE SHERMAN CLAY BUILDING. 
L. B. Dutton, Architect. 



THE BALBOA BUILDING. 

Bliss & Faville, Architects. 



236 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



enamel or matt glaze terra cotta. In the " White House " 
designed by Albert Pissis there has been used structural 
as well as ornamental terra cotta throughout, and it is a 
plant of the highest class. 

When W. & J. Sloane announced plans for an eight 
story building to cover a big lot on Sutter street, they 
too started a series of matt and enamel terra cotta or brick 
buildings, for most of the other furniture and carpet 
houses promptly followed suit and put their inflammable 
stocks within terra cotta and brick walls. 

It is not surprising, then, to find solid blocks of terra 
cotta buildings, for the instances mentioned are not ex- 
ceptional, but typical of the retail shopping streets. In 
connection with several of them color has been intro- 
duced with varying degrees of success. 

The Royal Insurance Company commissioned Ilowells 
& Stokes to do a tall building for them and, bless them, 
sent the only Say re & Fisher bricks out here to remind 
us quondam easteners of home. This building, however, 
has already been published, and so is not given the space 
here which its importance would warrant. It is not a 
little reminiscent of the Company's New York building on 
William street. In that immediate neighborhood, too, is 
another echo of lower New York in Meyers & Ward's 
building for the rich and influential Alaska Commercial 
Company. The plentiful use of ornament forms symbolic 
of the Company's connection with the Alaskan and Behring 
waters is a commendable departure: one is accustomed to 
the cables, shells and tridents, but the walrus heads are 
equally suitable and a relief from the omnipresent lion 
head of convention. Howard & Galloway meanwhile 
were doing the pressed brick and terra cotta Security, 
Adam Grant and Levi .Strauss buildings. Later, by 
perhaps two years, Lewis Hobart began near this group 
his Newhall Building, of which more is to be said. 

In the center of things Bliss & Faville were doing that 
straightforward solution of the office building, the Balboa. 

It may be surprising to learn that in almost every in- 
stance these new buildings are higher and bigger than 
ever! We had all learned that the tall buildings having an 
elastic, articulated skeleton anchored to deep heavy foun- 
dations is the safest and most sane type with which to meet 
the earthquake hazard. But if these others were big under- 
takings, they were outdone in size by the Phelan Building 
designed by Wra, Curlett & Son; its walls are of cream 
colored glazed terra cotta above the cast-iron and glass 
of the two lower stories. This building fills the largest of 
the many "gore " lots — like New York's " Flatiron " — 
resulting from the acute intersections of Market street. 

Taking these buildings as a general class — and the 
criticism may be applied equally to the stores and office 
buildings — the material is candidly burnt clay and un- 
impeachable, but there has been a too common failing to 
appreciate and apply the possibilities in form, of terra 
cotta as a plastic material. The plain classic pilaster, in 
its purest cut stone types, appears again and again; 
while broad surface-ornament forms, so inviting to the 
modeler and so suited to the mould, one regrets to find so 
seldom. In Mr. Lansburgh's building for Elkan Gunst 
the reverse is true; the forms are less stone-like but — 
there is a " but " — the material is so perfect an imitation 
of granite that the Northwestern Terra Cotta Company 
might almost be suspected of ownership in a quarry. 



The Metropolitan Life Building! It has already been 
published, otherwise it should be given much space. 
Michel Le Brun knew the splendid site, for he had come 
out from New York just to "size things up" there on 
Nob Hill; and few buildings are so perfectly suited to 
their places. It is a stately mass on a commanding little 
hill, placed above a terrace wall and with a bit of grass 
about it; in gleaming light glazed terra cotta, with frieze 
of deep blue and golden brown, it is a fitting and impres- 
sive home for the Pacific Coast branch of a colossal in- 
surance institution. 

One turns with pleasure to take fuller notice of the 
Newhall Building, now nearing completion from Mr. Ho- 
bart's plans. This strikes us as being very nearly "it" 
as an architectural interpretation of the moderately tall, 
steel framed building. The two lower stories form a 
base of cut stone; the shaft is red brick of fine color and 
wall texture, with narrow piers and broad grouped win- 
dows, of which the spandrels and the outlined jambs are 
cream-colored matt glaze terra cotta. The reveals are 
ornamented and deep, to make the already dominant 
verticals the more insistent — and the composition has a 
crowning motive that is altogether satisfying. 

This building carries some exceptionally well modeled 
ornament. Unfortunately some of the best pieces of it 
— the "bambini" panels — are placed so high in the 
composition that their charm does not count as might be 
wished Perhaps one must go back to Cope & Steward- 
son's "Harrison Building" in Philadelphia if he would 
find a parallel to the Della-Robbia-like sentiment of this 
work. It is plain that more than a passing interest was 
here; that between architect and sculptor there existed 
a perfect rapport ; that behind these two there has been 
responsive, intelligent co-operation on the part of a 
maker anxious to produce something of real distinction. 
Such was the case here, indeed. But the surprising fact 
is that in this concert of architect, sculptor and practical 
terra cotta maker, the sculptor is the same man who 
seventeen years ago modeled the lovely little figures of 
that earlier masterpiece — -on the other side of the conti- 
nent; and it was the same man, here representing a local 
terra cotta manufacturer, whose painstaking care then 
furthered the work of that sculptor and John Steward- 
son at the Perth-Amboy works. 

One cannot think of these men without acknowledg- 
ment of their contribution to the community: the intro- 
duction of successful coast-made polychrome terra cotta, 
on an adequate commercial basis. Their valuable expe- 
rience in a special field shortened the experimental 
period and put at the hand of the architectural designer 
a material peculiarly adapted to local conditions. 

To California the love of color is a natural heritage, 
bequeathed by Spanish and Mexican, Japanese, Chinese 
and Hawaiian influences. The Iberian tradition up the 
coast in California is of gleaming white and glaring 
primaries. From the Orient and the Islands came over 
seas such tints and tone gradings as white man never 
comprehended before Whistler. The land itself, too, is 
colorful, while the sunshine, cool shadow and clear skies, 
seem to cry for color everywhere. The use of color, then, 
is destined to become more pronounced and general. 
Already a beginning has been made, and doubtless suc- 
ceeding essays in this field will be increasingly successful. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



2 37 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION. Lincoln Park Refectory, Chicago. Plates 136, 137, 

138. This building is designed primarily as a park res- 

House at Dedham, Mass. Plates 132, 133, 134, 135. taurant and boathouse. The exterior is of a variegated 

The exterior of this house is treated in brick with mar- deep rose colored brick with wire cut face, laid with deep 

ble trimmings. The building has a commanding view of sunk horizontal joints. The outside trimmings are of 




A VERY OLD BRICK UARN AT NAYATT, R. I. 



the lake on one side with a formal sunken garden on the 
other. Upon the interior the entrance hall and main 
stairway are finished in Caen stone. The balustrade is 
of ornamental bronze. The living room is treated in 
Circassian walnut, the library in old fumed oak, and the 
dining room in San Domingo mahogany. The service 
end of the house is made 
sanitary with walls of hard 
cement highly polished and 
the corners rounded. The 
third floor provides for guest 
rooms and servant quarters. 
The entire house is fireproof 
with walls of brick, parti- 
tions of terra cotta, and floors 
of terracotta and tiling. The 
roof is of moss green dull 
glaze tile in shingle effect. 
Cost of the building was ap- 
proximately twenty per cent 
more than a similar house 
would cost if built of wood. 




LUNETTE. 

Executed in architectural faience by the Rookwood Pottery 

Company. 

Brinton B. Davis, Architect. 



terra cotta and stone, while the roof is of green glazed 
tile. Upon the interior all walls are of a mottled buff 
shade of pressed brick. The main dining hall which is 
used as an assembly hall in the winter is treated with 
decorative panels of faience and trimmings of matt 
glazed green terra cotta. 

TOWER OF PISA. 

THE Royal Commission 
which was appointed 
some months ago to examine 
the foundation and the sta- 
bility of the Tower of Pisa 
has handed in its report to 
the government, but only 
part of it has been made 
public. The commissioners 
found that instead of there 
being a massive and spacious 
base there is only a ring of 
masonry exactly correspond- 
ing in girth to the tower 



2 3 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




itself. Another as- 
tounding fact is 
that the founda- 
tions are merely 
three meters be- 
neath the surface. 
T he commission 
claims that the 
above facts consti- 
tute an incontro- 
vertible proof that 
the tower was 
originally built per- 
pendicularly, and 
that its leaning pro- 
pensities which are 
becoming more and 
more accentuated 
are due to other 
causes than the in- 
tention of its con- 
structors. They 
discovered that the 
base of the tower 
has always been 
immersed in water, 
and that a deep 
cistern to drain off 
the water, dug in 
1840, has made 
matters worse 

owing to the general character of the subsoil 
which extends to the bed of the Arno, but 
more especially to seismic movements. The 
commissioners suggest that the government 

give immedi- 
ate attention 
to the condi- 
tion of the 
tower with a 
view to pre- 
v e n t its 
further lean- 
ing, and also to 
repair the in- 
terior. Signori 
Cuppari, a 
well-known 
engineer, 
says : "The 
first thing to 
do is to pre- 
vent the pos- 
sibility of all 
osci 1 lat i on, 
brace the 
tower up from 
the southern 
side, support 
the southern 
wall by a tem- 

DETAIL BY ATLANTIC TERRA porary foiin- 

cotta company. dation, and 

Howells & Stokes, Architects. 



then repair the 
foundation by dri- 
ving piles on which 
a new and substan- 
tial foundation can 
be built." It is 
now seven weeks 
since the report of 
the commission has 
been submitted and 
so far the govern- 
ment has taken no 
action. This ap- 
parent dilatoriness 
of the government 
is causing consider- 
able perturbation 
throughout Italy 
as well as other 
countries. 



TERRA COTTA 
MANUFAC- 
TURER 

KNK1HTED. 



APARTMENT HOUSE, PARK AVE., NK« YORK. 
P.uilt of bnfi Devonshire brick made by the Kittanning Brick & Fire Clay Company 
Pfotenhauer-Nesbit Company, New York Kepresentatives. 
Headman & Schoen, An lr: 



M 









DETAIL BY SOT I II 
AMBOY TERRA 

I > I T A COM- 
PANY. 

Pollard & Steinam, 
Architects. 



R . KARL 
MAT II I A- 
SEN, President of 
the New Jersey 
Terra Cotta Com- 
pany, New York, has been created a Knight 
of " Danebrog " by the King of Denmark. 

Mr. Mathiasen was born in Denmark fifty 
years ago, but has been a resident of this 
country for about thirty-six years. He is a 
director in the Danish-American Association, 
a society whose object is to further a closer 
relationship 
between the 
Danes in 
the United 
States and 
between the 
United 
States and 
Denmark. 
The aim of 
the society 
is purely 
cultural and 
it is for the 
interest 
which Mr. 
Mathiasen 
has taken in 
this Danish- 
Ame r ican 
movement, 
and the as- 
sistance ex- 
tended by DETAIL V.\ AMERICAN TERRA 
. . . . COTTA & CERAMIC COMPANY. 

him to his „ ..„.,.„. ,• i 

Purcell, Feick & Elmsbe, Architects. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 39 




FIREPLACE IN A LIVING ROOM. 
H. E. Davidson, Architect. 

country-fellows, that his services have been recognized 
by the King of his native land. 



FIREPLACE IN A SUN PARLOR. 
Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul, Architects. 

We commend the course of action taken by the newly 
selected committee of architects, Messrs. Carrere, Ken- 
dall, and Brunner, who were appointed to conserve and 
IN GENERAL. increase the architectural harmony and beauty of Fifth 

At the annual meeting of the Washington Architec- Avenue, New York City. They propose to influence 




DOUGLAS PARK REFECTORY, CHICAGO, ILL 
Roofed with Ludowici-Celadon tile. 
W. C. Zimmerman, Architect. 



tural Club, October 4th, the following officers were property owners, not by means of ordinances and other 
elected for the year 1910-1911: President, C. L. Hard- compulsory measures, but by suggestion and argument. 



mg; vice-presi- 
dent, D. J. Lix; 
secretary, A. L. 
Blakeslee; treas- 
urer, S. M. Hitt; 
governor, W. W. 
Youngs ; auditors, 
W. B. Olmsted and 
G. F. Dietel. 






? 33t£ VI 







DETAIL BY CONK LING- ARMSTRONG TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 
Pell & Corbett, Architects. 



The committee is 
well organized and 
each member is de- 
termined to relieve 
the chaotic and 
unimpressive effect 
of the architecture 
in general, and 
make the various 



240 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



thoroughfares beautiful through 
a harmonious design preserved 
throughout. 

Plans have been submitted to 
the superintendent of buildings 
at Seattle for the erection of 
the largest and costliest office 
building on the Pacific coast. 
The plans call for a fireproof 
building, forty-two stories high, 
and are the work of Gaggin & 
Gaggin, architects. 

Work will soon begin on the 
large office building for the 
Underwriters at Chicago. The 
architects, D. H. Burnham & 
Co., say that the building will 
be completed within a year. 
The cost of the building together 
with the site will approximate 
$6,300,000. 

Seattle is about to construct 
an art museum that promises to 
be the finest building of this 
nature on the Pacific coast. The 
building is planned with the pur- 
pose of exhibiting large collec- 
tions of art loaned by the various 
countries. In addition to the 




PEOPLES STATE BANK, CROWN POINT, IND. 

Built of full glaze cream terra cotta made by the 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. 

Beers & Beers, Architects. 



has just been held and resulted 
in the re-election of most of the 
officers of the past year — those 
elected being: Wm. D. Hewitt, 
president; John Hall Rankin, 
first vice-president; Horace 
Wells Sellers, secretary ; John 
P. B. Sinkler, librarian ; Charles 
L. Borie, Jr., treasurer. Execu- 
tive Committee: D. Knicker- 
backer Boyd, Arnold H. Moses, 
Paul P. Cret. 

< )swald C. Hering has formed 
a partnership with Douglass 
Fitch, and will continue the 
practice of architecture under 
the firm name of Oswald C. 
Hering and Douglass Fitch. 
Offices, 1 West 34th street, New 
York. 

Gascoigne & Shattuck were 
the builders of the house at Ded- 
ham, Mass., James Purdon, arch- 
itect, which is illustrated in this 
month's issue. 

The Atlantic Terra Cotta 
Company will furnish gray terra 
cotta for the new Rector's Hotel, 
44th street and Broadway, New 




liETAII. BY 



DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA COMPANY, 
Warren & Wetmore, Architects. 



NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL TERRA CO! I \ 
COMPANY. 

E. i". Guilbert, Archil 



galleries there will be a large auditorium 
structure is to be erected at a 
cost of $500,000. 



The Cleveland Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects 
and the Cleveland Architectural 
Club will hold their annual exhi- 
bition during the latter part of 
November. 

The annual meeting of the 
Philadelphia Chapter, A. I. A., 



The whole York City, D. II. 




BY KETCIIAM TERRA COTTA WORKS. 
Ben R. Stevens, Architect. 



Burnham cV Co., architects; white matt 
glazed terra cotta for the new 
theater, 43d street and Broad- 
way, New York City, George 
Keister, architect; white terra 
cotta and blue and white Delia 
Robbia Bambino panels for the 
new Day Nursery at Fall River, 
Mass., Matthew Sullivan, archi- 
tect; white glazed terra cotta 
for the Locomotive Engineers' 
Building at Cleveland, Ohio, 
Knox & Elliott, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



241 



The firm of Gredig & Lynn, architects, Knoxville, 
Tenn., has been dissolved. Albert E. Gredig succeeds to 
the business with offices in the Bank and Trust Building. 

Fireproof Houses of Natco Hollow Tiles and How 
to Build Them is the title of a book just put out by the 
National Fireproofing Co., Pittsburg. To anyone inter- 
ested in this type of construction this book will be in- 





CAPITAL EXECUTED IN TERRA COTTA KY THE ATLANTIC 
TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

valuable, for most if not all of what one will want to 
know is here told. 

Recent excavations at Abbey Wood, England, on the 
site of Lesnes Abbey have revealed the ruins of a struc- 
ture more than 250 feet long and 50 feet across the tran- 
septs. In the center of the cross stood a square tower 
and part of the supporting columns still remain. Plans 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK -REG. U.S. PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 

RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

House at Dedham, Mass. . Plates 132, 133, 134, 135 

James Purdon, Architect 

Fireplace Page 239 

Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul, Architects 



Fireplace 



Page 239 



H. E. Davidson, Architect 



t3iske 6- company inc 
lace bricks/ establish 
Jure bricksI ed in 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Flatiron Building, New York 



DETAIL BY E. WILSON, ARCHITECT. 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

of the excavations show the ruins of Lesnes Abbey to 
consist of an Abbey church, lady chapel, small chapels, a 
chapter house, cloisters, and indications of other buildings. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— i register as- 
sistants FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK- 
ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEREIRA, 
218 La SALLE St., CHICAGO. Long Distance Tel., Franklin 1328. 

"SPECIFICATION BLANKS," by T. Robert Wieger, 
architect (formerly with F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
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request. 628- 14th street, Denver, Colo. 

A HOUSE OF BRICK OF MODERATE COST- 

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German Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The Franklin Union Building in Boston, R. Clipston Sturgis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
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Navy ; the extensions of the Suffolk County Court House in 
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We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

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646-658 WASHINGTON STREET, Opp. Boylston Street 

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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



COMPETITION FOR A HOTEL 
IN AN AMERICAN CITY OF MODERATE SIZE. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. SECOND PRIZE, $250. THIRD PRIZE, $150. 

FOURTH PRIZE, $1.00. HONORABLE MENTIONS. 



COMPETITION CLOSES AT 5 P.M., MONDAY, JANUARY 16, 1911. 



PROGRAM. 

Till" problem is a HOTEL < >F MEDIUM SIZE, planned to meet the ordinary demands of a small American city. 
The site is assumed to be at the corner of two intersecting streets; the lot ample in size to accommodate the 
building and practically level. 

The size and shape of the building are left entirely to the designer, except that not less than one hundred and not 
more than one hundred and twenty-live sleeping rooms are to be provided above the second floor. At least one-half 
of the sleeping rooms are to have bathrooms and the others may be provided with toilet and shower accommodations. 

The ground or first floor plan is to provide the usual accommodations which are necessary in a hotel of this size. 

The second floor plan may be given over in whole or in part for family suites, reception rooms, small meeting 
rooms, etc., etc. 

The upper floor plan should provide for a large social hall to be used for banquets, dances, and similar functions. 
In connection with this s< cial hall, and on the same floor, there should be provided suitable reception rooms, coat 
rooms, smoke room, service rooms, toilet rooms, etc., etc. 

A roof garden may or may not be incorporated in the design. 

It is assumed that the basement plan provides the necessary space for mechanical equipment, storage rooms, 
kitchen, lavatories, barber shop, and perhaps a rathskeller, but the plan of this floor is not required. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in architectural terra cotta, and it is suggested that at least 
portions of the walls be treated in color. 

The chief object of this competition is to encourage the study of the use of architectural terra cotta. There is no 
limit set on the cost of the building, but the design must be suitable for the character of the building and for the 
material in which it is to be executed. 

The following points will be considered in judging the designs : 

A. The general excellence of the design and its adaptability to the prescribed material. 

B. The intelligence shown in the constructive use of architectural terra cotta. 

C. Excellence of plan. 



DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

On one sheet, the principal elevation drawn at a scale of S feet to the inch. On the same sheet, the first and second 
floor plans, a typical bedroom plan, and the upper floor plan, drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch ; also a small sketch 
plan of the roof garden if that feature is provided for. On this same sheet, if space permits, give sketch of an inter- 
esting interior. 

< >n a second sheet, the elevation of secondary importance drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch, and a .sufficient 
number of exterior details drawn at a scale of '... inch to the foot to till the sheet. 

The details should indicate in a general way the jointing of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks. The color 
scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series of notes printed on one of the sheets. 

The size of each sheet I there are to be but two) shall be exactly 36 inches by 24 inches. Strong border lines are 
to be drawn on both sheets, 1 inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 34 inches by 22 inches. The 
sheets are to be of white paper and unmounted. 

All drawings are to be in black ink, without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in the sections 
may be blacked-in or cross-hatched. 

Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Each set of drawings is to be signed by a uo»i de plume, or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envel- 
ope with the nam de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing) at the oflice of 
The BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before January 16, 1911. 

Drawings submitted in this competition must be at owner's risk from the time they are sent until returned, 
although reasonable care will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or 
exhibit any or all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed 
envelopes containing their names, ten cents in stamps. 

The designs wili be judged by three or five well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $250. 
For the design placed third a prize of $150. 
For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

The manufacturers of architectural terra cotta are patrons of this competition. 
The competition is open to everyone. 



Program for The Brickbuilder Annual Terra Cotta Competition, page 264 




THE /j 



BRICKBVILBER. 




ARCHIIECVRAL 

MONTHIY 



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photographs are sent for approval. 
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OFFICES 

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JJ33 Broadway, NEV YORK 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XIX 



NOVEMBER 1910 



Number I I 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street ... Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1910, by ROGERS * MANSON 



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ADVERTISING 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

„ Terra Cotta 

Brick 



PAGE 
II 
II 

II and III 
111 



PAGE 

Brick Enameled ......... Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

Fireproofing ......... IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

ALLEN & COLLENS AND LOUIS E. JALLADE; CRAM, GOODHUE & FERGUSON; 
JOHN WM. DONOHUE; CHARLES R. GRECO; MAGINNIS & WALSH; 

MATTHEW SULLIVAN. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

BRICK ARCADE, BUILT BY NERO, AS EXTENSION OF THE CLAUDIAN AQUEDUCT Frontispiece 

HINTS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS. — PART II. (Concluded) Hugh Tallant 243 

BURNT CLAY'S SHARE IN THE REBUILDING OF SAN FRANCISCO. — PART II William C. Hays 248 

TEN ILLUSTRATIONS OF INTERIORS, HOWARD VAN D.SHAW, ARCHITECT 255-257 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION . .• 258 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 259 

THE BRICKBUILDER ANNUAL TERRA COTTA COMPETITION PROGRAM 264 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. XIX. NO. 11. 



NOVEMBER, 1910. 



Hints on Architectural Acoustics. 



BY HUGH TALLANT. 

PART II. (Concluded). 

COMITTATION AND PRACTICE. 



FOR reasons outlined in the September number of 
The Brickbuilder, the open hemicycle adopted 
by the ancients for the assemblage of their enormous 
audiences possesses the natural property of eliminating 
all reverberation. As a result the sound is of marvel- 
ous purity and distinctness, but lacking in quality and 
sometimes in loudness. The Greeks were sufficiently 
intelligent to analyze both these defects. The former 
they overcame by the introduction of resonant vases, 
as already described ; the latter they obviated partly 
through the deflecting capacity of the masonry walls at 
the back of the stage, and partly by the use of a sound- 
ing board above such as may be seen in Fig. 35. In this 
way they arrived at a perfect development of all the 
acoustic essentials; loudness by proper deflecting sur- 
faces; distinctness by the entire absence of reverbera- 
tion; and timbre by the scientific distribution of 
resonant material. 

Unfortunately this treatment so admirably adapted to 
the open-air theater is less applicable to ordinary modern 
conditions. In a closed auditorium complete elimina- 
tion of reverberation is impossible. No material absorbs 
all the sound which strikes it, and some measure of back 
and forth deflection will unavoidably exist in spite of the 
most elaborate precautions. On the other hand the 
resonance developed by modern building materials is far 
inferior to that of the Grecian vases, and cannot be made 
to supply all the timbre necessary for musical purposes. 
A certain amount of reverberation with all its dangers 
and drawbacks is therefore required, at least in the case 
of a music-hall, to eke out the otherwise insufficient 
resonance, and both factors must be considered in mak- 
ing calculations for timbre. 

There is however no accepted method of determin- 
ing in advance the amount of resonance likely to be 
developed in architectural constructions. There is not 
even a tentative unit of measure — much less any means 
of evaluating resonance in terms of reverberation. The 
resonance developed in the air is one thing while that 
developed by solid materials is another, and it is at least 



open to discussion whether the psychological effect of all 
these phenomena is identical. Furthermore, while the 
calculation of reverberation has been solved to a first 
approximation for the pitch of middle C, the variation in 
absorbing capacity corresponding to changes in pitch is 
still something less than certain.* Other important fac- 
tors are the purpose, size and possibly the shape of the 
auditorium in question. More reverberation is required 
for music than for speaking; more for certain kinds of 
music than for others, and more for a large auditorium 
than for a small one. Much patient research will be 
necessary before the relative influence of all these vary- 
ing conditions can be foreseen. In the meantime the 
safest procedure is to arrange for the minimum of rever- 
beration which will give satisfactory results. The fol- 
lowing data selected from such material as the writer 
has been able to gatherf may serve for general guidance 
in this connection. The calculations were all made in 
accordance with the formula (A + X) T = 0.052 V and 
were based upon the coefficients of absorption already 
given, except in one or two cases which will be specific- 
ally mentioned. For convenience the data will be ar- 
ranged according to size of auditorium, beginning with 
the smallest. 

The experiments for piano music conducted by Pro- 
fessor Sabine have already been mentioned. For five 
rooms of a volume varying from 2,600 cubic feet to 7,400 
cubic feet the best results were obtained from an average 
reverberation of 1.08 seconds. In a room of 3,300 cubic 
feet recently tested by the writer a reverberation of 
about 1.00 second proved satisfactory for the piano, but 

* See the extremely interesting article by Professor Sabine on " Variation 
in Reverberation with Variation in Pitch," published in the Proceedings of 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, June, 1906. The article con- 
cludes with the remark that "The whole hinges on the outcome of a 
physiological or psychological inquiry not yet in such shape as to lead to 
a final decision." 

t The precise relation between resonance, reverberation and quality of 
tone can probably be ascertained only by careful comparison of the con- 
ditions existing in a great number of auditoriums — good, bad and indif- 
ferent. The writer would be very glad to receive any data bearing on this 
subject. 



244 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



was somewhat excessive for both speaking and singing. 
For rooms of from 10,000 to 15,000 cubic feet a rever- 
beration of a little over 1 second seems to give satis- 
factory results for all purposes. In such cases, however, 
the size of the audience is subject to such large propor- 
tional variation that neither calculations nor conditions 
can be relied upon with any degree of accuracy. 

A somewhat more reliable test was furnished by the 
auditorium of the New York Music School Settlement. 
This room contains about 31,000 cubic feet. The wooden 
floor is uncarpeted, the walls and ceiling are of plaster, 
and there are no draperies with the exception of two 
light curtains. When this room is vacant except for the 
experimenter and his assistant, the reverberation (actual 
as well as calculated) is over 5 seconds and two persons 
side by side converse with difficulty. With an audience 
covering about half the floor space the reverberation is 
reduced to be- 
tween 1.3 and 1.4 
seconds with 
reasonably satis- 
factory results. 

The lecture 
room of the 
Brooklyn Institute 
of Arts and 
Sciences contains 
about 54,000 cubic 
feet. As this 
room was in- 
tended exclusively 
for speaking pur- 
poses it was care- 
fully designed for 
a reverberation of 
1.00 second. Oc- 
casionally how- 
ever it is used for 
musical recitals 
and at such times 

the quality of tone is altogether insufficient. When the 
room is practically vacant (as in the case of rehearsals) 
the reverberation is increased to about 1.25 seconds, and 
the quality of tone is much improved although still 
insufficient for musical purposes. 

The Institute of Musical Art of the City of New York 
contains an auditorium known as the Recital Hall * 
which has a volume of 51,000 cubic feet, or about the 
same as the lecture hall of the Brooklyn Institute. The 
acoustics of this room were recently tested in the pres- 
ence of the writer and some fifteen or twenty other 
visitors and were pronounced beyond criticism. The 
precise reverberation developed under these conditions 
is a little uncertain owing to the fact that the absorbing 
capacity of the cork flooring is not accurately known, 
but it probably was a little over 1.6 seconds. 

The Brooklyn Academy of Music contains three large 
auditoriums. One of these known as the music hall 
is used about equally for lectures and for so-called 
"chamber music." As this hall was to be equipped 
with a large and powerful organ, the reverberation was 

* The data concerning this successful auditorium was obtained through 
the courtesy of the architect, Mr. Donn Barber. 




FIG. XXXV. 



kept down to a minimum by the application of brocade 
over flannel batting to all the available wall surfaces. 
Even with this precaution the organ must still be man- 
ipulated with care to prevent it from becoming oppres- 
sive. In other respects the results are what might have 
been expected. For lectures the acoustics are admirable; 
for large chorals with organ accompaniment they are still 
good; for lighter music such as string quartets, solo 
singing with piano accompaniment, etc., the quality of 
tone is insufficient. As one well-known artist expressed 
it, "The room is hard to sing in — it does not ring." 
The volume of this hall is 284,000 cubic feet. The cal- 
culated reverberation is 1.49 seconds (assuming an ab- 
soroing capacity of 0.30 for the carpeting) and there are 
about 8,000 square feet of woodwork. 

The opera house of the Brooklyn Academy of Music 
was designed with extreme care on the megaphone pri'n- 

ciple. It has 
been utilized for 
every conceivable 
purpose — from a 
conference of the 
Associated Mis- 
sionary Societies 
to a democratic 
mass-meeting; 
from aChaminade 
recital to a Rach- 
mananoff con- 
certo. It has 
given perfect sat- 
isfaction for even- 
purpose and has 
been particularly 
commended for 
the quality of 
tone which it de- 
velops. It has a 
volume of 432,000 
cubic feet, a re- 
verberation of 1.6 seconds and between 7,000 and 8,000 
square feet of woodwork exclusive of the stage floor. 

The Leipzig Gewandhaus which was used in prepar- 
ing the calculations for the present Boston Music Hall 
has a volume of 407,000 cubic feet, a reverberation of 
2 3 seconds and 2,500 square feet of woodwork, t The 
Boston Music Hall itself has a volume of 649,000 cubic 
feet, a reverberation of 2.31 seconds and 6,750 square 
feet of woodwork. t In comparing these two audi- 
toriums with each other and with the Brooklyn Academy 
( >pera House, it will be noted that the Opera House has 
a slightly greater volume than the Gewandhaus, a re- 
verberation 0.7 of a second less, but fully three times as 
much woodwork. Thus the volumes are approximately 
the same and the diminution in reverberation is offset 
by an increase in resonant material. On the other hand 
the Music Hall which is fifty per cent bigger than either 
of the other two auditoriums has the same reverberation 
as the Gewandhaus and the same amount of resonant 
material as the Opera House. In other words as be- 
tween the Music Hall and the Gewandhaus the reverber- 

+ This data is taken directly from pages 64 and 66 of Professor Sabine's 
treatise on "Architectural Acoustics." 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 245 

ation is the same and the increase in size is offset by an Material Quantity Coefficient Absorbing 

increase in resonant material. As between the Music naiU a 1 . n , om ~ „„,„ Capacity 

° ^ Ceiling and plaster walls . 1800 sq. ft. 0.034 61.20 

Hall and the Opera House the resonant material is the Floor, wainscot and other 

same, and the increase in size is offset by an increase in woodwork 950 0.061 57.95 

reverberation. The conditions in these three auditor- Paintings 40 ,, o.28() 11. 20 

iums are therefore perfectly consistent with one another, Curtains 120 ,, 0.230 27.60 

and it is reasonable to infer that an auditorium of the I? antS 35 cu. ft. 0.033 1.155 

size of the Music Hall but with no more woodwork than Women ... 15 5 is 87 15 
the Gewandhaus would require a still further increase in 
reverberation, perhaps to 2.5 seconds or even more. 

Evidently the examples above cited are too few and V=20 X 30 x 15 = 9000 

the varying conditions too numerous to establish any cue-;.- .-■ *.u 1 e a . v i u ■ ., , 

,./,,,.,. . ,. , y Substituting the values of A 4- X and V in the formula 

absolute mathematical law governing quality of tone. v 

At the same time they seem to indicate a certain rough 

correspondence between size on the one hand and 323.655 1=0.052X900=468 

1 . T = 1 44 
amount of reverberation and res-onance on the other. 

For musical purposes the necessary reverberation ap- The easiest way to reduce this excessive reverberation 

parently increases from 1.00 second for a volume of is to place oriental rugs on the floor. If A' is the addi- 

2,500 cubic feet to about 1.35 seconds for 30,000 cubic tional absorbing capacity which must be furnished by 

feet, 1.60 seconds for 50,000 cubic feet, 2.30 seconds for the rugs in order to reduce the value of T to 1.1 then by 

400,000 cubic feet substitution in 

■^■■B^ A^ \ff NV i^^^^^^^H the original form- 
seconds or a trifle u l a we have 
more for 650,000 

cubic feet. For (A' + 323.655) 1.1 

speaking pur- -r mm \ A a a\ >1 A = 468 

poses a somewhat H^B^BifV .,„ , r , 

smaller reverber- t^^^^ja^^ J/fffm^/P *f ~~ — O — 

ume of 450,000 w w ^" 5 n ™ >aww * p ^T square feet there 

cubic feet or less, w i 1 1 b e a m p 1 e 

and to 2 3 seconds fig. xxxvi. floor space upon 

or a little less for which to spread 

a volume of 650,000 cubic feet. It may be added that the calculated quantity of rugs, and no other absorbing 

for auditoriums of medium size a reverberation of 1.6 material will be needed. 

seconds is about the smallest that can be obtained with- Certain points in connection with this calculation re- 
out the application of special absorbing material to the quire comment. In the first place as the conditions as- 
walls, so that broadly speaking a minimum of rever- sumed were absolutely normal it appears that a fairly 
beration combined with a maximum of resonant material large music room is likely to give satisfactory acoustic 
will give satisfactory results for both music and drama. results. On the other hand a small room is apt to lack 
The determination of the proper amount of reverbera- resonance particularly if carpeted. It will be noted that 
tion involves a number of secondary points which will be the description of the room contains no mention of win- 
most conveniently illustrated by a practical example. We dows. This is because the glass of the sash and the 
will suppose a music room 20 feet wide, 30 feet long, 15 woodwork of the casing average relatively to their area 
feet high, with plaster walls and ceiling, wainscoting almost exactly the same absorbing capacity as plaster- 
3 feet high and two doors which with their trims cover ing, and are therefore included under that head in the 
50 square feet of wall surface above the top of the wain- tabulated form. There is also no mention of furniture, 
scot. As contents we will assume 40 square feet of oil owing to the fact that a person together with the chair 
paintings, 120 square feet of heavy curtains, 35 cubic in which he or she is seated averages about the same ab- 
feet of plants, and a scattered audience numbering fif- sorbing capacity as the same person standing free. Ob- 
teen men and fifteen women including the musicians, viously there may be some variation in any special case 
The absorbing capacity will then tabulate as follows: according as the exposed surfaces of the chair are of 



246 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



wood or upholstery. For that matter a woman doubt- 
less absorbs less sound in an evening gown than in 
street costume. Professor Sabine mentions a case where 
" over three thousand observations had to be discarded 
because of failure to record the kind of clothes worn by 
the observer." In actual 
architectural practice, how- 
ever, these delicate distinc- 
tions are more technical than 
important. The absence of 
three or four guests expected 
at a musicale will more than 
offset all such minor consid- 
erations. 

What is of more impor- 
tance is the probable variation 
in the size of the audience. 
Where the discrepancy is apt 
to be very great the auditor- 
ium should be calculated for 
the extreme conditions likely 
to occur, and the absorbing 
capacity so averaged as not 
to give excessive results in 
either case. The solution 
often becomes a matter of 
architectural ingenuity. The 
writer was recently consulted 
concerning an auditorium 
used for both rehearsals and 
concerts. In the former case 
there is no one present but 
the musicians; in the latter 
case the audience often 
crowds the capacity. The 
hall has an area of some 
2,000 square feet and a 
height averaging only about 
15 feet. The walls and ceil- 
ing are of plaster, and the 
hard wood floor cannot be 
carpeted because it is used 
for dancing. As might be 
expected the reverberation 
during rehearsals is such as 
to render satisfactory work 
impossible. On the other 
hand the floor area is so large 
in proportion to the volume 
that a full audience possesses 
sufficient absorbing capacity 
to reduce the reverberation 
to fairly satisfactory propor- 
tions. To remedy the diffi- 
culty during rehearsals and 
to render the conditions also 
satisfactory when only a 
small audience is present, it 




•Sf&s. 




FIG. XXXVIII 




Singh floor ^ 



Q 



3'x 6" joist 



Top of fireproofmj] — ' 



FIG. XXXIX. 



satisfactory conditions when there is only a scattered 
audience present. The intention is to keep the audi- 
ence in the front part of the hall whenever possible, 
regulating the amount of reverberation by drawing back 
the curtain more or less as may be required to allow 

additional reverberation to 
develop in the rear portion. 
It is hoped in this way to 
obtain fairly uniform re- 
sults under all circum- 
stances. 

In the case just described 
the absorbing capacity of 
the audience was of vital 
importance. Where, how- 
ever, the floor is carpeted 
and the chairs are permanent 
the presence or absence of 
the audience makes compara- 
tively little difference. The 
average space occupied by a 
single person is about A l /> 
square feet so that, as the 
absorbing capacity of the 
audience is 0.96, a single 
person absorbs 4.3 units. 
As compared with this the 
absorbing capacity of an 
upholstered chair is 3.3, 
which added to that of the 
carpeting beneath amounts 
to upwards of 4.2 units. 
The same amount of sound 
is therefore absorbed 
whether the seat is occupied 
or vacant, and the reverbera- 
tion is unaffected by the size 
of the audience. 

In cases where it is desir- 
able to develop a large 
amount of resonance the 
manner in which the wood- 
work is constructed is of 
considerable moment. Any- 
thing tending to increase 
the elasticity will also in- 
crease the resonance. The 
furring strips behind a 
wainscot should be kept as 
far apart as possible, the 
panels made long and 
slender and the thickness of 
the material reduced to a 
minimum. In the New 
Amsterdam Theatre a con- 
scientious attempt was made 
to construct a wainscot which 
would respond to tones of 



=Q 



is proposed to separate the hall into two unequal di- different pitch, somewhat on the principle of the 
visions by a heavily interlined curtain. The front part ancient resonators. With this end in view the wainscot- 
where the musicians are stationed will contain about cap instead of being carried parallel to the slope of 
two-thirds of the total volume. Sufficient felting is the floor was arranged in a series of steppings, so that 
to be applied to the walls of this portion to create the panels corresponding to a given stepping were of 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



247 




varying lengths. The theory was that as the longest 
panel was less than twice as long as the shortest, all the 
panels of a given group ought to respond to tones within 
a single octave. In order to secure this effect it was 
necessary to cleat the panels only at top and bottom so 
that they might be free to vibrate throughout their en- 
tire height. 
The carpen- 
ters, however, 
could not be 
convinced 
that it made 
the slightest 
difference 
where a brad 
was driven, 
and the result 
was a contin- 
u o u s and 
bitter warfare 
between the 
superin ten- 
dent and the 
workmen. 
The wainscot- 
ing was finally 
completed 
after the 

writer had made himself unpopular with every hard- 
working mechanic on the job, and the acoustics have 
given every satisfaction, but it would be difficult to 
prove that the resonance is more uniform than would 
have been the case with some other style of wainscot. 
Fig. 36 gives a general view of this construction and 
Fig. 37 the detail of the paneling. 

Similar experiments with the flooring of orchestra 
pits have given more tangible results. The ordinary pit 
is segmental in shape, and it is easy to vary the lengths 
of the floor boards by merely running them in a trans- 
verse direction as indicated in Fig. 38. The results in 
this case also are somewhat uncertain owing to the con- 
tact of the chairs, music stands, etc. It has however 
been clearly demonstrated that the resonance is greatest 
where there is a clear space of from 6 to 8 inches under- 
neath the flooring. A single floor 
gives better results than a double 
one and, to allow free vibration, 
should be supported on 3 by 6 inch 
joist blocked up at each end on 
wooden plates so as not to touch 
the fireproofing below. A section 
of this construction is given in 
Fig. 39. In most music halls the 
general shape and location of the 
orchestra pit seems to be left 
either to chance or to the general 
exigencies of the situation. Where 

space is lacking the pit is sunk some 4 or 5 feet below 
the adjacent floor and carried back under the stage but 
otherwise the general practice is to set the floor of the 
pit only 2 feet below the adjacent floor or about 5 feet 
below the stage level. This last arrangement keeps 
the heads of the musicians just below the line of sight 



FIG. XL. 



BALL R.OO/*\ 




OPERA MOU5fl 



FIG. XLI. 



of the audience, but seems to have no other advantage. 
Certainly in the case of a heavy orchestra the accentua- 
tion of some instruments to the detriment of others 
renders the first few rows of seats highly undesirable to 
say the least. Far better results would be obtained by 
concealing the orchestra altogether, either by dropping 

it below the floor 
or by construc- 
ting the orches- 
tra rail of solid 
materials, as 
shown in "Fig. 
40, so as to 
shield the front 
rows of seats 
against the di- 
rect sound. 
Such deflected 
sound as 
reached the 
front seats 
under these cir- 
cumstances 
would have 
t r ave 1 ed far 
enough for the 
tones of the dif- 
ferent instru- 
ments to become satisfactorily blended. Moreover the 
brasses and instruments of percussion, being placed under 
the stage, would be sufficiently muffled to prevent their 
interference with the singing. The arrangement of the 
orchestra pit at Bayreuth is of this general character. 

One point which is usually neglected in the development 
of large auditoriums is the question of sound-proofing. 
As already explained the theoretic method of preventing 
the passage of sound is by interposing successive layers 
of materials having different absorbing capacities. Air 
spaces are well adapted for this purpose, but they should 
be either very narrow or upwards of a foot in width so as 
to avoid the resonance developed by space about 8 inches 
wide. In the case of the Brooklyn Academy of Music the 
foyer, which is sometimes used as a ballroom, is placed im- 
mediately back of the opera house, only a single wall inter- 
vening. Fig. 41 shows the con- 
struction employed for preventing 
the passage of the sound. There 
are two sets of doors, one sliding 
and one swinging, placed on either 
side of the wall which is furred to a 
total thickness of 3 feet, there being 
2 feet in the clear between the two 
sets of doors. The doors on the side 
toward the ballroom are, in addition, 
covered with a heavy curtain which 
probably absorbs over a quarter of 
the sound. It had been thought that 
it would be necessary to fill the space between the two 
sets of doors with specially constructed mattresses but 
experience has shown that this is entirely unnecessary, 
and that this sound-proofing consisting merely of a cur- 
tain, two sets of doors and a single intervening air space 
furnishes ample protection. 



248 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Burnt Clay's Share in the Rebuilding of San Francisco. 

II. Hotels, Apartments, Residences. 

BY WILLIAM C. HAYS. 

IN MY previous paper the subject treated of was the Limoge loaded delivery wagons which headed, not to 

restoration of the business districts, and this because Nob Hill, or the Western Addition, nor yet down the 

in the first period of reconstruction little was under- Peninsula — but " across the Slot " into the Mission and 
taken except busi- 



ness buildings, a 
few hotels, and the 
first of the new 
municipal work. 
The essential thing, 
then, was the re- 
sumption of busi- 
ness on a normal 
basis. 

Nor' would it 
have been wise to 
launch other under- 
takings, in view of 
market and labor 
conditions. For a 
short time the cost 
of operations 
mounted up high : 
labor in the build- 
ing trades was 
scarce, unionism 
was safely en- 
trenched, work was 
plentiful, money 
was everywhere, 
yet prices of commodities in the shops remained stable. 
His wages abnormally high, the workman — the plumber, 




PALACE HOTEL. 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 
George W. Kelhatn, Associated. 



Happy Valley. The 
" masses " splurged, 
and the "classes" 
saved, until again 
the scales turned. 
But soon came the 
return to normal 
conditions, then a 
slump at the time 
of the financial 
panic of 1907, and 
afterward the real 
impetus came in the 
direction of other 
than mercantile 
building. 

The great hotels 
were already well 
under way; indeed, 
the Fairmont and 
St. Francis restor- 
ations, and the New- 
Palace, were among 
the earliest projects 
of the reconstruc- 
tion days. Of these 
three, the Palace is mainly of burnt clay materials inside 
and out. The Fairmont is a terra cotta exterior; the 



lather, plasterer, and let us admit with regret, even the St. Francis has terra cotta partitions, but with a cut 

bricklayer — eased up in his work. He joined the erst- stone exterior. 

while small property owner, now unexpectedly rich in The repairing of the Fairmont (originally designed by 



insurance money, 
while improvident, 
side by side, they 
''blew them- 
selves" and spent 
freely for frills and 
folderol; the femi- 
nine half of the 
" proletariat " was 
for the while silk 
lined and rustling; 
and the bread- 
winner's brew of 
" sharp steam " 
gave way to vint- 
ages. In the tem- 
porary quarters of 
the finest shops 
strange new peo- 
ple acquired luxu- 
ries, while oriental 
ru g s > grand pianos, 
limited editions de 
luxe, Dresden and 




THE PALM COURT, PALACE HOTEL 



Reid Brothers) 
was no great mat- 
ter of concern to 
the clay industry, 
excepting as it 
showed that the 
terra cotta walls 
were harmed very 
little. But the in- 
terior having been 
badly damaged, 
and in parts almost 
ruined, the work of 
Miss Julia Morgan, 
as architect in 
charge of the re- 
construction, was 
mainly inside the 
building. 

At the time of 
the fire Bliss & 
Faville were carry- 
ing out a large 
addition to the 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



249 



St. Francis, of which the new steel frame, though unen- 
closed, came through almost without damage, having 
been protected by the original hotel itself on one side, 
and by Union Square, an open park, opposite. The re- 
placing of some broken partition blocks and resetting of 
others that had been shaken loose — in addition to the 
terra cotta partitions and the common brickwork in the 
rear and light court walls of the unfinished addition — 
were all that had to be done by the brick and terra cotta 
men. 

The Palace, however, was quite a different affair. 
Despite its wealth of romance and tradition, and not- 
withstanding the soundness of its old brick walls, the 



Palace, was. He sees the Palm Court, but it's a different 
court; he travels through the long corridor and the 
arcades, but they're different, too. He orders "another 




DETAIL OF BALL ROOM, PALACE HOTEL. 

shell of the original building was doomed to come down. 
The antiquated arrangement of the place was no longer 
possible, in competition with such modern plants as the 
St. Francis and Fairmont. Its little interior light courts; 
its many inside rooms with little light and no ventila- 
tion at all; its vast high-ceilinged, bay-windowed outside 
apartments, all belonged to an irrevocable (and only 
sentimentally to be lamented) past. 

Consequently Messrs. Trowbridge & Livingston were 
commissioned to design a new building. Retaining 
something of the spirit and the typical features of arrange- 
ment from the old familiar house, it must at the same 
time sum up the experience gained by them from such 
works as the St. Regis in New York. How well they 
have succeeded San Francisco has not yet fully realized. 
The old-timer cannot but look through a veil of prejudice 
at this brand new interloper where the Palace, the Old 




ST. DOMINIC APARTMENTS. 
F. H. Meyer, Architect. 

of the same, thank you," while he " reminisces " and re- 
pines. In well ventilated bedrooms he breathes fresh 
air while, through the night, he grieves for the old musty 
stuffiness. But we notice that he begins to take kindly 
to the new. And some of us, in colder judgment, are 
ready to admit that the New Palace is a triumph for 
Trowbridge cV- Livingston (and especially for Geo. W. 
Kelham, their associate and representative here). San 
Francisco, even the San Francisco that holds to and lives 




i ■ ■■ I I II 




CHISMORE APARTMENTS. 
F. II. Meyer, Architect. 

in the past, will come to realize more and more how 
sympathetic is this new interpretation of the dearest 
traditional monument in a real Californian's heart. 



250 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Externally the new has little in common with the old 
Palace. Its walls, above the lower stone and iron story, 
are broad plain surfaces of light colored pressed brick, 




DETAIL OF CHISMORE APARTMENTS. 

laid up in broken English bond, with deep raked joints. 
Near to the top is a high band of paneled, moulded and 
ornamented terra cotta, with high iron brackets support- 
ing an iron and terra cotta balcony which completely 
encircles the building. The top story, again, is brick 
with arched windows and terra cotta key blocks, sur- 
mounted by a tinted frieze, a cornice of slight projection, 
and the richly designed cheneau. At each corner of 
the building are double vertical lines of ornamented 
terra cotta quoins to mark the pavilion-like terminal 
composition of the facades. 

Always the interior "court" has been the feature of 
the Palace. The new one is smaller, and lower, than 




TVPIC \i. 



FLATS. 



is lower down, and much in evidence. If the new court 
is richer and more metropolitan it is perhaps something 
less individual — which one may regret. With the new 
lavishness of marbles, Caen stone, and rich materials of 
all sorts throughout the principal rooms one can no 
longer associate with the Palace background its pictur- 
esque figures of the old times; this is more of an up-to- 
date setting for the " hobble-skirted," the picture-hatted, 
the " incroyable " of to-day. But the feeling of richness 
is not confined to the court alone, for the lobby, ball- 
room, dining room, grill and bar-room are all handsome 
apartments. 

It is perhaps a long cry from the subject of " Burnt 
Clay's Share in the Rebuilding of San Francisco " to the 




was the old ; there are no galleries rising high one above 
another, to the inconspicuous glass roof that seemingly 
used to leave everything open to the sky. The new roof 



DETAIL OF ENTRANCE, CHISMORE APARTMENTS. 

mention of Maxfield Parrish. But one cannot write on 
the interior of the Palace and leave " The Pied Piper of 
Ilamelin " unnoticed. Not the least of our debts to 
Trowbridge & Livingston is their provision for this 
splendid example of Parrish's best work. Looking back 
through the artist's earliest work in Philadelphia, first to 
the Mask and Wig Clubhouse, with its bulletin board, 
stein pegs and his first "Old King Cole", to the less 
known "Sand Man", then to the later "King Cole" in 
the Knickerbocker at New York, it does not seem extrav- 
agant to say that in this "Piper" a great artist has 
reached his climax. Of decorative paintings he will never 
do a better. That it is to be seen only by those entering 
the Men's Cafe is — well, it's too bad that so few people 
even know where to find the one very great decorative 
painting on the Pacific coast, a work the only rivals of 
which are Stetson Crawford's fine mosaic lunettes in the 
Federal Court Rooms at the Post Office Building. 

A word for the brickwork of the old Palace. The 
demolition of it proved it to be a remarkable piece of 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



25 1 




HOUSE IN PRESIDIO TERRACE. 




THE GRANT HOUSE. 
Hiss & Weeks, Architects. 



252 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



construction. One of the first if not the very first— Chismore, placed on the northeast and northwest corners 
big brick buildings in San Francisco, it antedated the of Bush and Jones streets. Both are straightforward 



steel frame and was 
in its day looked 
upon as a venture- 
some project in 
view of the known 
risks of earthquake. 
But its bricks and 
mortar were of the 
best — and the 
sound cohesion 
found later can only 
have resulted from 
care that the bricks 
were just suffi- 
ciently damp when 
mortar was applied 
to produce perfect 
setting conditions. 
Indeed, great 
chunks of masonry 
which had dropped 
from the topmost 
story were found to 
be intact, while 
other pieces had 
broken, not in the 
mortar joints, but 
through the bricks 
themselves. 
Throughout the 
walls and floors 
were many iron 
ties, placed with 
skill and judgment 
so that the articula- 



*^?8S££5?1 




DETAIL OK THE NEWHALL HOUSE. 

P.Iks & Faville. Architects. 



treatments of brick 
and terra cotta 
(with unfortunate 
galvanized iron bay 
windows) the St. 
Dominic being of 
buff bricks and the 
Chismore of se- 
lected common red, 
laid with broad 
light joints. 
Among other apart- 
ment houses may 
be mentioned the 
Charlemagne and 
Oliver & Foulkes 
" Keystone." It is 
still too early, how- 
ever, to treat exten- 
sively of this type 
of building, while 
just over the line 
from the "fire 
limits" are great 
wooden-constructed 
apartments and 
flats by the hun- 
dreds. These will 
be regarded by 
their owners, I 
fear, as more per- 
manent than their 
construction war- 
rants ; they are 
with few exceptions 



tion of the members was not far less perfect than one bad in design, pretentious and false. Between these 
finds in a framed structure. apartments and the private houses are countless "flats," 



They are the most prominent hotels of which I have 
written; that there are 
others, many others, 
worthy of notice, did space 
allow, goes without say- 
ing. But they are of 
varying merit in design — 
and some excellent ones 
are mainly of other ma- 
terials than brick or terra 
cotta. 

The number of new 
apartment houses and flats 
is growing rapidly now. 
though it is only within 
the past year that many 
masonry buildings of these 
types have been begun. 
Those now partly up, or 
projected, will greatly add 
to the city's permanent 
housing capacity. Within 

the fire limits are several apartment houses by Frederick 
II. Meyer, of which the best seem to be St. Dominic and 




ENTRANCE TO TIIK MINT/KR HOUSE 



of which the accompanying illustration shows the aver- 
age type in which brick 
has been used ; they are 
all in the main wooden 
buildings. 

As to private houses, 
the number of good new 
ones of brick could almost 
be told on one's fingers. 
This is no place for brick 
houses to become the 
vogue. There is a popular 
myth that brick buildings 
are damp and chilly in a 
foggy, wind-blown cli- 
mate, such as is that of 
San Francisco during the 
summer. And there are 
no two sides to the matter 
on the score of cost. Con- 
sequently the San Francis- 
can builds a house of 
which, rarely, he veneers with brick ; often he 



wood 



finishes the outside with stucco or stippled plaster, but 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 11. PLATE 143. 














. 













SAINT CATHERINES CHURCH, NORWOOD, MASS. 
Maginnis & Walsh, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 11. PLATE 144. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 11. PLATE 145. 



NAZTMLX COgLAi 




JJLTNL Or LXTL^IOH E1EVA7I0W-wck. and **& cotta 



JCALCl \ 



SAINT CATHERINE'S CHURCH, NORWOOD, MASS. 
Maginnis & Walsh, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 11. PLATE 146. 










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THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 19, NO. 11. 



PLATE 147. 




FLATBUSH CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, FLATBUSH, L. ,., N V 
*i£N 4 COLLBNS ATO LOUIS E. J.LU.OE, AUCHUKTS. '-"•*• 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 11. PLATE 148. 




FLATBUSH CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, FLATBUSH, L. J., N. V. 
Allen & Collens and Louis E. Jallade, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 11. PLATE 149. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 11. PLATE 150. 




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THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 11. PLATE 151. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 11. PLATE 152. 




HOLY TRINITY CHURCH, WESTFIELD, MASS. 
John Wm. Donohue, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 11. p LATE 153 . 





FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 
FAR ROCKAWAY, L. I., N. Y. 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, 
architects. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 11. PLATE 154. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. - 

VOL. 19, NO. 11. p LATE ,55. 




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FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, FAR ROCKAWAY, L. I., N. Y. 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 11. 



PLATE 156. 



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new 

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SAINT AGNES CHURCH, 

READING, MASS 

Matthew Sullivan, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2 53 





*>• 



HOUSE IN PRESIDIO TERRACE. 

generally he uses 
shingles — when 
he has unpreten- 
tious taste — or else 
painted " siding " 
and plaster orna- 
ment with a dash 
of rustication and 
a few odd quoins if 
the owner chances 
to be in competi- 
tion with the 
neighbor across 
the way. 

Out in the West- 
ern Addition, on 
Presidio Heights, 
are several groups 
of brick houses 
comparatively 
new, though some 
of them were 

under construction at the time of the fire. By all odds 
the best is that block on Webster street from Pacific 
avenue to Broadway. Here is Albert Farr's strongly in- 
dividual Mintzer house, on the corner of Pacific and 
Webster, with its imposing entrance gates and bright 
flower-lined approach. Bliss & Faville's charming Eliza- 
bethan residence of Bishop William Ford Nichols stands 
in the middle of the block, opposite the house of W. B. 
Bourne by Willis Polk (the Bourne house is not now 
new, but will long be one of the best in the city). On 
the corner of Broadway and Webster street is Joseph D. 
Grant's handsome house which, from the brow of the 
hill, commands a superb outlook northward across the 
Golden Gate, over Alcatraz Island, to the Marin Hills 
and Mount Tamalpais; one of the rare opportunities this 
was — such as comes to a favored architect once in a life- 
time. The Grant house is of red brick, with limestone 
trimmings, and in design is a perfectly safe " Louis 
Seize" — a building having much dignity but which, like 



HOUSES AT PACIFIC AVENUE AND WEBSTER STREET, THE .MINTZER HOUSE, 

ALBERT FARR, ARCHITECT, AT THE CORNER, AND THE EPISCOPAL 

RESIDENCE, BLISS & FAVILLE, ARCHITECTS, AT RIGHT. 



many another here, is frankly foreign. A few, very few, 
other brick buildings there are on Pacific avenue in the 
five blocks between the Mintzer house and the Spooner 
(now Shainwald) house on the corner of Broderick. This 
house, by Ernest Coxhead, dates back like the Bourne 
house, several years, but is still among the best brick 
residences in the city. 

Not far from here, at Green and Scott streets, is the 
Newhall house by Bliss & Faville, on another hill-slope 
site with fine marine and hill views to the north and east. 
In some respects this is one of the best houses— almost 
one is tempted to say it is the very best — in San Fran- 
cisco. It is not of San Francisco, completely and posi- 
tively, as are for example the Bourne and Mintzer houses ; 
in it still is the marked McKim influence of Bliss & Fa- 
ville's New York days. It has less warmth, less spon- 
taneity and locality than might be wished. 

In this sense, the house on Broadway west of Scott 
street is worthy of notice; of unfeigned English Georgian 
inspiration (both this and the Newhall house) to this 
Broadway place seems to have been imparted an atmos- 
phere that lifts it 
completely from 
the English setting 
and appropriates 
it to its new sur- 
roundings; it is no 
longer alien, but 
has become " nat- 
uralized." 

Two other brick 
houses are illus- 
trated — these 
from Presidio Ter- 
race. One just in- 
side the Gates, 
has an elaborate 
" wiggly " shingle 
roof and heavy 
rolled eaves (such 
as — for wiggle and 
roll — far surpass 
all of its recent 




A HOUSE ON liKOADW AY 



2 54 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



prototypes in the east). It is interesting mainly for the 
texture of its " tapestry " brick wall; the belt below the 
second story windows is of light stretchers with very 
dark headers, and the wall above it is in alternate light 
and dark stretchers forming a pattern of diagonal lines 
in the Flemish bond (of which all headers are dark). 
The other Presidio Terrace house has the local quality; 
bigness, openness, frankness. A photograph loses much 
of the beauty of this building, which is partly in the 
color of rough brickwork and weathered redwood 
shingles. 

If the number and importance of these residences 



have, many of them, been reluctant to rebuild in the 
city — while others have been indifferent or procrastina- 
ting. It must be remembered, too, that there has been 
much uncertainty as to the ultimate destiny of various 
neighborhoods — and until the lines of business and 
apartment house districts are more exactly defined there 
will be but few of the finer town houses built. Nor can 
it be overlooked that San Franciscans are great trav- 
elers — that to many of the more prominent among the 
older wealthy families London, Paris and New York are 
now almost as familiar as the city by the C.olden Gate; 
so they have their real homes out at Burlingame, San 




DETAILS OF PALM COURT, PALACE HOTEL. 



seem small, let the situation be remembered. Here 
was a great community of people whose incomes had 
been wiped out almost over night. Their business af- 
fairs, private and public, had to be reorganized, and only 
by dint of using every dollar that could possibly be 
pulled together. Even under normal conditions it is 
only the families of the well-to-do classes here who 
would think for a moment of building masonry houses, 
and most of them already had out-of-town houses to 
which they could go and find comfort. They were living, 
too, in such a climate that the cpaestion of housing is 
never serious to any one, rich or poor, except during the 
few months of the rainy season. Thousands of these 
people had lost treasures that money could never replace 
— homes which associations had made dear, so they 



Mateo, Belvedere or San Rafael, and for the present 
those who lost their town houses know how well the 
Palace, St. Francis or Fairmont meet all their needs 
when they are staying in town. 

After all's said, too, a house is really of less impor- 
tance to the people here; out of doors they've been a 
great part of the time all their lives. He who leads 
cotillion figures "in the season" may soon afterward 
lead a pack mule on the trail, during a summer outing. 
Three generations at best he may be removed from the 
cabin and the camp, but he (and "she" too, often) fits 
in now equally well in a drawing room or up in the 
Sierras, under the pines. He who knows the inward 
meaning of life in California is, in spirit, always near the 
outpost, and within hail of the primitive. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 55 




2<6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



257 




258 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Plate Illustrations — Description. 



Saint Catherine's Church, Norwood, Mass. Plates 
143, 144, 145. This structure combines a church of large 
area and an independent morning chapel. The latter 
feature is an unusual one in the American Catholic par- 
ish church building and is designed to take the place of 
the- unhealthy basement. The building is designed in a 
soft grey brick with limestone trimmings. The roof is 
of green slate and the woodwork throughout is of oak. 
The chancel of the church and that of the chapel are so 
related that one sacristy directly serves both. An inter- 
esting feature of the plan is the small devotional Chapel 
of the Blessed Sacrament on the left-hand side of the 
main chancel. The chancel itself is unusually deep and 
its square termination has given opportunity for a great 
mullioned window high up over the altar The vestibule 
of the church is di- 
v i d e d from the 
main auditorium by 
a wooden screen 
and the gospel side 
of this vestibule is 
to be used as a bap- 
tistery. Another 
feature of the in- 
terior is the con- 
structional use of 
stone on the struc- 
tural lines giving 
an effect of vitality 
which is not other- 
wise possible. The 
roof is of timber 
construction with 
the ceiling paneled 
between the trusses. 
The seating capac- 
ity of the church is 
1,000 and the morn- 
ing chapel about 

300. In the latter are situated the confessionals arranged 
in recesses. The altar and reredos of the chapel are of 
oak. The tower occupies an unusual relation, rising as 
it does from the chancel walls. Two objects were sought 
by this disposition ; an unusually deep sanctuary, and a 
dominating feature on the exterior at a small expense. 

Church ok the Blessed Sacrament, Cambridge, Mass. 
Plate 146. The exterior of this building is built of 
water-struck brick with limestone trimmings. The roof 
consists of slate and copper flashings. The decoration 
of the interior has not been completed. The main audi- 
torium will seat 1,000 and the basement 900. The build- 
ing exclusive of interior and architect's commission 
cost approximately 8yi cents per cubic foot. This figure 
is obtained by taking the outside dimensions of walls 
and the height from the underside of the basement floor 
to half the distance on the pitched roof. 

Flatbush Congregational Church, Platbush, L. I., 
X. Y. Plates 147, 148, 149. This church is designed 
in six different shades of " Tapestry " brick ranging 
from an Indian red to a deep blue. The interior wall 
surface has a sand finish for the plaster which is a com- 




detail, church of 



bination of crushed white marble and plaster and gives 
the effect of a cream tone. The trim throughout is of 
pine, enameled white, while the doors are of mahogany. 
The floor is of North Carolina pine stained and var- 
nished to a deep brown. The aisles are provided with 
deep blue carpets. The pews are white with mahogany 
ends and mahogany rails, while the pew cushions are of 
a lighter blue than the carpet. In the galleries there 
are boxes which contain six chairs instead of the regular 
pews. The pulpit furniture has been made up of old 
Colonial so as to keep this character at the end of the 
building. The seating capacity of the main floor is 500, 
of the gallery 200. In the basement there is a seating ca- 
pacity similar to that of the main floor. The cubical con- 
tents is 387,800 cubic feet. The total cost of the church 

was $65,000, and 
the approximate 
cost per cubic foot 
was 18 cents. In 
cubing this build- 
ing the measure- 
ments were taken 
from the level of 
the basement floor 
half way up to the 
mains of the roof, 
and horizontally the 
dimensions were 
taken from the ex- 
terior brick walls. 
The tower was 
taken from the 
commencement of 
the roof to the peak 
and the horizontal 
dimensions were 
from the extremes 
of corners. 

Holy F a m i l v 
Church, Springfield, Mass. Plates 150, 151. The 
Holy Family Church, which is 166 feet long and 66 feet 
wide, is built of Harvard brick in various shades, laid 
up with white mortar in Flemish bond. The trimmings 
are of grey terra cotta, and over each entrance is a 
carved stone tympanum, each pertaining to the Holy 
Family. The tympanum over the main front entrance 
is emblematic of the Blessed Sacrament. Upon the 
interior the church is finished in quartered oak stained 
an old English color. The decorative scheme was 
planned with the thought of restfulness; the side walls 
of the nave are of a mottled green tone, devoid of dec- 
oration, the walls being relieved by grey canyon sjone 
columns, arches and window trim ; the ceiling is of gold 
with a green overglaze, and the panels are illuminated 
with emblems of the sacraments and the passion. The 
sanctuary is richly decorated in gold with overglazes of 
red, green and gold. The main altar and the reredos 
are of quartered oak. The nave of the church is lighted 
by sixteen stained glass windows. 

Holy Trinity Church, Westfield, Mass. Plate 152. 
The Holy Trinity Church is built of red sand-struck brick 



mttnmmm r^ajWi 



1'HE BLESSED SACRAMENT, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
Charles R. Greco, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 59 



with trimmings of grey brick and grey terra cotta. It 
takes for its prototype Saint Zeno's in Verona, Italy. 
The church is 120 feet long and 52 feet wide, with a seat- 
ing capacity of 700. Upon the interior the body of the 
church is decorated in plaster tinted a grey green with 
an ornamental border over the dado and around the 
windows. The Clerestory is finished in a lighter shade 
of green with soffits very richly ornamented. The ceiling 
is paneled with borders in variegated colors. The lower 
part of sanctuary has a rich red tone, above which are 
five panels each having a life-size picture of a saint. 
The altars are of Tennessee and Sienna marbles enriched 
in gold. The woodwork and pews are stained and 
finished in weathered oak. 

First Presbyterian Church, Far Rockaway, L. I., 
N. Y. Plates 153, 154, 155. The exterior of this building 
is finished in red brick with concrete stone trimmings. 
Upon the interior the wall surfaces are of plaster with the 



general appearance of a warm light earth color. The ceil- 
ing of the crossing is decorated with color and gold. The 
roof trusses and ceiling of nave and crossings are of 
Carolina pine. The floor is of granolithic enriched in 
the chancel with Welsh quarry and mercer tile. The 
woodwork is of oak, touched in certain places with color 
and gold and the communion table is of stone. The 
church seats a little over 450 and the parish hall 300. 

Saint Agnes Church, Reading, Mass. Plate 156. 
This church has an exterior treatment of red sand-struck 
brick laid up in Flemish bond with mat glazed terra 
cotta trimmings. The roof consists of variegated slate. 
Upon the interior the walls are finished in tinted plaster. 
The trim, railing and pews are of oak stained brown 
while the floor is of hard pine. The main floor seats 
700. A special feature of the planning is the seclusion 
of the confessionals and chapels. The total cost of 
building was $32,000. 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



JOHN LA FAROE. 

JOHN LA FAROE, the student of letters and art, 
died Monday evening, November 14th, in his 
seventy-sixth year. Mr. La Farge was born in New 
York City, March, 1835. After obtaining a classical 



are in the Trinity Church, Boston, and Memorial Hall, 
Cambridge, Mass. The last window produced by him 
is the " Peacock Window " in the Worcester Mu- 
seum, which work is expressive of a marvelous sense 
of color. 

Mr. La Farge was president of the Society of Ameri- 



and legal education he traveled abroad for the study of can Artists; president of the Society of Mural Painters 
ar t. and Honorary Member of the American Institute of 

Architects. In 1889 he was made Chevalier, and in 
1901 Officer of the Legion of Honor. 

The loss of Mr. La Farge as a painter, author, 
inventor and artist is inestimable and leaves a place 
in the world of art that cannot be filled. 



As a painter his work was one of continual progress 
and success. He was pronounced after the death of 
Puvis de Chavannes as the greatest living mural 
painter. At the annual dinner of the Architectural 
League in January, 1909, he received the medal of 
honor. His paintings are 
to be found in residences 
and churches in every city 
east of Chicago. 

Mr. La Farge was an 
author of no mean ability. 
He wrote among other 
things, "Artist's Letters 
from Japan," "Artist and 
Writer" and " Lectures on 
Art." 

But his achievement in 
glass is the most imposing 
monument to his genius. 
In the early seventies he 
became interested in prob- 
lems of glass-making. He 
worked, mastered and in- 
troduced to the world the 
new material known as 
"American" glass. He 
changed the entire art of 
the glass stainer from the 
making of new glass by 
new methods to the 
painting of the same. 
A number of his windows 




ANNUAL CONVEN- 
TION OF A. I. A. 



T 



DAYTON DAILY NEWS BUILDING. 

Exterior treated in Atlantic cream mat terra cotta furnished by 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 



'HE annual convention 
of the American In- 
stitute of Architects will 
be held in San Francisco 
on the 17th, 18th and 19th 
of next January, and the 
San Francisco Chapter is 
taking special interest in 
the event, hoping for a 
large attendance from the 
eastern cities. They are 
anxious that it shall be a 
success from a numerical 
standpoint, and call atten- 
tion to the pleasures of a 
winter trip to the Pacific 
Coast. The country gen- 
erally and the parks, while 
always green and in bloom, 
are specially attractive in 
January. California's col- 
lege towns — Berkeley and 
Palo Alto — are within an 



260 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




DETAIL OF PAROCHIAL SCHOOL AND 
CONVENT, BROOKLYN. 

By Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 
George II Streeton, Architect. 



hour's ride by 
train or automo- 
bile. Good roads 
make it possible 
to motor to many 
picturesque 
towns within a 
few hours of the 
city. The winter 
pleasures of Del 
Monte are al- 
ready well known 
to eastern tour- 
ists. Mount 
Hamilton with 
Lick Observa- 
tory on its sum- 
mit, and the 
ascent of Mount 
Tamalpais by a scenic railroad, are short pleasurable 
trips, affording panoramic views of the ocean, bay and 
the towns below. San Francisco in itself has much to 
interest visitors. The fact that it has been entirely re- 
built within four years will specially interest architects. 
The drives through- 
out the city afford 
splendid views of 
the surrounding 
bay and ocean. To 
the southward are 
the cities of Santa 
Barbara, Los An- 
geles, Pasadena, 
Coronado and San 
Diego, with their 
orange groves and 
other semi-tropical 
scenery. Should 
the northern route 
be selected for the 
homeward journey, 
Portland, Tacoma, 
Seattle and the 
other prosperous 
northwestern towns 
can be visited. 



tion of population. 
Dr. Suedekum is 
an expert on mu- 
nicipal matters, 
having been one 
of the editors of 
the standard Ger- 
man annual en- 
cyclopedia, in 
which may be 
found statistics 
and particulars 
about every Ger- 
man town of any 
importance. In 
discussing the 
subject of conges- 
tion Dr. Suedekum 
says that one of 
the methods by 
which Germany is 
solving the hous- 
ing problem is the 
establishment of cheap 




HOUSING PROB- 
LEM IN 
GERMANY. 

DR. ALBERT 
SUEDEKUM 
who represents Nu- 
remberg in the Ger- 
man Reichstag 
country has been 
visiting our larger 
cities recently and 
inquiring into mu- 
nicipal problems, 
especially the prob- 
lem of the conges- 




INTERIOR OF CHAPEL AT WEST POINT. 

Gothic vaulted ceiling of Guastavino construction. 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 



DETAIL OF I'NION HANK, OI'EI.AN- 
SAN, LA. 

By Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 
Favrot & Livaudais. Architects. 



commutation rates for workmen. 
The railroads grant 
near Berlin such low 
rates to workmen 
that they can live 
twenty miles out in 
the country at a 
weekly cost in fares 
of only 40 cents 
while some of them 
who are nearer pay 
only 25 cents a 
week. 

Dr. Suedekum 
also spoke of the 
tendency that has 
been apparent in 
our cities to erect 
larger tenements 
instead of two or 
four family houses. 
" In Berlin," said 
the doctor, "we 
have restrictions on 
the height of our 
buildings. In the 
center of the city 
no building of more 
than six stories 
may be put up, and 
the top floor may 
be used only for 
business, while in 
the suburban 
regions no one may 
build higher than 
three stories and a 
mansard. .So the 
tenement house 
nuisance is kept 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



261 



down. But I believe that it will soon be recog- 
nized that it does not pay to build lofty tenements. 
We made careful investigation of the matter in 
Germany, and came to the conclusion that even 
with modern methods of construction it does not 
pay to build higher than four stories. That is to 
say, the income derived from the fifth and sixth 
stories is no more than the extra outlay they 
occasion. So we have hopes that even capital- 
ists, for selfish reasons, may give up building 
tenements of great height." 

Dr. Suedekum's experiments have shown that 
much may be done to remedy housing conditions 

on a business 
basis. He 
c 1 a i m s i t is 
possible in 
Germany to 
put u p a 
number of 
two and four 
family houses 
each in its own little 
garden, and provide 
for every twen t y 
houses or so a park or 
playground for the 
children, and yet earn 
six per cent. The 
cost of an apartment 
with a large kitchen, 
two rooms, a scullery, 
and a bathroom is 
from .$110 to $120. 
The chief restriction 
placed on the work- 
man by the associa- 
tions through whom the capital is lent, is that he shall 
not take in any lodgers. By this means any congestion 
of population is prevented. 

Dr. Suedekum was not inclined to discuss American 
conditions, as he had not had the time to study the prob- 





DETAIL OK GYMNASIUM, 

CINCINNATI. 

By Winkle Terra Cotta Company. 

Garber & Woodward and Tietig & Lee, 

Associate Architects. 




FIREPLACE, ELKS CLUB, BILLINGS, MONTANA. 
G. McAllister, Architect. 

lem as it is felt in our cities. However, he thought that 
much could be done by a proper system of taxation of 
undeveloped lands, together with cheaper fares by the 
railroads. 



AUTOMOBILE SALES BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

Cream enameled terra cotta trimmings, manufactured by the Northwestern 

Terra Cotta Company. 

William Ernest Walker, Architect. 



NEW WOOLWORTH BUILDING. 

ON THE site of Mayor Philip Hone's famous Broad- 
way residence " opposite the park " is to be erected 

a towering office building, for which plans have just 

been completed 

by the architect, 

Cass Gilbert. 

The structure 

will have a front- 
age of 105 feet on 

Broadway, and 

197 feet on Park 

Place and will 

cost close to 

$5,000,000. The 
plans filed last 
week for the 
foundations 
alone aggre- 
gate $500,000 
in cost. From 
the sidewalk to 
the top there 
will be forty- 
five stories, 
the total height 
being 625 feet. 
The main 
building will 

rise to a height of twenty-six stories, and the tower 
beginning at that point will contain nineteen stories. 
This tower will be the spectacular feature of the 
building, as its pinnacle which will be brilliantly 
illuminated at night will be discernible at a distance 
of 50 miles or more from the city. There will be 
thirteen stories in the main tower section which is 86 




DETAIL OF CORNICE FOR THE CORN 

EXCHANGE BANK BUILDING, 

CHICAGO. 

By American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Company. 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



262 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



feet square, while the upper part is to be treated in four 
stages. One of the many novel features will be a large 
swimming tank in the basement 
lined with marble together with 
shower baths, lockers, and other 
conveniences. The building will 
contain a well-equipped gymna- 
sium and running track on the 
roof. 






paid to the atelier work, exhibitions, etc. The officers 
elected for the ensuing year are: President, Hart Wood ; 
vice-president, E. B. Mead; 
secretary - treasurer, \V. J. 
Wilkinson. Directors: John 
Galen Howard, Louis C. Mull- 
gardt, Oswald Spier and C. E. 
Richardson. 



INTERIOR OF CHAPEL AT 
WEST POINT. 



■ iminnmii' 



OF THE recent examples of 
ecclesiastical architecture 
executed in the vicinity of New 
York, few have attracted more 
attention than the chapel at the 
West Point Military Academy, 
Cram, Goodhue cV Ferguson, 
architects, an interior view of 
which is given in this issue. 
Another example of the possibil- 
ities of burnt clay materials is 
here shown in the Gothic vaulted 
ceiling of Guastavino construc- 
tion, whose soffit is laid in flat tiles varying in size from 4 
by 8 inches to 8 by 16 inches — in random courses through- 
out the work, which gives a very interesting effect. 



fcflfe. 




IN GENERAL. 

W. E. Nelson has opened up 
offices at 1009 Spalding Building, 
Portland, Ore., for the practice of 
architecture. 

The terra cotta used for the 
Holy Family Church, Springfield, 
and the Holy Trinity Church, 
Westfield, as illustrated in this 
issue, was supplied by the Atlantic- 
Terra Cotta Company. 



FIREPLACE EXECUTED 
POTTERY C 



BY THE ROOKUOOI) 
OMPANY. 



The Palace Hotel at San Fran- 
cisco, Trowbridge & Livingston, 
architects — see illustration page 248 — was built of 
brick made by the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company of 
St. Louis. 



Til E Western Architectural Clubs are imbued with the 
spirit of progressiveness. The San Francisco Club 
has a class of forty in design, fifty in structural engineering 





DETAIL BY NEW 



TERRA COTTA 



YORK ARCHITECTURAL 
COMPANY. 

E. F. Guilbert, Architect. 

and many more in architectural history. Other classes, 
such as life class, free-hand drawing, and architectural 
rendering are in prepara- 
tion. The Los Angeles Club ^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
has also started many new 
classes with splendid oppor- 
tunities from an educa- 
tional standpoint. 




DEI All. BY SOUTH AMKOV TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 

E. F. Guilbert, Architect. 

Announcement is made of the dissolution of the archi- 
tectural firm of Charles Henry & Son, Akron, Ohio. 
Leroy W. Henry has formed a co-partnership with Milton 
E. Murphy under the firm name of " Henry & Murphy 
Successors to Charles Henry & Son." 



The architectural firm of Foltz & Parker has dissolved 
partnership. Hereafter Herbert Foltz will occupy offices 

at 1108 Indiana Pythian 
_^ Building and Wilson Parker 

■KVHtanPPgSHHi at 713 Traction Terminal 

'yj/^ Building, Indianapolis. 



OAKLAND ARCHI- 
TECTURAL CLUB. 
THE architects of Oak- 
land, Cal. have organized a club known as the Oak- 
land Architectural Club. Considerable attention will be 



The Atlantic Terra Cotta 
Company will furnish poly- 
chrome terra cotta for the 
Bevier Memorial Building, 
Rochester, N. Y., Claude 
Bragdon, architect; polychrome terra cotta for the 
Hampson Building, Waterbury, Conn., Griggs & Hunt, 



DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY 
TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 

Warren & Wetmore, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



263 



architects; grey terra cotta for the Knickerbocker Trust 
Building, New York City, McKim, Mead & White, archi- 
tects; white mat glazed terra cotta for the White Shoals 
Lighthouse, Milwaukee, Wis., 
Maj. W. V. Judson, U. S. A. ; 
white mat terra cotta for the 
Robert Burns Building, New 
York City, Buchman & Hea&, 
architects; grey terra cotta for 
stable and garage, Rochester, 
N. Y., Donn Barber, architect; 
grey terra cotta for the East 
River Savings Bank, New York 
City, Clinton & Russell, archi- 
tects. 

The fireplace of the Elks Club 
at Billings, Montana, a view of 
which is shown on page 261, is 
laid up in "Tapestry" brick. 
The color scheme is a soft blend- 
ing of browns and dark reds. 
The mortar joint of cream is ^s- 
inch wide with rough cut flush, 
lending a rough texture to the 

ensemble. The brick was furnished by Fiske & Com- 
pany, Inc. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C, Nov. 7, 1910. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 19th day of December, 1910, and then opened, for the con- 
struction, complete (including plumbing, gas piping, heating apparatus, 
and electric conduits and wiring) of the United States Post Office at 
LEXINGTON, MO., in accordance with drawings and specification, 
copies of which may be obtained from the Custodian of site at Lexing- 
ton, Mo., or at this office at the discretion of the Supervising Architect. 
JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C, Nov. 12, 1910. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 22d day of December, 1910, and then opened, for the con- 
struction (including the drainage system, etc.), of the Appraisers' Stores 
at BOSTON, MASS., in accordance with drawings and specification, 
copies of which may be had at the office of the Custodian of site, or at 
this office, at the discretion of the Supervising Architect. 

JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C, Nov. 14, 1910. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 27th day of December, 1910, and then opened, for the con- 
struction, complete (including plumbing, gas piping, heating apparatus, 
electric conduits and wiring), of the United States Post Office at MIS- 
SOULA, MONT., in accordance with drawings and specification, copies 
of which may be obtained from the Custodian of site at MISSOULA, 
MONT., or at this office at the discretion of the Supervising Architect. 
JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Office of the Supervising 

Architect, Washington, D. C, Nov. 14, 1910. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 23d day of December, 1910, and then opened, for the instal- 
lation of a heating and ventilating apparatus in the United States Post 
Office. OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLA., in accordance with drawings and 
specification, copies of which may be had at this office or at the office of 
the Custodian of site, Oklahoma City, Okla., at the discretion of the 
Supervising Architect. 

JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 




DETAIL OF MUNICIPAL BUILDING, SPRINGFIELD 

MASS. 

By Cnnkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company. 

Pell & Corbett, Architects. 



The brick used in the construction of the Congrega- 
tional Church, Flatbush, L. I., Holy Family Church, 
Springfield, and the Holy Trinity Church, Westfield — all 

of which buildings are illus- 
trated in this number — was 
furnished by Fiske & Co., Inc. 

The materials used in the 
frieze of the Metropolitan Life 
Building, San Francisco, and 
for the tile panels in the in- 
terior of the Lincoln Park 
Refectory, Chicago — both of 
which buildings were illus- 
trated in the October number 
of The Brickkuilder — were 
furnished by the Rookwood 
Pottery Company. 

As a result of the wholesale 
test on one section of the Price 
Baking Powder Building, 
Chicago, Cabot's waterproof 
brick stain is being applied to 
the whole building as an abso- 
lute cure for a most aggravated case of porous bricks 
which has already caused the owners considerable 
trouble and expense. 

The American Enameled Brick & Tile Company an- 
nounce the removal of their office from 1 Madison avenue 
to the fifteenth floor of the Centurian Building, 1182 
Broadway, New York City. 

"SPECIFICATION BLANKS," by T. Robert Wieger, 
architect (formerly with F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
25 cents. Reduction on quantities. Sample page upon 
request. 628- 14th street, Denver, Colo. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— i register as- 
sistants FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK- 
ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEREIRA, 
218 La SALLE St., CHICAGO. Long Distance Tel., Franklin 1328. 

A BOOK OF HOUSE DESIGNS — THE TITLE OF 
A 64 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS THE 
DESIGNS SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR 
A HOUSE BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW 
TILE. ILLUSTRATIONS OF HOUSES BUILT OF 
THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH ARTICLES 
DESCRIBING . CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE 
50 CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 

A HOUSE OF BRICK OF MODERATE COST- 

THE TITLE OF A 96 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH 
CONTAINS 71 DESIGNS FOR A BRICK HOUSE 
OF MODERATE COST. THESE DESIGNS WERE 
SUBMITTED BY WELL-KNOWN ARCHITEC- 
TURAL DRAFTSMEN IN COMPETITION. IN- 
TERESTING ARTICLES. ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HISTORICAL BRICK HOUSES. PRICE, FIFTY 
CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 



264 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 

RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

Flatbush Congl. Church . . . Plates 147, 14S, 149 

Allen <v Collens, L. K Jallade, Architects 



Fireplace, Elks Club, Billings, Montana 

G, McAllister, Architect 

Holy Family Church, Springfield, Mass. 

John W'm. DONOHUE, Architect 

Holy Trinity Church, Westfield, Mass. 

John Wm. Doxmin:, Architect 



Page -'61 

Plates 150, 151 

Plate 152 



Note : The two latter buildings are of a semi-rough brick - 
not " Tapestry " 

tz?isre 6- company inc 
Iace bricks; establish 
aire bricks* ed in 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Flatiron Building, New York 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITHER WOODEN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Public Buildings. Elastic, Noiseless, 
and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
German Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The Franklin Union Building in Boston, R. Clipston Sturgis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
the North Dakota, the largest Battleship in the United States 
Navy ; the extensions of the Suffolk County Court House in 
Boston, George A. Clough, Architect; and the Registry of 
Deeds, Salem, Mass., C. H. Blackall, Architect. 

We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET, Opp. BoyUton Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



COMPETITION FOR A HOTEL 
IN AN AMERICAN CITY OF MODERATE SIZE. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. SECOND PRIZE, $250. THIRD PRIZE, $150. 

FOURTH PRIZE, $100. HONORABLE MENTIONS. 



COMPETITION CLOSES AT 5 P.M., MONDAY, JANUARY 16, 1911. 



PROGRAM. 

THE problem is a HOTEL OK MEDIUM SIZE, planned to meet the ordinary demands of a small American city. The site is assumed to be at the corner of 
two intersecting streets ; the lot ample in size to accommodate the building and practically level. 
The si/e and shape of the building are left entirely to the designer, except that not less than one hundred and not more than one hundred and twenty-five 
sleeping rooms are to be provided above the second floor. At least one-half of the sleeping rooms are to have bathrooms and the others may be provided with toilet 
and shower accommodations. 

The ground or first flour plan is to provide the usual accommodations which are necessary in a hotel of this size. 
The second floor plan may be given over in whole or in part for family suites, reception rooms, small meeting rooms, etc., etc. 

The upper floor plan should provide for a large social hall to be used for banquets, dances, and similar functions. In connection with this social hall, and on the 
same floor, there should be provided suitable reception rooms, coat rooms, smoke room, service rooms, toilet rooms, etc, etc. 
A roof garden may or may not be incorporated in the design. 

It is assumed that the basement plan provides the necessary space for mechanical equipment, storage rooms, kitchen, lavatories, barber shop, and perhaps a rathskeller, 
bat the plan of this floor is not required. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in architectural terra cotta, and it is suggested that at least portions of the walls be treated in color. 
The chief object of this competition is to encourage the study of the use of architectural terra cotta. There is no limit set on the cost of the building, but the design 
must be suitable for the character of the building and for the material in which it is to be executed. 
The following points will be considered in judging the designs : 

A. The general excellence of the design and its adaptability to the prescribed material. 

B. The intelligence shown in the constructive use of architectural terra cotta. 

C. Excellence of plan. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

On one sheet, the principal elevation drawn at a scale of S feet to the inch. On the same sheet, the first and second floor plans, a typical bedroom plan, and the upper 
floor plan, drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch ; also a small sketch plan of the roof garden if that feature is provided for. On this same sheet, if space permits, give 
sketch of an interesting interior. 

On a second sheet, the elevation of secondary importance drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch, and a sufficient number of exterior details drawn at a scale of % inch 
to the foot to fill the sheet. 

The details should indicate in a general way the jointing of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks. The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series 
of notes printed on one of the sheets. ... 

The size of each sheet ( there are to be but two ) shall be exactly 36 inches by 24 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on both sheets, 1 inch from edges, giving 
a space inside the border lines 34 inches by 22 inches. The sheets are to be of white paper and unmounted. 

All drawings are to be in black ink, without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in the sections may be blacked-in or cross-hatched. 

(Vraphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Each set of drawings is to be signed by a nam dt plume, or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the worn d$ plume on the exterior and 
containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing) at the office of The BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., 
charges prepaid, on or before January 16, 1911. , 

Drawings submitted in this competition must be at owner's risk from the time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care will be exercised in their handling 
and keeping. . 

The prize drawings are to become the property of Thb Brick BUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. Those who wish their 
drawings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names, ten cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by tnree or five well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $250. 
For the design placed third a prize of $150. 
For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

The manufacturers of architectural terra cotta are patrons of this competition. 
The competition is open to everyone. 



l\ 



Program for The Brickbuilder Annual Terra Cotta Competition, page 286 



THE 




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MONTHIY 





DECEMBER 



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NO. 12 K««««i I 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XIX 



DECEMBER 1910 



Number 1 2 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street ... Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1910, by ROGERS A MANSON 



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ADVERTISING 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

II 

II 

II and III 

III 



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Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

Fireproofing . . ...... IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



BLISS & FAVILLE; FREDERICK JUNIUS STERNER; GEORGE T. TILDEN. 



LETTERPRESS 



VIEW OF THE RUINS KNOWN AS THE TEMPLE OF MINERVA MEDICA Frontispiece 

HINTS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS. — PART III Hugh Tallant 265 

BURNT CLAY'S SHARE IN THE REBUILDING OF SAN FRANCISCO. — PART III William C. Hays 271 

FOUR HOUSES, LONG ISLAND, N. V., FREDERICK JUNIUS STERNER, ARCHITECT 275-278 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 2X1 

THE BRICKBUILDER ANNUAL TERRA COTTA COMPETITION PROGRAM 286 




$ fri "i 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. XIX. NO. 12. 



DECEMBER, 1910. 



Hints on Architectural Acoustics. 



Continued. 

BY HUGH TAI.LANT. 

PART III. 
Illustrative Examples. 



PART I of these papers outlined the theoretic prin- 
ciples of architectural acoustics. Part II showed 
how these principles could be turned to practical advan- 
tage. The third and final part will consider the treatment 
required by special types of construction. For this pur- 
pose it will be found convenient to adopt a classification 
according to size; and the fact that the direct sound can 
be readily understood 
to a distance of only 
50 feet furnishes a 
natural standard of 
measure. On this 
basis every variety of 
auditorium may be 
assigned to one of 
three groups — those 
having no dimension 
exceeding 50 feet, 
those having only one 
dimension exceeding 
50 feet, and those 
having two or all 
three dimensions in 
excess of 50 feet. 
The effect of differ- 
ences in shape, ma- 
terial, contents and 
arrangement may 
then be discussed 
with reference to the 
group into which the 
auditorium in ques- 
tion happens to fall. 

Auditoriums Hay- 
in c; no Dimension 
Over 50 Feet. Where 
i no dimension exceeds 50 feet the audience is neces- 
sarily so near the speaker that the sound is always loud 
enough, and under ordinary conditions of material and 
construction the initial intensity is more than sufficient 




FIG. XLII. 



to drown out any serious defect of sound interference. 
The deflections occur with such' rapidity as to forestall 
the possibility of interrupted reverberation or echo, and 
the acoustic problem is usually reduced to little more 
than an adjustment of materials and contents with 
reference to the desired amount of reverberation. As 
mentioned in a previous article the reverberation best 

adapted to musical 
purposes seems to 
increase from 1.00 
second for a volume 
of 2,500 cubic feet to 
some 1.35 or 1.40 
seconds for a volume 
of 30,000 cubic feet. 
For speaking pur- 
poses a slightly 
shorter reverberation 
is preferable, at any 
rate in small rooms. 
The methods of cal- 
culation and adjust- 
ment have already 
been fully illustrated * 
and need not be re- 
peated here. 

General arrange- 
ment is, however, of 
some importance even 
in a very small audito- 
rium. The acoustics 
are almost always 
benefited by placing 
the speaker or musi- 
cian on the short side 
of an oblong room 
and in the corner of a square one. Figs. 42, 43 and 44 
give the floor plan, the ceiling plan and the general 
interior appearance of a small lecture hall arranged in 

*See THE BRICKBUILDER for November, 1910. 



266 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




the latter way. This particular hall is about 47 feet 
square and contains 41,000 cubic feet. The wooden 
floor is uncarpeted, 
the seats are not 
upholstered, and 
there are no draperies 
except a screen for 
photographic projec- 
tions. Under these 
conditions the ab- 
sorbing capacity is 
mainly dependent 
upon the size of the 
audience. This hall 
was designed before 
the precise coeffi- 
cients of absorption 
had been determined, 
but the danger of ex- 
cessive reverberation 
was sufficiently evi- 
dent without accurate 
calculation. To guard 
against this defect a 
numberof heavy 
beams were furred 
across the ceiling for 
the purpose of de- 
flecting the sound to 
the floor as quickly 
and repeatedly as 

possible. It was hoped in this way to minimize the 
reverberation when a portion of the seats was unoccu- 
pied, and in 
point of fact the 
desired result 
seems to have 
been attained, 
as a reduction in 
the size of the 
audience does 
not affect the 
acoustics so un- 
favorably as cal- 
culations would 
give reason to 
expect. 

AuDITORIU MS 

Having Only 
One Dimension 
Exceeding 50 
Feet. In audi- 
toriums of this 
class it is usually 
preferable to 
place the ros- 
trum at one end, 
thereby permit- 
ting a speaker or 
singer to com- 
mand his audience more readily than from the center 
of one of the long sides. There is rarely any danger 
of insufficient loudness toward the rear, as auditoriums 



FIG. XI. III. 




kh; 



of this class seldom attain a length of 100 feet, and the 
direct sound is sufficiently reinforced by deflections 

from the walls and 
ceiling. For orches- 
tral music this ar- 
rangement has the 
great advantage of 
reducing the number 
of front seats where 
the tones of the dif- 
ferent instruments 
are apt to be imper- 
fectly blended. Figs. 
45 and 46 show the 
plan and longitudinal 
section of a typical 
auditorium of this 
class. As will be 
noted the floor at the 
rear is not quite high 
enough to prevent 
sound interference, 
and a false beam has 
therefore been con- 
trived at B. The 
cross beams C were 
required by a special 
lighting scheme, but 
are a distinct detri- 
ment to the acoustics, 
as they interfere with 
the sound which would otherwise be deflected from the 
ceiling to the rear seats. They also have a tendency 

to create inter- 
ference. 

Auditoriums 
Having Two or 
All Three Di- 
mensions in Ex- 
cess of 50 Feet. 
Auditoriums of 
this class not 
infrequently 
allow considera- 
ble latitude of 
architectural 
treatment, and 
in pa r t i c u 1 a r 
may vary largely 
in shape and pro- 
portion provided 
that the requisite 
seating capacity 
is maintained. 
Frequently the 
arrangement is 
dictated by con- 
siderations of 
sight rather 
than hearing. In 
a well designed house the audience should hear almost 
as well 100 feet from the stage or pulpit as in the front 
rows — better in a music hall or opera house — but at 









XI. IV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



267 



such a distance facial expression and many niceties of 
gesture are totally lost without a glass. There is ac- 
cordingly an advantage in keeping a large auditorium 
as shallow as possible, provided 
always that the width is not so 
great as to prevent the speaker from 
readily commanding his audience. 
A megaphone-shaped auditorium 
may be extremely wide because the 
undesirable seats at A and B, Fig. 
47, are eliminated. A rectangular 
auditorium, on the other hand, must 
be kept relatively narrow because 
otherwise the speaker is obliged to 
turn continually to right and left 
in order to address the occupants 
of the side seats. This defect is of 
course less noticeable in the case 
of a music hall, but most auditori- 
ums are called upon to serve a 
variety of purposes and must be 
designed for speaking, or at any 
rate singing, as well as for instru- 
mental music. 

Elliptical shapes are to be avoided 
in auditoriums of any size because 
they have a tendency to concentrate 
the sound in the vicinity of the foci 
to the detriment of other points. 
The effect is particularly accentuated 
where both floor and ceiling are hori- 
zontal or where the ceiling is an 
ellipsoid of which the speaker may 
occupy a focus. Fig. 48 represents 
the plan of such an auditorium, the 
speaker being placed at the focus V S and the hearer at 
the other focus A. As the radii vectores to any point 
make equal angles with the tangent, it follows that the 
path of any sound of the speaker's voice will be pro- 
jected in such a line as SbAcSdAeS, etc. That 
is, the walls deflect every sound alternately through 
two vertical lines erected at S and A, and thus concen- 
trate as much sound in the vicinity of the two foci as 
is scattered over the entire wall surface. The results 
are sometimes 
startling. In 
the old Mor- 
mon Temple 
at Salt Lake 
City such 
conditions 
produce a re- 
m a r k a b 1 e 
wh i sper ing 
gallery. In 
smaller audi- 
toriums the 
effect is less 

pronounced, but is always disagreeable. A particu- 
larly unfortunate instance is the ordinary semi-circular 
lecture hall, Fig. 49. Here the center of the circle takes 
the place of both foci of the ellipse, and the unfortunate 
speaker, relegated to this location, finds himself literally 



FIG. XLV. 




FIG 



pelted by the deflected sounds of his own voice. This 
type of auditorium has many other drawbacks. The 
rear wall is extended to a maximum involving a cor- 
responding danger of sound inter- 
ference, while the absence of side 
walls eliminates the deflections which 
can usually be counted upon as the 
best reinforcement of the direct 
sound. Moreover the number of 
sounds concentrated at any given 
point is so few as very largely to 
increase the chances of interrupted 
reverberation, and altogether the 
acoustic conditions, which are natur- 
ally so favorable in the open hemi- 
cycle, are completely vitiated by the 
addition of a roof. 

The best examples of a large 
auditorium designed in accordance 
with the suggestions of the prece- 
ding articles is the opera house of the 
Brooklyn Academy of Music. This 
auditorium is about 90 feet wide, 
over 100 feet deep on the balcony 
level, and averages 50 feet high in 
the clear. The volume is 432,000 
cubic feet, exclusive of staircases 
and similar accessories; the seating 
capacity 2,200 ; the calculated rever- 
beration 1.6 seconds; and the area of 
exposed woodwork about 7,500 
square feet exclusive of the stage 
floor. Figs. 50 and 51 are repro- 
duced from the working drawings of 
the main floor plan and longitudinal 
section, while Fig. 52 shows the general architectural 
treatment of proscenium and boxes. The megaphone 
surfaces were studied with scrupulous pains, and the 
result has been to develop a somewhat unique " center 
of distribution " extending from the middle of the 
footlights some 15 or 20 feet in either direction. The 
distribution of the sound is still satisfactory from 
points further back on the stage and also from the 
orchestra pit, but becomes defective in the vicinity of 

the first row 
of seats, as 
was demon- 
strated to 
much sorrow 
on one occa- 
sion when the 
stage was 
temporarily 
extended out 
into the audi- 
torium. Of 
course this 
result is only 
what might naturally be expected, as the center of dis- 
tribution, being necessarily of limited area, was care- 
fully located under the proscenium arch where it would 
be of most service. 

The rear of the house was designed with equal 




XI. VI. 



268 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




attention to detail. As will be seen from the section, 
the first sound escaping above the gallery gods meets 
the ceiling before it can reach the rear wall. All 
sounds deflected from this por- 
tion of the rear wall are there- 
fore forced to strike the carpet 
before they can return to cause 
sound interference. The first 
balcony is similarly protected by 
a high barrel vault, and the 
main floor by a series of arcades 
which were originally fitted with 
draperies above the impost. 
The distinctness resulting from 
these precautions is almost un- 
canny. < >n the occasion of cer- 
tain semi-religious services, the 
benedictions whispered on the 
stage could be readily under- 
stood under the extreme rear of 
the second balcony at a distance 
of over 100 feet. 

The calculations for timbre 
were based upon the conditions 
existing in the New Amsterdam 
Theatre. It must be admitted 
that, at the time, this procedure 
was to some extent an experi- 
ment, because although the 
theater had given satisfaction 
for both drama and vaudeville, 
its quality of tone had never 
been tested by serious music. 
The conditions at the Brooklyn 
Academy have, however, met 
every demand. All in all, the 
results obtained in this case are 
so precisely along the lines of 
the methods employed as to 
furnish a reasonable presumption 
in favor of the expedients ad- 
vocated in these articles. They 
at least demonstrate the possi- 
bility of designing a large audi- 
torium equally well adapted to 
every acoiistic requirement. 

CONCLUSION. 

As stated at the outset, the 
object of these articles has been 
merely to suggest practical 
methods of getting at results. 
A certain amount of theory has 
of necessity found its way into 
the discussion by way of expla- 
nation, but no attempt has been 
made to develop anything in the 
nature of a scientific treatise. 
Before leaving the subject, how- 
ever, one or two points of some- 
what broader application may properly receive a pass- 
ing notice, as indicating the direction in which a more 
complete analysis of the subject would be likely to lead. 



FIG. XI.VII. 




In the discussion of loudness no mention was made 
of the cumulative effect of reverberation. Evidently 
in the case of a loud and sustained note the reverbera- 
tion produced by the beginning 
of the note is added to the total 
volume of sound toward the 
close. In an auditorium pos- 
sessing a reverberation of up- 
wards of 1.5 seconds, this 
increase or swell in the inten- 
sity of the sound is very per- 
ceptible. The phenomenon is 
perfectly familiar to powerful 
singers who depend upon it to 
accentuate and develop their 
most telling effects. A some- 
what prolonged reverberation is 
therefore desirable in a hall de- 
voted to music of a grandiose 
type. On the other hand the 
voice of the average vaudeville 
singer is not sufficient to derive 
any important support from ac- 
cumulated reverberation, and as 
the words of a comic song must 
be readily understood, a much 
shorter reverberation is desira- 
ble for operetta. 

In the discussion of distinct- 
ness the difficulties arising from 
interrupted reverberation were 
based upon an interval of Vis of 
a second. This interval is very 
possibly too short, as the real 
cause of the difficulty may be 
due to the overlapping of one 
syllable upon the next, rather 
than to a repetition of sound. 
In rapid conversation the ordi- 
nary person pronounces about 
two hundred syllables a minute. 
Allowing for the pauses between 
phrases and sentences, and as- 
suming that the consonants 
occupy about half of the remain- 
ing time, it can readily be 
shown that the vowel sounds 
average about ' m of a second 
apiece, the shortest probably re- 
quiring no more than Via of a 
second. It is quite possible that 
interrupted reverberation should 
properly be based upon this in- 
terval of 'ij of a second rather 
than upon Vis of a second. If 
this is the case the procedure 
recommended in the preceding 
articles, while a trifle too strict, 
111 mix. really amounts to little more than 

allowing a slight factor of safety. 

In the discussion of reverberation some mention was 

made of the influence of the shape of the auditorium. 

Probably with further investigation it will be found that 




FIG. XI. VIII 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



269 



the constant 0.052 
in the formula 
(A + X)T=0.052V 
must be varied to 
correspond with 
the type of audito- 
rium in question. 
When a sound is 
first produced it is, 
of course, concen- 
trated in the vi- 
cinity of its source. 
Its spread in the 
form of a spherical 
wave can be read- 
ily followed and 
the surfaces upon 
which it will strike 
first and most 
sharply can be 
seen at a glance. 
Even after two or 
three deflections 
the general move- 
ment can still be 
traced by the 
graphical methods 
already described. 
Soon, however, 
the conditions be- 
come too compli- 
cated for detailed 




FIG. L. 



comprehension, 
and after a space of 
time which rarely 
exceeds \\ of a 
second, the expan- 
sion of the sound- 
wave and the 
multiplicity of its 
deflections result 
in dispersing the 
sound almost 
equally through- 
out every portion 
of the entire audi- 
torium. During 
the period of in- 
itial distribution 
the location of the 
absorbents is of 
distinct impor- 
tance. Subse- 
quently it is 
entirely immate- 
rial. This means 
merely that the 
tendency towards 
an equal distribu- 
tion of sound is 
much greater than 
the possibilities of 
unequal absorp- 
tion. It follows 






FIG. LI 




270 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




that the reverberation will remain audible for practically 

the same length of time in all parts of an auditorium, and 

after the first quarter of a second will die away at exactly 

the same rate no 

matter where the 

absorbents are 

placed. 

Under ordinary 
conditions, and in 
particular when- 
ever the front of 
the auditorium is 
rectangular, the 
sound is absorbed 
at approximately 
the same rate dur- 
ing the initial dis- 
tribution and 
during the subse- 
quent period of 
audibility. In such 
cases the length of 
the reverberation 
can be accurately 
computed from the 
formula (A+X) T 
=0.052V. Where, 
however, all sound Flr ' 

is immediately 

concentrated upon an absorbing surface there is reason for 
believing that the reverberation is materially diminished. 
This is precisely what takes place in an auditorium of the 
megaphone type. Here every part of the sound-wave is 
almost immediately directed against the rear wall, where 
every possible contrivance has been prepared for its ab- 
sorption. As will be seen by Fig. S3, unless the dimensions 
are extremely great, the longest sound-path SBCDA 
cannot be much over 100 feet longer than the direct path 
S A; so that if the rear wall were a perfect absorbent all 
sound would be destroyed within the first tenth of a second 
and there would 
be no reverbera- 
tion worth men- 
tioning. Of 
course in practice 
some little sound 
is necessarily de- 
flected from the 
balcony fronts, 
some from the 
rear wall sur- 
faces, and a trifle 
from even the 
audience, but the 

total amount is so small that it seems probable that in a 
megaphone shaped auditorium the reverberation is mate- 
rially less than calculation based on the coefficient 0.052 
would indicate. If this is the fact, it would indicate that 
where the sound is carefully distributed throughout an 
auditorium, an actual reverberation of even less than 
1.6 seconds will give satisfactory musical quality in an 
auditorium of 400,000 cubic feet. 

Another phenomenon which has not yet been carefully 



KIO. I.III. 



investigated is the relative effect of reverberation in dif- 
ferent parts of the same auditorium. As just explained 
the duration of reverberation is everywhere the same. < >n 

the other hand the 
initial intensity 
varies enormously 
with proximity to 
the speaker. Evi- 
dently the relation 
of reverberation to 
initial intensity 
varies correspond- 
ingly in different 
parts of the same 
auditorium, the 
reverberation be- 
i n g relatively 
greatest where the 
intensity is least. 
Nevertheless in 
auditoriums where 
the reverberation 
is insufficient, the 
defect often seems 
most accentuated 
where the sound 
is faintest. This 
LU - would seem to in- 

dicate that the ear 
accepts volume of sound to some extent as a substitute 
for quality. If this inference is correct it may explain 
the large amount of reverberation required to give 
quality of tone in a large auditorium, particularly at 
points where, owing to the great distance between musi- 
cians and audience, the intensity of the sound is rela- 
tively small. These and other similar speculations will 
doubtless lead in time to conclusions of much practical 
value. In the meantime, it is hoped that the sugges- 
tions which have been offered may prove of service, at 
least to the extent of obviating the most serious of the 

acoustic defects 
which are to be 
met with in so 
many of our 
finest build- 
ings. Even if 
nothing further 
is a c c o m - 
plished, a long- 
suffering public 
has become so 
thoroughly in- 
ured to the 
worst of acous- 
tic conditions that scant mediocrity is apt to be hailed 
as a triumph. 

Authorities cited in the preceding articles : 

Barker, " Physics," Advanced Course. 

"Encyclopaedia Britannica,*' Vol, XXIII., panes -'-'-' and _'_'.v 

Rice, "What is Music?'' 

Sabine, "Architectural Acoustics." 

Vitruvius, V. 4 and 5. 
The reader is also referred to "The Theory of Sound in its Relation to 
Music," by Professor Pietro Blaserna. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



271 



Burnt Clay's Share in the Rebuilding of San Francisco. 



III. Public and Semi-Pubi.ic Buildin<;s. 



BY WILLIAM C. HAYS. 



IF MY two previous papers were devoted entirely to 
private or business enterprises, it is not to be inferred 
that public work was being neglected. The city faced a 
serious situation for there were miles of streets to repave, 
and sewers and other service installations to be repaired 
or in most cases rebuilt. Car tracks and conduits too had 
to be relaid by the public service corporations, so that 
work was held back in the 
re-grading and re-surfac- 
ing of streets. 

But there was not much 
delay in planning for the 
new municipal buildings. 
A new clean city govern- 
ment had come to take 
the place of an old and, 
apparently, corrupt one. 
At its head was Edward 
Robeson Taylor, Dean of 
the Hastings College of 
Law, of the University of 
California. And with him 
there served two able and 
distinguished men in the 
office of city architect. 
This municipal work, then, 
was in good hands during 
the administration of 
Newton J. Tharp and 
after Tharp's death, of 
Loring P. Rixford. Both 
of these trained men put 
at the command of the 
city loyal, efficient serv- 
ice, and designed build- 
ings second to none in 
America for their pur- 
poses. But history re- 
peats itself ; as in Boston 
and Chicago, so it has 

been in San Francisco — and so it perhaps always will 
be while Boards of Works have unlimited authority over 
city architects. The man of ability and integrity is 
sooner or later bound to clash with ignorance and too 
often with less excusable faults. Mr. Rixford disagreed 
with the Board of Works and soon, it seems, the city 
architect's office fell into devious ways, so that it became 
less than a negligible institution. It needs desperate 
remedies, perhaps an emetic. 

The most urgent of the municipal buildings were the 
schoolhouses, fire stations and hospitals, and the city 
architect's office, in its palmy days, did noteworthy ex- 
amples of all classes. The school which is most striking 
in plan and scheme is built of concrete, and being there- 
fore frowned upon by an intolerant " brick-and-terra- 




UETAIL, HANCOCK 
Newton J. Tharp and Loring 



cotta " editor, the school is dismissed. But those which 
are most interesting in execution — the Hancock and the 
Mission Grammar Schools, are both burnt clay jobs as 
are the Washington and the (unfinished) Denman School, 
while the Sutro and McCoppin are composite construc- 
tion, the lower story in each being brick. 

The Hancock School was planned during Mr. Tharp's 

administration as city 
architect and executed 
under Mr. Rixford. In 
the exuberant quality of 
the ornate terra cotta 
balconies, and in the 
composition of its rich 
cornice and pierced par- 
apet there is admirable 
detail. The walls are se- 
lected common red bricks, 
of deep color, rich in 
variety. A fine study in 
simple straight line pat- 
tern is seen framing the 
grouped and mullioned 
windows of the class 
rooms. The terra cotta 
is buff, standard finish. 
This school is on a steep 
sloping street and has an 
uncommon arrangement 
of approach, by a long 
bridge from sidewalk to 
main entrance, crossing 
over part of the play 
yard, the yard being 
reached directly from the 
sidewalk on the downhill 
end of the lot. 

The Mission Grammar 
School was started dur- 
ing the incumbency of 
Mr. Tharp, whose sudden death occurred soon after the 
building was begun. It is of light gray brick, with 
terra cotta trimmings to match. Unlike all the other 
new schoolhouses in the city, it has a low mansard 
roof. 

Several fire stations have been constructed, of which 
two are within our province. They are the house for 
Truck No. 10 on Sacramento street near Walnut and that 
of Engine No. 41 on Leavenworth street between Clay 
and Washington. The former is uninspiring; it is as 
stupid as the latter is engaging and naive. I do not 
know a more perplexing little fayade than this — shout- 
ing defiance at canons of design, it is bad in proportions 
(for the demands of lot width and story height seem to 
have made it so). But a clever hand has given to it wall 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

P. Rixford, City Architects. 



2 7 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




texture, color, and craftsmanship so beautiful, added to 
an effect of light and shadow so well studied, that one 
does not think of 
proportion until 
he is so biased 
that his princi- 
ples are waived. 
Like many of the 
old things abroad, 
violating half the 
supposed "rules" 
of composition, 
the result may be 
the masterpiece. 

Mr. Rixford, I 
believe, carried 
out this charming 
little front. He 
must have had 
the hearty co-op- 
eration of terra 
cotta and tile 
makers and set- 
ters. The bricks 

are moderately rough, wire cut, of a considerable range 
of color; the terra cotta is slightly lighter, while the 
diaper pattern filling the 
gable over the windows, 
and the accents under the 
cornice, are varied from 
intense greenish blues, 
through shades of pur- 
ples, browns and reds. 
This station, like the 
Sacramento street build- 
ing, is the last word in 
fire-house construction 
and equipment. 

The Municipal Hos- 
pital, unfortunately, is 
not far enough advanced 
in construction to be pho- 
tographed — nor is the 
Denman School, both of 
which give promise of 
being successful, if their 
execution is put under 
capable sympathetic 
hands. These are both 
to be studies in brick, 
terra cotta and tiles with, 
I understand, a generous 
use of colored inlays. 

The mention of Tharp's 
and Rixford's Municipal 
Hospital plans brings me 
to express regret that the 
Children's Hospital (by 
Bliss & Faville) is not 
further advanced. There 
is a stunning main en- 
trance, which will be back 
under an arcade, after the 



mission GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 
Newton J. Tharpand Loring 1\ Rixford, City Architects, 




ENGINE HOUSE NO. 41. 
Loring P. Rixford, City Architect. 



facade is all up. Here, as in the Newhall Building of 
Hobart's, we find sculpture — not merely modeling. 

The same feeling 
that marks 
Mora's other 
work is here, 
especially in the 
tympanum over 
the door: there 
is a calling up in 
the mind of the 
day when one 
stood in humility 
before his first 
real Delia Robbia. 
This entrance is 
the most success- 
ful polychrome 
yet made; it 
marks the Coast's 
present state of 
advancement in 
a new-old art 
which must 
surely count for much in the architecture of the future. 
In addition to the entrance there will be glazed and poly- 
chrome terra cotta in the 
belt courses and cornice 
of this new hospital — 
and the walls are of 
specially made wire-cut 
bricks, very rough, with 
a full range uf color in 
the light clays. 

Meanwhile additions 
are being, or have been, 
made to the German and 
some of the other hospi- 
tals, and several entirely 
new ones are contem- 
plated or under way. 
Brick and terra cotta are 
important factors in the 
construction and decora- 
tion of these buildings. 

San Francisco — the (so 
the "Union Labor" 
Mayor McCarthy calls it) 
" Paris of America " — 
could never have con- 
tented itself long with 
merely serious matters, 
like business buildings, 
houses and hotels, schools 
and hospitals. Cafes, 
restaurants, theaters, 
clubs — these had almost 
all been wiped out — but 
had not long to wait their 
turn for restoration in the 
city's gay life. 

Of the clubs, all but the 
Text continued on page 279. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 12. PLATE 157. 




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VOL. 19, NO. 12. PLATE 158. 




freer ".VAIK UHA II — HJt-)NI Ht-VA IION^ 

COLUMBIA THEATRE, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Bliss & Faville, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 12. PLATE 159. 




ELEVATION - PROJCENIVM APXH 



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UNIVERSITY CLUB, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 
Bliss & Faville, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 12. PLATE 162. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 12. PLATE 163. 




DINING ROOM- 
HOUSE AT 135 EAST 19TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
Frederick Junius Sterner, Architect. 



THE BRIC KBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 12. PLATE 164. 




CONSERVATORY. 




WINE CELLAR. 

HOUSE AT 135 EAST 19TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
Frederick Junius Sterner, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 12. PLATE 165. 





Maids Soorrj and 
Attic above 



SECQ/VJJf-LOOidPLA/V 




KiTCfits* \r/£STf±00£ PLAA/ 




HOUSE AT MILTON, MASS. 
George T. Tilden, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 12. PLATE 166 . 




L' 




HOUSE AT BELLE TERRE, LONG ISLAND. N. Y. 
Frederick Junius Sterner, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 19, NO. 12. PLATE 167. 




THE BRICKBUI LDE R. 

VOL. 19. NO. 12. PLATE 




THE BR ICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 19. NO. 12. PLATE 169. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



275 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 




HOUSE AT BELLE TERRE, 
LONG ISI \M>, \. Y. 

Frederick Junius Sterner, 

Arcllin-' t 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



277 




HOUSE AT BELLE TERKE, 
LONG ISLAND, N. V. 

Frederick Junius Sterner, 
Architect. 



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SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




278 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



279 




Cosmos and the Women's " Century " found themselves occupied before the 
homeless. That condition did not last very long; some planned by Loring 
are already in their new 
homes. The Pacific Union 
Club will soon take posses- 
sion of superb quarters up 
on Nob Hill, opposite the 
west front of the Fairmont 
Hotel. There the red sand- 
stone shell of the old Flood 
Mansion has been restored 
and extended by D. H. Burn- 
ham & Co under the per- 
sonal care of Willis Polk; it 
is to have an interior such as 
to class it among the best 
club buildings in this coun- 
try. But those clubs, building 
entirely new houses, have all 
elected brick and terra cotta 
for theirs and many of these 
are already occupied. 

Let us defer to the ladies: 
they were the first, and down 
on Union Square is the trim 
little building of the "Town 
and Country," convenient to 
the shopping district, for a 
resting place of the women 
who are its members. It is 
of red brick with white 
marble trimmings; on the 
ground floor is a bookshop 
and, taking it all in all, it is 

Walnut street transplanted, and means homesickness, 
surely, for the passing 
easterner. 

Diagonally across the 
square, at the corner of 
Powell and Post streets, 
is the Argonaut Club, 
by Sylvain Schnaittacher, 
and not far off is Dutton's 
Union League Club ; 
somewhat alike these are 
in general scheme, both 
having stores in the 
ground floor with the 
club quarters above. On 
Post street too, are the 
most famous of all San 
Francisco clubs, the Bo- 
hemian and Olympic. 
The latter is still a hole 
in the ground, but it is 
expected that a handsome 
brick and terra cotta 
building will be going up 
soon, from the plans of 
Paff & Baur. 

The Bohemian, on the 
other hand, is nearing entrance to the family club. 

completion — and will be C. A. MeussdorfTer, Architect. 



ENTRANCE TO THE ARdONAUT CLUB. 
Sylvain Schnaittacher, Architect. 



Summer Jinks and 




end of the year. It was originally 
Rixford, who, on becoming city 
architect, asked Geo. W. 
Kelham to succeed him in 
carrying out the clubhouse 
scheme. The Bohemian is 
built of selected common red 
bricks with red terra cotta 
balconies, entrances, balus- 
trades, belt courses and 
cornice; below the main 
cornice is a range of well 
studied panels of brick pat- 
tern. The house fronts on a 
steep sloping street and is 
unfortunately awkward in 
mass, seen from the upper 
end — an unavoidable defect 
due to the site, but atoned 
for by the nice proportion of 
the south front. The dis- 
tinguishing feature of this 
house is its own theater — a 
very complete one, too — 
which no one who has ever 
visited San Francisco need be 
told is the "Jink's Room." 
Long before I had ever seen 
California a young English- 
man (en route from San 
Francisco, home) lunched at 
the T Square Club, and dis- 
cussed the Bohemians, who, 
so he told us, have "their 
Winter Jinks; their High Jinks and 
Low Jinks — and my 
word! the low jinks are 
very low indeed ! " That 
was slanderous of the 
"low jinks," and of the 
others! there is perhaps 
no performance in Amer- 
ica so memorable as the 
yearly "Summer Jinks," 
given out-of-doors among 
the fire-lit towering red- 
woods up in Bohemian 
Grove. 

It is a fine house to 
which the Bohemians are 
now planning an early 
home-coming. And this 
club, in conjunction with 
his other work at the 
Palace Hotel, justifies the 
grouping of Mr. Kelham 
with Mr. Hobart as happy 
acquisitions to the local 
architectural ranks, re- 
cruited as the direct result 
of the great fire. 

Two other leading 
clubs are already in their 






_>So 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



permanent quarters. The " Family " stork is perched at 
Powell and Bush streets, where Mr. Meussdorffer has 
housed him and his legion progeny in the only pressed 
brick clubhouse in the city; it is trimmed with terra 
cotta and moulded cement. 

The University Club fits ! It fits its site; it suits the 
climate; it looks "The University Club." Totally un- 
like McKim's masterpiece on Fifth avenue, this building 
on Nob Hill has some evasive quality of the New York 
University Club that yet brings them into mind together. 
No other clubhouse here has the dignity of this mass, 
notwithstanding two are 
larger and much more ex- 
pensive. Here, though 
one feels that the design- 
ers have freed themselves 
from the McKim influence, 
" M(i)ckimeni " they are 
no longer. (The term 
echoes from far-away Flor- 
ence, from Edwin Dodge, 
some time of Fecole des 
Beaux Arts, later of 
Boston, now of his " Sa- 
bine Farm.") In the east- 
ern front Bliss & Faville 
have frankly thrown prec- 
edent to the dogs; those 
great voids are revolution- 
ary. But from their plate 
glass windows and balcon- 
ies spreads out a view of 
much beauty, looking over 
the roof tops of China- 
town and the lower city — 
across blue waters to the 
trans-bay cities and the 
Berkeley Hills. 

From this very success- 
ful work of Bliss & Faville 
it is but a short distance 
down the hill, past their 
St. Francis Hotel, to that 
tour-de-force, the Colum- 
bia Theatre. The build- 
ing is divided into two 
parts, the greater on Geary 
street, being the theater 
itself; the smaller wing, 

leading to Mason street, containing dressing rooms and 
the general service quarters for the stage. 

The distinguishing feature of the Columbia is, of course, 
its polychrome facade. Both the brickwork and the terra 
cotta are alive in color — the bricks in warm buffs, the terra 
cotta in several buffs, browns, purples and blues. The 
soffits of cornice and upper belt course are most intense 
ultramarine — and the same color appears as background 
for the frieze above the Palladian arches as well as on the 
bells of the Corinthian capitals. The greatest color range 
is found, naturally, in the fruit and flower ornamentation 
of the smaller columns. The total suppression, by the 
way, of all constructive form in these columns, is a dar- 
ing innovation that has caused some unfavorable criticism 




OR I'M KIM 
G. Albert Lans 



and not without a basis of reason. But whether one finds 
minor faults or not, the Columbia is a long, long advance 
over anything I know in theater design in the west — and 
it has served to point out the almost unlimited possi- 
bilities of this material whose uses we are beginning to 
rediscover after a lapse of five centuries. 

The interior is direct in parti and successful in its car- 
rying out; here, again, the loss of color in photography 
means the failure of the illustrations to really illustrate, 
for the interior decoration is admirable. As to condi- 
tions of sight and sound the building is ideal. 

( )f the other permanent 
theaters in San Francisco 
littlecan be said, excepting 
of two, and one of these 
is not typically a theater. 
In John Galen Howard's 
theater for the Claus 
Spreckels Estate the 
Market street frontage is 
almost completely taken 
up with small shops, hav- 
ing all-glass fronts. The 
theater entrance alone is 
on this front, the audito- 
rium itself beingbehind on 
a rear street. The white 
glazed terra cotta piers 
with their entablature are, 
however, exceptionally 
good examples of work in 
modeling, making and set- 
ting — it is one of the best 
in San Francisco. And in 
design this is all frankly 
terra cotta — which is not 
the case in Lansburgh & 
Joseph's "Orpheum" fa- 
cade. The Orpheum, a 
cut-stone design, is exe- 
cuted in so clever an imi- 
tation of Colusa sandstone 
that one can hardly tell the 
real from counterfeit. It 
should be remembered, 
apropos of design, that this 
buildingis not to be judged 
by quite the same stand- 
ards as is the more " legiti- 
mate" Columbia; it is frankly a vaudeville house. It was 
done, too, by a man of Gallic temperament — fresh from 
his studies in Paris : one fretting under the conventional — 
who deliberately set about producing the uncommon. If 
the composition has discrepancies in scale, it does not lack 
vigor. In a later work of Lansburgh's, the Elkan Gunst 
building referred to in my first article, he seems to have 
designed, in terra cotta, forms for execution in near-gran- 
ite ; his next step should bring him to a terra cotta design 
in honest unabashed burnt clay. And, after all is said, 
that is the besetting weakness of the bulk of the new work 
here — the failure to design terra cotta in its own forms, 
and, in lesser degree, to execute it undisguised. Per- 
haps these faults are not merely local in San Francisco. 



THKATRE. 

burgli, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



281 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



I'm 4 #% 



HOUSES AT BELLE TERRE, 
LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

A SECTION of the large estate known as Belle 
Terre, situated on Long Island, adjoining the vil- 
lage of Port Jefferson, is being 
improved with country houses 
costing from $12,000 to $15,000. 
The entire work of developing 
this estate in a practical and 
artistic manner has been en- 
trusted to Frederick Junius 
Sterner, architect. In 
this issue of The Brick- 
builder are shown seven 
of these houses already 
finished, some of which 
are on the lines of the 
manor houses of 
England, while 
others have a more 
modern English 
treatment. Partic- 
ular attention 
has been given 
to the materials 
used, so that not 
only has the form 
been preserved, 
but the color and 
texture of the 
brick, wood, 
plaster and other 
materials enter- 
ing into the construction of these houses have been care- 
fully considered. The gardens and as much garden 
wall, seats, dials, etc., as it was possible to introduce 
with the small amount of money expended have been 
arranged so as to bring into perfect harmony the build- 
ings with their surrounding landscape. The funda- 
mental principle upon which these houses were built was 
the use of more or less crude materials employed in a 
careful and workmanlike manner by skilled workmen 

who have taken a personal 
interest in the result of their 
efforts. 







PANELS IN WALLS OF DINING ROOM, LINCOLN PARK REFECTORY, CHICAGO. 
These panels were executed in colored faience by the Rookwood Pottery Company. In combi- 
nation with Ironclay brick the walls are extremely rich in color and texture. 
Perkins & Hamilton, Architects. 



of cork, hair felt, flax fiber, charcoal, sawdust or some 
other more or less imperfect insulation. Most of these 
materials disintegrate, rot, become foul and last but a 
little while. 

The National Fire Proofing Company has long experi- 
mented with insulations and 
has just put upon the market 
an insulating lining brick that 
is next to perfect, if not the 
ideally perfect material we 
have all been hoping for. It 
is a brick to all intents, but 
one so waterproofed and 
so burned that forty-five 
per cent of the volume is 
confined air and its 
specific gravity is 0.90 
and its ultimate strength 
in compression 750 
pounds per square 
inch. It floats, it 
absorbs no moisture, 
it is everlasting, can 
be used and put 
into the wall in 
the one operation 
of building, for 
it can carry a 
very considerable 
load. It is a no- 
t abl e and long 
needed contribu- 
tion to the build- 
ing art. The 
National Company calls it terra cotta cork or insulating 
building blocks. 



CEILINGS OF PENNSYLVANIA RAILWAY 
STATION, NEW YORK CITY. 



T 



>HE concourse ceilings of America's greatest rail- 
way terminal, the Pennsylvania at New York, 
McKim, Mead & White, architects, of which we illus- 
trate a small portion of the arcade, are another example 




CARTOUCHE, CAPITOL 

CITY CLUB, ATLANTA. 

Executed by Atlanta Terra 

Cotta Company. 

Donn Barber, Architect. 



A BRICK THAT FLOATS! 

IN BUILDING cold storage 
warehouses, some parts of 
breweries, chemical labora- 
tories and many other build- 
ings where a low temperature 
must be maintained or where 
absolute freedom from damp- 
ness is necessary, the walls 
have to be insulated, and 
while the ordinary materials, 
brick, stone or concrete are 
used for structural purposes, 
there has also to be a lining 




DF.TAIL FOR SOUTHERN BUILDING, WASHINGTON. 
Executed in terra cotta by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 
I). H. Burnham'Vk Co., Architects. 



282 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



of Guastavino construction, 
vaulting in continuation with 
is one of the 
interesting fea- 
tures of this 
building. The 
ceilings have a 
white gl aze 
surface. 



The adaptation of the 
the ornamental steel work 



corrosive influence better than any form of paint, and 
that it is important to paint the steel both at the mill and 

after being 
erected at the 
building before 
the cement 
coating is 
applied. 



DURABIL- 
ITY OF 
STEEL CON- 
STRUCTION. 

TVTR.F.J.T. 
1V1 STEW- 
ART, superin- 
tendent of the 
Board of Sur- 
veys of the 
New York 
Board of Fire- 
writers, has 
furnished some 
interesting 
data in regard 
to the effect of 
time on the 
steel skeletons 
of skyscrapers. 

The observations were made 
the Gillender Building, New Y 




PALACE OF 

THE POPES, 

AVIGNON. 



c 



o x s I 1 ) - 
ERABLE 

interest is be- 
ing manifested 
over the suc- 
cessful restora- 
tion of the 
Papal Palace 
at Avignon, 
France. Dur- 
ing the differ- 
ent epochs the 
interior of this 
monumental 
work was 
changed and 
much of its 
architectural 

during the demolition of beauty ruthlessly destroyed. In the pontifical chapel 
ork City, and at the Ames the original windows were bricked up while ordinary 



DETAIL OK GARDEN AT MORRISTOWN, N. 
PeiTUCCiO Vitale, Landscape Architect. 





DETAIL BY THE NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 
Warren & Wetmore, Architects. 



DETAIL BY SOUTH AMBOV TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 
York & Sawyer, Architects. 



Bolt Works in Jersey City while the columns and parts windows were cut through the solid walls irrespective of 



of the structure were being dismembered. The inspec- 
tion of the steel work in- 
dicated that the buildings 
were in practically as good 
condition as at the time 
when they were erected. 
Some evidence of corro- 
sion with slight pitting 
was observed, apparently 
due to defective column 
covering which permitted 
dampness and other at- 
mospheric conditions to 
penetrate to the steel 
work. The examination 
tends to show that a 
covering of cement 
mortar protects steel from 



the general appearance. 




CEILING PANEL IN MAIN LOGGIA, STATE EDUCATIONAL 

BUILDING, Al P.ANY, N. \ . 
Executed in white, cream and light blue terra cotta by Atlantic Terra 
itta Company. 

Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects. 



The walls of the structure 
were lime-washed at least 
twice a year and staircases 
with no dignity or style 
were built throughout. 
By accident the frescoes 
of f or m e r age s we r e 
discovered, and the Com- 
mission of Historic Mon- 
uments entrusted the task 
of renovation to M. Yper- 
man of Bruges. As a 
result fresco paintings 
consisting of six separate 
themes have been pre- 
served, including some 
remarkable examples of 
the fourteenth century. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



283 



A monumental door, highly executed, has also been dis- 
covered along with other architectural features which 
evidence the skilful 
work of former 
French artists. 



PANAMA-CALI- 
FORNIA EX- 
POSITION. 

JOHN C. OLM- 
STED of Olm- 
sted Bros., 
architects, is in 
San Diego, Cali- 
fornia, under con- 
tract to the 
Panama- California 
Exposition to de- 
sign the general 
character of the 
permanent build- 
ings of the exposi- 
tion and to advise 
regarding the land- 
scape features of 
Balboa Park, which 
is to be the site of 
the e x pos i t ion. 
The improvement 
of Balboa Park is 
preliminary to the 
Panama- California 
Exposition, to be 
held in San Diego 
in 1915, ostensibly 
in commemoration 

of the completion of the Panama Canal, but practically 
as a means of exploiting the resources and opportunities 
of the Southwest, Mexico, Central and South America. 
The first buildings to be erected under the supervision 
of Mr.' Olmsted will be an auditorium, an arts building, 
a modified Greek theater and a stadium. These with 



their gardens, courts and grounds will occupy about 100 
acres, and will form the nucleus for the further improve- 
ment of the park, 
wh ich contains 
1,400 acres of land 
admirably fitted 
for park purposes. 




MOVING A 
CHURCH 
TOWER. 



T 



CONCOURSE OF 




HE remark- 
able feat of 
moving a church 
tower in order to 
enlarge the original 
structure is being 
accomplished at 
Bocholt, Belgium. 
The work is under 
the supervision of 
two American en- 
gineers and the 
vast undertaking 
occupies only eight 
workmen. New 
foundations have 
been prepared for 
the tower some 30 
feet away, to which 
machinery has been 
constructed for its 
transport. The 
tower dates from 
the fourteenth cen- 
tury and weighs 
approximately 3,000 tons. The tower was raised by the 
insertion of a movable platform over steel cylinders 
which in turn move along a railway line. During the 
first six days the tower was moved 64 inches. The re- 
markable success attached to this endeavor has led the 
engineers to pro- 
pose a similar 
method to the 
Italian Govern- 
ment for remov- 
ing and placing 
new foundations 
under the Tower 
of Pisa. 



PENNSYLVANIA RAILWAY STATION, NEW 

Vaulted ceiling of Guastavino construction. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



YORK CITY 



BRONZE 

DOORS FOR 

CAPITOL. 



T 



AUTOMOBILE SALES BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

Cream enameled terra cotta trimmings made by the Northwestern 

Terra Cotta Company. 

Holabird & Roche, Architects. 



HE doors 
for the 
Western En- 
trances of the 
National Build- 
ing at Washing- 
ton have now 
been completed 
and are to be 




DKTA1L Or HOTEL, BALTIMORE. 

By Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company. 

Joseph E. Sperry, Architect. 



284 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




placed on public view in the Corcoran Gallery of Art. 
They are cast in bronze and are the work of L. Amatois, 
the artist, whose 
design was declared 
by the board of 
judges to be the 
most meritorious. 
The doors designed 
by Amatois repre- 
sent the apothesis 
of America and 
contain designs 
which bring the 
history of the 
nation down to the 
present time. The 
panel in the tran- 
som of the doors 
shows an allegori- 
cal figure repre- 
senting America 
seated in a chariot 
and drawn by lions 
led by a child, sym- 
bolical of the su- 
periority of the 
intellect over brute 
force. Following 
the chariot are 
figures represent- 
ing education, architecture, 
literature, painting, music, 
sculpture, mining, commerce, 
and industry. On one side of 
the transom is a statuette of 
Thomas Jefferson, and on the 
other side Benjamin Franklin. 
The medallions at the corners 
represent Peabody the educator 
philanthropist; Emerson the 
sage, philosopher and thinker; 
Horace Mann the educator, and 
Johns Hopkins the merchant 
philanthropist. Below the tran- 
som are eight panels in relief, 
four on each side. These panels 
depict allegorical representa- 
tions of jurisprudence, science, 
art, mining, agriculture, elec- 
tricity, engineering, naval 
architecture, and commerce. On 
the sides are statuettes of 
famous Americans. 



1, 1911, but the council has agreed to give those who 
have planned to erect skyscrapers in the down- town 

district a longer 
respite. 



FIRE PROTEC- 
TION CONFER- 
ENCE. 



ACON1 
ENCE 



BELNORD APARTMENT BUILDING, BROADWAY, NEW VOKk CITY. 
Exterior and courts of light K ra >' Kittanning brick, furnished by Pfotenhauer-Nesbit 

Company. 
Hiss & Weeks, Architects. 



SKYSCRAPER LIMIT IN 
CHICAGO. 

THE City Council of Chicago 
has decided that 200 feet 
will be the maximum height of 
buildings hereafter in that city. 
The present building code limits 
the height to 260 feet. The new- 
provision will go into effect July 




F E R - 

on fire 
protection and 
equipment of build- 
ings and cities was 
held in Philadelphia 
under the auspices 
of the local chapter 
of the A. I. A. Rep- 
resentatives were 
present from the 
telephone and insur- 
ance companies, the 
Engineers' Club, 
the T Square Club 
and the fire com- 
panies. Mr. H. P. 
Onyx, representing 
the insurance com- 
panies, dwelt upon 
the point that there 
will never be a cur- 
tailment of the enormous fire 
losses in our country until the 
subject of fire prevention and 
protection has received the same 
consideration by the general 
public that has been given to the 
stamping out of contagious 
diseases. 



IX GENERAL. 



ENTRANCE TO AN APARTMENT, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

Architectural terra cotta made by New York Architec 

tural Terra Cotta Company. 

Schwartz & dross. Architects 



The Architectural League of 
New York City announces the fol- 
lowing competitions for the season 
1910-1911: A prize of $50 for a 
Mural Fountain to be treated 
architecturally with sculpture and 
mosaics, together with a special 
prize of $300 for the best design 
submitted by an architect, sculptor 
and mural painter in collaboration. 

The twenty-sixth annual ex- 
hibition of the Architectural 
League of New York City will be 
held in the building of the Amer- 
ican Fine Arts Society, 215 W. 
57th street, from January 29th to 
February 18th inclusive. The 
league reception will take place 
Saturday, January 28th, from 3 to 
6 p.m. Public lectures will be 
given on Wednesdays, February 
1st, 8th and 15th. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



28 



5 



It is to be hoped that all members of the A. I. A. will 
attend the next annual convention of the American 
Institute of Architects which will be held in San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., on the 
17th, 18th and 19th 
of January, 1911. 

The Cleveland 
Chapter of the 
A. I. A. and the 
Cleveland Archi- 
tectural Club will 
hold theirannualex- 
hibition in the En- 
gineers' Building, 
Cleveland, from 
December 19th to 
the 31st, 1910. 

The Atlantic 
Terra Cotta Com- 
pany will furnish 
terra cotta for the 
Knickerbocker 
Trust Company, 
New York City, 
McKim, Mead & 




HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Roofed with combination shingle tile made by Ludowici-Celadon Company. 

Watterson & Schneider, Architects. 



The architectural firm of Warren & Welton, Birming- 
ham, Ala., has been dissolved. Mr. William Leslie Welton 
of the above mentioned firm will continue the practice 

of architecture at 
1209 Empire Build- 
ing. Manufacturers' 
ca t al ogu e s and 
samples solicited. 

The dark red 
stain furnished by 
Samuel Cabot, Inc., 
is being used in 
Buffalo with 
marked success in 
making the new 
brick of additions 
to buildings similar 
in appearance to the 
brick in the old 
parts. 

W. D. Richard- 
son, one of the best 
known experts on 
clay manufacture 
in this country, has 
been appointed 



White, architects; 

polychrome terracotta for the Hartman Theatre and Office general manager of the brick manufacturing business of 

Building, Columbus, O., Richards, McCarty & Bulford, the Ohio Mining & Manufacturing Co., at Shawnee, Ohio. 

architects; polychrome terra cotta for the Vanderbilt 

Hotel, New York City, Warren & Wetmore, architects; 

terra cotta for the Savannah Bank & Trust Company, 

Savannah, Ga., Mowbray & Uffinger, architects. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C, Nov. 26, 1910. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 14th day of January, 1911, and then opened, for the con- 
struction (including roof and ground surface drainage system), of the new 
building for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, WASHINGTON, 
D. C, in accordance with drawings and specifications, copies of which 
may be obtained at this office at the discretion of the Supervising 
Architect. 

JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C, Dec. 5, 1910. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 16th day of January, 191 I, and then opened, for the exten- 
sion, remodeling, etc. (including plumbing, gas piping, heating appara- 
tus, and electric conduits and wiring system), of the U. S. Post Office and 
Custom House at BATH, MAINE, in accordance with drawings and 
specification, copies of which may be obtained from the Custodian at 
Bath, Maine, or at this office at the discretion of the Supervising Architect. 
JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C, Dec. 8, 1910. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 12th day of January, 1911, and then opened, for Metal 
Vault Linings, Doors, etc., in the Extension to the U. S. Assay Office, 
NEW YORK, N. Y., in accordance with drawings and specification, 
copies of which may be had at this office or at the office of the Superin- 
tendent at the building, at the discretion of the Supervising Architect. 
JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 



"Tapestry" brick, furnished by Fiske & Company, 
Inc., was used in the garden at Morristown, a detail of 
which is shown in this number of The Brickbuilder. 

"SPECIFICATION BLANKS," by T. Robert Wieger, 
architect (formerly with F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
25 cents. Reduction on quantities. Sample page upon 
request. 628- 14th street, Denver, Colo. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— i register as- 
sistants FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE 'TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK- 
ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEREIRA, 
218 LA SALLE St., CHICAGO. Long Distance Tel., Franklin 1328. 

A BOOK OF HOUSE DESIGNS — THE TITLE OF 
A 64 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS THE 
DESIGNS SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR 
A HOUSE BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW 
TILE. ILLUSTRATIONS OF HOUSES BUILT OF 
THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH ARTICLES 
DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE 
50 CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 

A HOUSE OF BRICK OF MODERATE COST- 

THE TITLE OF A 96 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH 
CONTAINS 71 DESIGNS FOR A BRICK HOUSE 
OF MODERATE COST. THESE DESIGNS WERE 
SUBMITTED BY WELL-KNOWN ARCHITEC- 
TURAL DRAFTSMEN IN COMPETITION. IN- 
TERESTING ARTICLES. ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HISTORICAL BRICK HOUSES. PRICE, FIFTY 
CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 



2 86 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK -REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 

RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

House at Milton, Mass Plate 165 

i.i. iRGJ I . Tii.iikn, Architect 

Detail of Garden at Morristown, N. J. . Page 282 

Ferruccio Vitai.k, Landscape Architect 



EISKE 6- COMPANY INC 
OE BRICKS/ ESTABLISH 
IE BRICKS* ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Flatiron Building, New York 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITH ER WOODEN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Public Buildings. Elastic, Noiseless, 
and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
German Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The Franklin Union Building in Boston, R. Clipston Sturgis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
the North Dakota, the largest Battleship in the United States 
Navy ; the extensions of the Suffolk County Court House in 
Boston, George A. Clough, Architect; and the Registry of 
Deeds, Salem, Mass., C. H. Blackall, Architect. 

We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET. Opp. Boyl.ton Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



COMPETITION FOR A HOTEL 
IN AN AMERICAN CITY OF MODERATE SIZE. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. SECOND PRIZE, $250. THIRD PRIZE, $150. 

FOURTH PRIZE, $100. HONORABLE MENTIONS. 



COMPETITION CLOSES AT 5 P.M., MONDAY, JANUARY 16, 1911. 



PROGRAM. 

THE problem is a HOTEL OK MEDIUM SIZE, planned to meet the ordinary demands of a small American city. The site is assumed to be at the corner of 
two intersecting streets ; the lot ample in size to accommodate the building and practically level. 
The size and shape of the building are left entirely to the designer, except that not less than one hundred and not more than one hundred and twenty-five 
sleeping rooms are to be provided above the second floor. At least one-half of the sleeping rooms are to have bathrooms and the others may be provided with toilet 
and shower accommodations. 

The ground or first floor plan is to provide the usual accommodations which are necessary in a hotel of this size. 
The second floor plan may be given over in whole or in part for family suites, reception rooms, small meeting rooms, etc., etc. 

The upper floor plan should provide for a large social hall to be used for banquets, dances, and similar functions- In connection with this social hall, and on the 
same floor, there should be provided suitable reception rooms, coat rooms, smoke room, service rooms, toilet rooms, etc., etc. 
\ roof garden may or may not be incorporated in the design. 

It is assumed that the basement plan provides the necessary space for mechanical equipment, storage rooms, kitchen, lavatories, barber shop, and perhaps a rathskeller, 
but the plan of this floor is not required. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in architectural terra cotta, and it is suggested that at least portions of the walls be treated in color. 
The chief object of this competition is to encourage the study of the use of architectural terra cotta. There is no limit set on the cost of the building, but the design 
must be suitable for the character of the building and for the material in which it is to be executed. 
The following points will be considered in judging the designs : 

A. The general excellence of the design and its adaptability to the prescribed material. 

B. The intelligence shown in the constructive use of architectural terra cotta. 

C. Excellence of plan. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

On one sheet, the principal elevation drawn at a scale of S feet to the inch. On the same sheet, the first and second floor plans, a typical bedroom plan, and the upper 
floor plan, drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch; also a small sketch plan of the roof garden if that feature is provided for. On this same sheet, if space permits, give 
sketch of an interesting interior. 

On a second sheet, the elevation of secondary importance drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch, and a sufficient number of exterior details drawn at a scale of % inch 
to the foot to fill the sheet. 

The details should indicate in a general way the jointing of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks. The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series 
of notes printed on one of the sheets. 

The size of each sheet (there are to be but two) shall be exactly j6 inches by 21 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on both sheets, 1 inch from edges, giving 
a space inside the border lines 34 inches by 22 inches. The sheets are to be of white paper and unmounted. 

All drawings are to be in black ink, without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in the sections may be blacked-in or cross-hatched. 

( '.raphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Each set of drawings is to be signed by a nam